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Work in the 21st Century An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology 4th Edition by Frank J. Landy

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 9781118291207
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1118291207

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Work in the 21st Century An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology 4th Edition by Frank J. Landy

Chapter 08: The Motivation to Work

Multiple Choice

1. According to Maslow’s need theory, humans have ______ basic needs.
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 5

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.1

2. The Behaviorist approach was proposed by
a. Freud.
b. Maslow.
c. Skinner.
d. Lewin.

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.1

3. “Field Theory” was proposed by
a. Freud.
b. Maslow.
c. Skinner.
d. Lewin.

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.1

4. “Group dynamics” applies to the approach taken by which of the following psychologists?
a. Freud
b. Maslow
c. Skinner
d. Lewin

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.1

5. Weiner suggests that, at the broadest level, there are _____ possible metaphors for humans in motivational theories.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.1

6. The idea that humans are functional, reflexive, and involuntary applies to the _____ metaphor.
a. person as machine
b. person as intentional
c. person as judge
d. person as scientist

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.1

7. The idea that humans seek knowledge and understanding as a way of mastering their environment applies to the _____ metaphor.
a. person as machine
b. person as intentional
c. person as judge
d. person as scientist

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.1

8. The idea that humans seek knowledge, but are not perfectly rational applies to the _____ metaphor.
a. person as machine
b. person as intentional
c. person as judge
d. person as scientist

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.1

9. “Limited rationality” is best described by the _____ metaphor.
a. person as machine
b. person as intentional
c. person as judge
d. person as scientist

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.1

10. The idea that humans seek knowledge through the action of themselves and others is best described by the _____ metaphor.
a. person as machine
b. person as intentional
c. person as judge
d. person as scientist

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.1

11. Which metaphor best describes Maslow’s need hierarchy?
a. person as judge
b. person as intentional
c. person as scientist
d. person as machine

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

12. According to Maslow’s need hierarchy, the most basic human need is
a. physiological.
b. self-actualization.
c. security.
d. esteem.

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.2

13. According to Maslow’s need hierarchy, the highest-level human need is
a. physiological.
b. social.
c. esteem.
d. self-actualization.

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

14. If employees’ primary reason for working is to feed their family, which level of Maslow’s need hierarchy are they focused on?
a. security
b. physiological
c. esteem
d. self-actualization

Ans: b
Section Ref: Module 8.2

15. If an employee’s primary reason for working is the desire to be accepted by others, on which level of Maslow’s need hierarchy is this employee focused?
a. security
b. esteem
c. social
d. self-actualization

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.2

16. If an employee’s primary reason for working is to be respected for accomplishments or capabilities, on which level of Maslow’s need hierarchy is this employee focused?
a. security
b. esteem
c. social
d. self-actualization

Ans: b
Section Ref: Module 8.2

17. If an employee’s primary reason for working is to develop his/her capabilities to the furthest, on which level of Maslow’s need hierarchy is this employee focused?
a. security
b. esteem
c. social
d. self-actualization

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

18. Place the following five needs of Maslow’s hierarchy in order from most basic to most advanced.
I. Physiological needs
II. Love or social needs
III. The needs associated with being respected
IV. The need to produce a secure environment
V. Self-actualization needs

a. I, IV, II, III, V
b. IV, II, III, I, V
c. II, III, IV, V, I
d. IV, II, I, V, III

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.2

 

19. According to Herzberg’s theory, there are _____ basic human needs.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.2

20. A telemarketing company set a series of sales goals for its employees. Every time employees reach one of the goals, they receive a bonus. Which type of reward is this?
a. intermittent
b. contingent
c. terminal
d. continuous

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

21. A saleswoman is contingently rewarded for her performance. However, she does not know how many sales are required to receive a reward at any given time. Her last reward came after 3 sales, whereas the previous reward came after 12 sales. She is receiving which type of reward?
a. predictable reward.
b. variable reward.
c. continuous reward.
d. intermittent reward.

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

22. Which of the following elements is not part of Vroom’s theory of motivation?
a. valence
b. instrumentality
c. expectancy
d. dependency

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

23. Which of the following elements deals with the relationship between performance and anticipated outcomes?
a. valence
b. instrumentality
c. expectancy
d. dependency

Ans: b
Section Ref: Module 8.2

24. An employee stays late after work in order to meet a deadline. The employee believes this will help her get a promotion. This belief reflects an example of
a. valence.
b. instrumentality.
c. expectancy
d. dependency.

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.2

25. An employee finds out that she is making the same salary as a co-worker who is performing half the amount of work, and she becomes motivated to somehow fix this unfair situation. Which theory best describes this scenario?
a. goal-setting theory
b. VIE theory
c. need theory
d. equity theory

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.2

26. Goal-setting theory fits well with which of the following metaphors?
a. person as machine
b. person as scientist
c. person as intentional
d. person as judge

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.3

 

27. What theory assumes that an individual compares a standard to an actual outcome and adjusts behavior to bring the outcome into agreement with the standard?
a. feedback theory
b. adjustment theory
c. control theory
d. comparison theory

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.3

28. Which motivational theory most heavily utilizes the notion of a feedback loop?
a. goal-setting
b. VIE
c. control
d. need

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.3

29. A sales representative failed to meet the company’s sales goals for the first quarter. Based on feedback he received from his supervisor, the sales representative decided to change his behavior for the following quarter in order to meet the next sales goal. Which motivational theory best describes the approach taken by the sales representative?
a. goal-setting
b. VIE
c. control
d. need

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.3

30. Which of the following research findings concerning goal setting theory is incorrect?
a. If a goal is very difficult, the person should be rewarded for partial attainment.
b. If the task requires cooperation, group goals might be appropriate.
c. Process goals may be more appropriate for complex tasks.
d. When high quantity goals are set, the quality of performance increases.

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.3

31. A manager’s evaluation from her subordinates stated that she was not perceived as being approachable. The manager considered this and made an effort to be more approachable, which resulted in better working relationships with her employees. This is an example of
a. self-referential.
b. self-fulfilling prophecy.
c. self-efficacy.
d. self-regulation.

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.3

32. Which of the following is not one of the ways to develop self-efficacy?
a. social persuasion
b. mastery experiences
c. modification
d. modeling

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.3

33. A sales manager is given a challenging quota to meet by the end of the month. The manager meets the quota and feels confident in her skills. This is an example of increased efficacy through
a. modeling.
b. mastery experience.
c. social persuasion.
d. physiological state.

Ans: b
Section Ref: Module 8.3

34. A medical student is given a difficult case to diagnose and treat. The resident physician reassures the student, and the case is successfully treated. This is an example of increased efficacy through
a. modeling.
b. mastery experience.
c. social persuasion.
d. physiological state.

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.3

35. All of the following are ways that self-efficacy can be developed and increased except
a. performance mentoring.
b. social persuasion.
c. mastery experience.
d. physiological states.

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.3

36. How many aspects of motivation are measured in the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ)?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8

Ans: c
Section Ref: Module 8.4

37. The Motivational Trait Questionnaire measures
a. whether an individual is motivated to complete a certain task.
b. six overlapping aspects of work motivation.
c. an individual’s predisposition to displaying certain traits.
d. six distinct aspects of general motivation.

Ans: d
Section Ref: Module 8.4

38. Hackman and Oldham developed a way to score jobs on their potential to motivate an individual. All of the following are job characteristics tied to this motivation potential except
a. the extent to which the individual identifies with coworkers.
b. the extent to which a task or job is self-contained.
c. the extent to which the individual can control schedules.
d. the number of skills required to perform a job successfully.

Ans: a
Section Ref: Module 8.4

 

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