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Young Offenders And Youth Justice A Century After the Fact, 4th Edition by Sandra J. Bell – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0176501746
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0176501747

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Young Offenders And Youth Justice A Century After the Fact, 4th Edition by Sandra J. Bell – Test Bank

Chapter 6: Different Directions in Theorizing About Youth Crime and Delinquency


1. Which of the following describes a “critical perspective” in criminology?
a. It seeks to discover the “cause” of criminal and deviant behaviour.
b. It avoids asking questions about crime and criminalization processes.
c. It seeks to explain why people “choose” to engage in criminal behaviour.
d. It focuses on power relations and social control.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 153 BLM: Remember

2. Which theory of crime supported the principle of the “least possible interference” that lead to decarceration policies in the 1970s?
a. labelling theory
b. feminist theory
c. routine activity theory
d. lifecourse development theory
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 158–159 BLM: Remember

3. According to liberal conflict theory, which of the following group’s behaviour is most likely to be criminalized?
a. females
b. minorities
c. upper-class
d. corporations
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 159–160 BLM: Remember

4. What theories were integrated by Regoli and Hewitt (1994) to produce the theory of differential oppression?
a. social bonding theory and social learning theory
b. social bonding theory, social learning theory, and strain theory
c. social control theory, liberal conflict theory, and strain theory
d. social control theory, social learning theory, radical conflict theory
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 163–165 BLM: Remember

5. In the late 1960s, Burgess and Akers reformulated Sutherland’s theory and the learning principles from behaviourist psychology to formulate their theory of criminal behaviour. What was this new theory called?
a. opportunity theory
b. interactional theory
c. social learning theory
d. postmodernist theory
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 162–163 BLM: Remember

6. According to Regoli and Hewitt’s (1994) theory of differential oppression, which children are most at risk of the destructive aspects of “relational oppression”?
a. children who are abused at home
b. children who are obedient out of a fear of losing approval
c. children who are defiant of adults and other authority figures
d. children who are not doing well in school and have failing grades
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 165 BLM: Remember

7. According to opportunity theory, which of the following is the most important theoretical question to be answered?
a. Why did a particular person commit a particular crime?
b. Why did a particular criminal event happen?
c. How do particular people become “criminal”?
d. How could a particular crime have been prevented?
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 161 BLM: Remember

8. According to the text, which of the following can illustrate disregard for gender analysis in a research study?
a. the use of androgynous terms
b. the use of ethnocentric language
c. the use of misogynous language
d. the use of gender specific concepts
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 169 BLM: Remember

9. In criminology, which hypothesis argues that low crime rates among women and girls, compared to men and boys, is because women and girls are less likely to be caught and processed or reported to the police?
a. liberation hypothesis
b. chivalry hypothesis
c. feminist hypothesis
d. patriarchal hypothesis
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 166 BLM: Remember

10. According to Reitsma-Street’s (1991) research on sisters, who are girls pressured to make primary recipients of their care and love?
a. parents
b. friends
c. boyfriends
d. themselves
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 177 BLM: Remember

11. Why are Cultural Studies Perspectives gaining prominence in criminology?
a. Because they critique that North American theorizing ignores race, class, age, and sexual orientation.
b. Because of increasing harshness and the negative impact of the criminal justice system.
c. Because of rising public concerns about youth crime and the justice system.
d. Because the capitalist society is coercive and designed to support the class structure.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 179 BLM: Remember

12. According to routine activity theory, what three components are required for a young person to commit a crime?
a. reinforcement of behaviour, normative definitions, exposure to behaviour models
b. motivated offender, suitable targets, absence of a capable guardian
c. weak family bonds, coercive school control, delinquent peer associations
d. self-defacing relationships, attraction to delinquency, delinquency self-enhancing
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 161 BLM: Remember
13. According to Moffitt’s (1993) typology of developmental criminology, under what category do the majority of young offenders fit?
a. lifecourse-persistent
b. adolescence-limited
c. persisters
d. experimenters
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 167 BLM: Remember



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