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Youth Gangs in American Society 4th Edition by Randall G. Shelden – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1133049567
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1133049562

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Youth Gangs in American Society 4th Edition by Randall G. Shelden – Test Bank

Test Bank

1. According to the text, approximately what ratio of the U.S. population is currently incarcerated in a prison?
a. 1 in 100
b. 5 in 100
c. 7 in 100
d. 10 in 100
ANS: A REF: p. 161
2. What is the estimated percentage of inmates who are members of a prison gang according to the text?
a. 5-6%
b. 8-9%
c. 12-17%
d. 20-22%
ANS: D REF: p. 162
3. All are alarming features of the adult prison gang except:
a. Assaults on staff
b. Assaults on other inmates
c. Disorganization of gang
d. Drug trafficking
ANS: C REF: p. 162
4. As a result of a study by Gaes in 2002, it was determined that proson gangs are in fact:
a. Increasing
b. Decreasing
c. Staying the same
d. Non-existent
ANS: A REF: p. 164
5. According to the text, what percentage of gang members do not have a high school diploma or GED?
a. 25%
b. 35%
c. 50%
d. 64%
ANS: D REF: p. 166
6. The first documented prison gang was:
a. The Bloods
b. Hells Angels
c. The Gypsy Jokers
d. MS-13
ANS: C REF: p. 166
7. Today there are approximately how many gangs that exist on the streets and in prison?
a. 3,500
b. 10,000
c. 15,000
d. 20,000
ANS: D REF: p. 167
8. According to the text, there are approximately how many known gang members incarcerated in prison?
a. 100,000
b. 122,000
c. 147,000
d. 185,000
ANS: C REF: p. 167
9. Which gang is not currently part of the certified disruptive groups of prison gangs?
a. Mexican Mafia
b. The Outlaws
c. The Texas Syndicate
d. The Black Guerilla family
ANS: B REF: 167

10. The first prison gang with national ties was the:
a. Black Guerilla Family
b. Texas Syndicate
c. Mexican Mafia
d. Aryan Brotherhood
ANS: C REF: 167
11. The Texas syndicate was established in ________ at Folsom prison.
a. 1970
b. 1978
c. 1982
d. 1988
ANS: B REF: p. 168
12. The Black Guerilla Family was founded in __________ at San Quentin prison by a former Black Panther member.
a. 1966
b. 1970
c. 1975
d. 1979
ANS: A REF: p. 168
13. The Aryan brotherhood has approximately how many current members according to the text?
a. 5,000
b. 10,000
c. 15,000
d. 20,000
ANS: C REF: p. 170
14. A tattoo of “666” on a person may represent that they are a member of what gang?
a. Black Guerilla Family
b. Mexican Mafia
c. Texas Syndicate
d. Aryan Brotherhood
ANS: D REF: p. 171

15. One of the preferred methods of dealing with trouble inmates is:
a. Adding prison time
b. Isolation
c. Reducing common area time
d. Prison transfer
ANS: B REF: p. 174
16. Currently there are approximately how many confirmed member of OMG’s according to the text?
a. 10,000
b. 15,000
c. 20,000
d. 25,000
ANS: C REF: p. 177
17. What type of OMG criminal acts are typically violent crimes that arise between rivals in social settings and are committed by small numbers rather than the entire group (e.g., bar fights)?
a. Spontaneous
b. Planned
c. Short term
d. Ongoing
ANS: A REF: p. 179
18. What OMG holds the nickname, “The Mafia on Wheels”?
a. The Hells Angles
b. Bandidos
c. The Outlaws
d. The Mongols
ANS: A REF: p. 182
19. Which is the 2nd largest OMG and was founded in TX in 1966?
a. The Hells Angles
b. Bandidos
c. The Outlaws
d. The Mongols
ANS: B REF: p. 183
20. The colors of this OMG are black and white, while the logo is a white skull (named “Charlie”) affixed to two pistons.
a. The Hells Angles
b. Bandidos
c. The Outlaws
d. The Mongols
ANS: C REF: p. 184

1. The United States is currently the leader of incarceration among other industrialized nations.
ANS: True REF: p. 161
2. The question, “Exactly what is a prison gang?” is easily answered.
ANS: False REF: p. 162
3. Compared to typical street gangs, prison gangs are particularly dangerous, as they have been characterized as a more streamlined, efficient version of gangs that are present on the streets due to their superior organization and leadership structure.
ANS: True REF: p. 163
4. The first prison gang, the Gypsy Jokers, emerged in the 1950s in Washington.
ANS: True REF: p. 167
5. La Nuestra Familia was founded by a group of Latino individuals in the 1960’s for the purpose of aiding inexperienced inmates and defending against the dominance of the Mexican Mafia.
ANS: True REF: p. 168
6. The Aryan Brotherhood was formed in 1960 by former Black Panther inmates.
ANS: False REF: p. 170
7. Overall, it has been estimated that approximately 20% of inmates are members of racist prison groups and gangs.
ANS: False REF: p. 171
8. The first step in impacting the operation of prison gangs is to properly identify gang members when they enter into a correctional institution.
ANS: True REF: p. 172
9. An estimated 230,000 riders belong to the American Motorcyclist Association, one of the largest motorcycle clubs in the United States.
ANS: True REF: p. 177
10. The Outlaws have an elaborate network of governance.
ANS: True REF: p. 184

