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Window on Humanity A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 8th Edition Conrad Kottak – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1259818438
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1259818431

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Window on Humanity A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 8th Edition Conrad Kottak – Test Bank

Chapter 09
The First Cities and States

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What attribute distinguishes states from chiefdoms?
A. large residences
B. a paramount ruler
C. distinct social stratification
D. a subsistence economy based on domesticated species
E. armed conflict between competing communities

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

2. ________ refers to the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is today southern Iraq and southwestern Iran.
A. Mesopotamia
B. Mesolithic
C. Mesoamerica
D. Mesozoic
E. Mesoderm

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

3. ________ is NOT a characteristic of states.
A. Control of specific regional territories
B. Productive farming economies
C. Record-keeping systems
D. Stratification into social classes
E. Hereditary inequality

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

4. Which of these statements about Jericho is NOT true?
A. Jericho is located in Israel.
B. Jericho has a series of shrines decorated with bull motifs.
C. Jericho was first settled by the Natufians.
D. After 9000 B.P., the inhabitants of Jericho buried their dead beneath their house floors.
E. Jericho had a large tower and a city wall.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

5. Knowledge of the properties of metals, including how to extract, process, and use them to make tools, is
A. metalogy.
B. annealing.
C. smelting.
D. metallurgy.
E. smithing.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

6. Which of these statements about Çatalhöyük is NOT true?
A. Çatalhöyük was first planned and built by the Jomon.
B. The dwellings at Çatalhöyük were entered through the roof.
C. Çatalhöyük was probably the largest Neolithic settlement in the Middle East.
D. The dead in Çatalhöyük were buried beneath house floors.
E. Çatalhöyük may have had as many as 10,000 inhabitants.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

7. ________ is the cultural period when the first chiefdoms emerged in northern Syria.
A. Natufian
B. Halafian
C. Jomon
D. Ubaid
E. Uruk

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

8. ________ is the cultural period in which advanced chiefdoms and perhaps the earliest states emerged in Mesopotamia.
A. Natufian
B. The prepottery Neolithic
C. Halafian
D. Ubaid
E. Akkadian

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

9. ________ refers to a society that lacks status distinctions except those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements.
A. Gendered
B. Communist
C. Egalitarian
D. Fascist
E. Socialist

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

10. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of an egalitarian society?
A. Everybody is of equal status.
B. Everybody is born equal.
C. There are no social classes.
D. There is no hereditary inequality.
E. A person’s status is based on age, gender, individual qualities, talents, and achievements.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

11. Ranked societies are different from states because
A. states have social classes.
B. ranked societies lack hereditary inequality.
C. states have chiefs.
D. states lack hereditary inequality.
E. ranked societies have social classes.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

12. A(n) ________ is divided into social classes.
A. egalitarian society
B. ranked society
C. chiefdom
D. commune
E. state

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

13. ________ refers to a ranked society in which villages have lost their autonomy.
A. Primary state
B. Chiefdom
C. Archaic state
D. Tribe
E. Band

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

14. ________ were the precursors to primary states.
A. Archaic states
B. Tribes
C. Chiefdoms
D. Bands
E. City-states

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

15. Writing in the Middle East first developed in
A. southern Mesopotamia.
B. northern Mesopotamia.
C. the Levant.
D. Çatalhöyük.
E. central Iran.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

16. Cuneiform is the name for early writing in
A. China.
B. Mesoamerica.
C. the Indus Valley.
D. Mesopotamia.
E. the Andes.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

17. The earliest state in Pakistan and western India was
A. the Shang state.
B. Zapotec.
C. Uruk.
D. Moche.
E. the Indus River Valley state.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

18. ________ was the first Chinese state.
A. Chin
B. Taipei
C. Huang He
D. Shang
E. Nok Nok Tha

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

19. The Olmec were a(n)
A. state.
B. empire.
C. tribe.
D. band.
E. chiefdom.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

20. Which statement about the Olmec is FALSE?
A. The Olmec lived along the Gulf Coast of modern Mexico.
B. The Olmec were the first Mesoamerican empire.
C. The Olmec lived between 3,200 and 2,500 years ago.
D. The Olmec carved massive stone heads.
E. The Olmec built earthen mounds grouped around plazas.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

21. The first state to develop in the Valley of Mexico was
A. Tehuantepec.
B. La Venta.
C. Tenochtitlan.
D. Monte Albán.
E. Teotihuacán.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

22. Those who believe that agricultural economies led to the origin of the state argue that
A. irrigation began in China and spread along ancient trade routes.
B. states were the by-products of the organizational requirements of large irrigation systems.
C. irrigation systems favored democracy.
D. irrigation provided the advantage that allowed H. sapiens to displace the Neandertals.
E. Mesolithic states developed so that they could build irrigation systems.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