1. The Mongols Nation Motorcycle Club, a predominantly _________ OMG, first originated in Montebello, California during 1969.
ANS: Hispanic REF: p. 185
2. The United States is the leader of ______________ among industrialized nations.
ANS: Incarceration REF: p. 161
3. The Mexican Mafia id well known for their ___________ against others.
ANS: Brutality or Violence REF: p. 167
4. Even though it is one of the smallest prison gangs, the Aryan Brotherhood accounts for 18% of all prison _____________.
ANS: Homicides REF: p. 170
5. Most motorcycle gangs are characterized by their rebellious attitudes and refusal to adapt to mainstream ___________.
ANS: Values REF: 179

1. Briefly describe the Mexican Mafia.
ANS: The first prison gang with national ties, The Mexican Mafia (also known as Eme, or the Spanish letter “M”) was developed in 1957 by 13 Latino gang members from the Los Angeles area. The 13 founding members were housed at the Deuel Vocational Institution located in Tracy, California, and unified for the goal of self-defense against other rival inmates.
The Mexican Mafia is well-known for its brutality, which has been confirmed empirically; Gaes et al. (2002) found that the Mexican Mafia had one of the highest rates of serious violent offending (violence resulting in injury or the use of a weapon) in their sample of gangs. The Mexican Mafia requires obedience and discipline of its members and leaders; if Carnales refuse, for instance, to go through with a contract killing, they will instead be marked for death.
This gang is mainly involved in drug trafficking (cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, marijuana) through their ties to contacts in Mexico but has also been involved in gambling and same-sex prostitution.
REF: pp. 167-168
2. Briefly describe the Black Guerilla Family.
ANS: The Black Guerilla Family was founded in 1966 by a former member of the Black Panthers who was held at San Quentin prison (Valdez, 2009). Compared to other major prison gangs, it is the most politically charged, known for its endorsement of extreme anti-government and anti-authority attitudes (Orlando-Morningstar, 1997). This gang was originally geared toward African American individuals who felt they had been victims of white oppression and were incarcerated as a result; it also aligned itself with radical beliefs, such as Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism, and solicited members from other revolutionary groups such as the Black Liberation Army to join the gang (Valdez, 2009; Orlando-Morningstar, 1997).

The Black Guerilla family is extremely structured and displays paramilitary characteristics, pledging obedience to a ‘supreme leader’ and ‘central committee’ (NGIC, 2009, p. 29). Members are also bound by national guidelines (NGIC, 2009) which prohibit certain activities (usage of heroin, aiding enemies) and the following oath that denotes lifelong dedication to the gang:

REF: pp. 169- 170

3. How do the percenters match up to the other 99% of “Bikers”?

ANS: Quinn and Forsyth (2009) characterize motorcycle organizations on a continuum, organized by the degree of criminal involvement of such groups and their devotion to OMGs: motorcycle associations, motorcycle clubs, supporter clubs, satellite/puppet clubs, and Outlaw Motorcycle Groups themselves. Motorcycle associations reach out to riders that own a specific bike model (e.g., Harley Davidsons) as well as individuals characterized as RUBs (Rich Urban Bikers), but members are not heavily engaged in these types of groups (Quinn & Forsyth, 2009). Motorcycle clubs are more exclusive and organized in terms of leadership, with some clubs embracing the same values as one percenters, while others are fairly benign and simply bring together people who enjoy riding motorcycles in a fraternal setting.
Motorcycle clubs that support one percenters set themselves apart from other clubs and associations in that they may involve themselves in some degree of criminal activity and have ties to larger OMGs in order to boost their credibility, usually wearing the colors of the group they support and engaging in fraternization at events, such as bike shows and races (Quinn & Forsyth, 2009). Clubs that go further in their support of OMGs are known as “Satellite” or “Puppet” clubs, and often do the criminal bidding of OMGs in an effort to prove their suitability for membership (Quinn & Forsyth, 2009, p. 239). Clubs, associations, and OMGs share some notable similarities, such as their leadership structure (central leadership that dictates to loosely independent, locally base chapters), an emphasis on superficiality (e.g., making sure that one’s bike is of superior quality), and a probable identification with “the iconography of the modern outlaw” (Quinn & Forsyth, 2009, p. 242).

REF: pp. 177-178



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