23. ________ is NOT a variable in Carneiro’s theory of state formation.
A. Warfare
B. Population growth
C. Environmental circumscription
D. Resource concentration
E. Long-distance trade

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

24. The two largest cities in the Indus River Valley state were
A. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
B. Teotihuacan and Tenochtitlan.
C. Giza and Thebes.
D. Ur and Uruk.
E. La Venta and Tula.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

25. In contrast to earlier models, current explanations of the origin and decline of states
A. suggest that all cultural change results from the diffusion of ideas between societies.
B. consider the effects of social and political variables in addition to environmental factors.
C. attempt to isolate the single variable that brought about cultural change.
D. accept the possibility that extraterrestrial forces may have played a role in the rise and fall of ancient civilizations.
E. emphasize the role of natural environmental factors.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize how scholars have explained the fall of states, particularly the Mayan state.
Topic: Explaining the rise and fall of the state, including the Maya example

26. The ________ is a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into classes.
A. egalitarian society
B. ranked society
C. state
D. chiefdom
E. band

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

27. ________ happened at about the same time as the beginning of the Zapotec state in the Valley of Oaxaca.
A. Domestication
B. City formation
C. The arrival of Egyptian settlers
D. Conquest warfare
E. The arrival of the Spanish

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

28. ________ allows a state to expand its territory much further than a chiefdom can.
A. Bureaucracy
B. An army
C. A strong leader
D. Long-distance trade
E. Loose, informal leadership

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

29. Such writers as Heyerdahl and von Daniken ignore ________ in their theories of world development.
A. diffusion
B. cultural contact
C. human capability
D. alien influences
E. agriculture

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

Essay Questions

30. Discuss at least three different theories concerning the formation of states. Identify how these theories differ and how are they similar. List some of the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Answer: Answers will vary.

Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

31. Summarize Carneiro’s multivariate model of state formation. Identify the variables that are involved, and how they are interrelated.
Answer: Answers will vary.

Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states
Topic: Early state formation and organization

32. Describe where and how the first states formed. Include the types of societies that evolved into states, and discuss the factors that contributed to the emergence of the first states.
Answer: Answers will vary.

Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

33. Discuss how chiefdoms and states differ. Identify the evidence archaeologists use to distinguish between the two.
Answer: Answers will vary.

Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

34. Explain why states collapse. Detail how archaeological explanations of the process of collapse have changed over time.
Answer: Answers will vary.

Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize how scholars have explained the fall of states, particularly the Mayan state.
Topic: Explaining the rise and fall of the state, including the Maya example

35. Identify ways that environmental degradation can contribute to the collapse of states.
Answer: Answers will vary.

Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize how scholars have explained the fall of states, particularly the Mayan state.
Topic: Explaining the rise and fall of the state, including the Maya example

 

True / False Questions

36. Long-distance trade is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the emergence of states.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

37. Early states had productive farming economies.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

38. Early states lacked social classes.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

39. Early states arose out of competition between rival egalitarian societies.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: List the key attributes of states and how they are interrelated.
Topic: Defining the key attributes of states

40. The earliest states emerged in Mesopotamia.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

41. The Natufians were the first culture to develop a state in the Indus Valley.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

42. Teotihuacán and Çatalhöyük were two of the earliest towns in the Middle East.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

43. Jericho is located in central Turkey.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

44. Primary states are states that formed on their own, rather than as a result of contact with other state societies.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

45. The first chiefdoms in the Middle East appeared during the Halafian period.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

46. In an egalitarian society, everybody has the same status.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

47. Social ranking and stratification are both forms of hereditary inequality.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

48. There is consensus among archaeologists that classic Maya civilization collapsed because of catastrophic environmental changes.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize how scholars have explained the fall of states, particularly the Mayan state.
Topic: Explaining the rise and fall of the state, including the Maya example

49. Ranked societies lack social differences.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

50. The first metal humans used was iron.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

51. Carneiro’s model of state formation argues that states emerged in areas where societies were physically or socially circumscribed.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

52. Metallurgy plays a key role in Carneiro’s model of state formation.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Recall the definition of the state, the general factors that have contributed to its emergence, and the relationship between food production and state formation.
Topic: Defining the state and the factors that have contributed to the emergence of states

53. The Shang dynasty had bronze metallurgy and writing.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

54. Environmental degradation may contribute to the collapse of states.
TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize how scholars have explained the fall of states, particularly the Mayan state.
Topic: Explaining the rise and fall of the state, including the Maya example

55. The Olmec were the first state in Mesoamerica.
FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Learning Objective: Summarize early state formation in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and other early states, as well as the primary characteristics of state organization.
Topic: Early state formation and organization

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