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What is Psychology Foundations, Applications, And Integration 3rd Edition by Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1305630513
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1305630512

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What is Psychology Foundations, Applications, And Integration 3rd Edition by Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. Knowledge is defined in the textbook as ____.
a. things that we know

b. facts and data that we learn in school

c. information that we store in long-term memory
d. the ability to solve problems and make decisions
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

2. When you are trying to retrieve knowledge from your memory to accomplish some goal, you are ____.
a. thinking

b. reasoning

c. representing
d. imagining

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

3. Thinking is defined in the textbook as the ____.
a. use of knowledge to accomplish some sort of goal

b. unconscious processing of mental symbols

c. process involved in solving problems

d. discovering the relationships between concepts and theories
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

4. Psychologists conduct image scanning studies in order to better understand ____.
a. creativity and problem solving
b. insight

c. knowledge

d. mental representations

ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

5. The information you have stored about psychology in your long-term memory represents your____ base.
a. knowledge

b. representation
c. thinking

d. cognition

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

6. Herb is reading about colleges and trying to decide which one is best for him. In psychological terms, Herb is ____.
a. memorizing
b. rehearsing

c. thinking

d. dreaming

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

7. A mental representation represents objects that ____.
a. are not easily categorized
b. are novel or unfamiliar

c. are of importance to the individual
d. are not present at the time

ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

8. Research studies using image-scanning show that ____.
a. images of visual stimuli are stored in two dimensions rather than three

b. visual images in our minds have many of the spatial properties of the real stimulus
c. we lack the ability to store in memory mimics of the actual visual images in our minds
d. we scan visual images that are actually more distant faster in our minds

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

9. In a study conducted by Stephen Kosslyn, subjects memorized a map and then were asked to mentally scan the path of an imaginary dot as it traveled from one point to another point on the map. The results showed that ____.
a. when the distance traveled by the dot was further, the time it took to scan the distance was longer
b. shorter distances were scanned easily, but longer distances could not be scanned

c. regardless of the distance traveled by the dot, the scanning time was approximately five seconds
d. regardless of the distance traveled by the dot, the scanning time was instantaneous

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

10. Which forms of mental representations have psychologists studied with the most success?
a. emotions and procedures

b. procedures and visual images
c. emotions and concepts

d. visual images and concepts

ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

11. Image-scanning studies suggest that visual images in our minds are ____.
a. primarily language-based

b. without definite shape or size

c. mental copies of the real stimulus
d. digital, rather than analog

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

12. Mental images of the world around us seem to consist primarily of both ____.
a. visual images and verbal knowledge

b. abstract concepts, sensory impressions, and images
c. tactile images and emotional responses

d. digital and analog images

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

13. Timmy’s geography teacher gives the class a pop quiz in which he asks the class to draw a map of North America, which they learned about in the previous day’s lesson. Knowing what you do about mental representations, how well do you think Timmy would do on this quiz?
a. He will draw a perfect map of North America.

b. He will get some of the details correct, but his map will contain many errors.

c. His map will be so far off that it will not even resemble North America.

d. The U.S. portion of the map will be very accurate, but Canada and Mexico will be distorted.
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

14. According to cognitive researchers, when you see your friend’s new car and then later recall what the car looked like, the stored image you are recalling is ____.
a. an exact copy of the sensory image that was sent to your visual cortex from your retina

b. a mixture of pictorial and verbal pieces that are based on your actual sensory experience and your general knowledge of cars
c. a language based description of the car without any visual components

d. a digitized visual image consisting of thousands of pixels

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

15. Concepts are stored in memory in a ____.
a. verbal form

b. semantic form

c. verbal or semantic form

d. verbal, semantic, or emotional form
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

16. Concepts we store in our long-term memories tend to be organized around the ____ of the information they represent.
a. emotional expression
b. auditory images

c. tactile images

d. meaning

ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

17. Concepts are most accurately characterized as ____.
a. peas in pod

b. mental shorthand
c. carbon copies

d. cognitive norms

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

18. When hanging out with a friend, Gayle mentions that she witnessed an accident recently. Immediately, you begin to develop a mental image of the cars that were involved in the accident. Your mental representation would most likely center on ____.
a. the specific car in your experience that you have driven the most
b. a generalized image of what cars look like

c. the specific car that you would most want to own

d. the broad category of all transportation vehicles

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

19. If you focused on a concept of something in your mind, your mental representation would most likely center on ____.
a. the specific example of the concept that you have been exposed to the most

b. a generalized image of what the thing does or looks like

c. the specific example of the concept that you desire the most

d. a different concept that could be used as a comparison for the concept in question
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

20. The concepts we use to aid in our mental representation of our world are ____.
a. inborn in our natural understanding of the world

b. based on visual images of the information they represent
c. organized into hierarchical categories

d. randomly consolidated from our everyday experiences
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

21. Which item belongs to the superordinate category?
a. dog

b. spaniel
c. animal

d. camel

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: : 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

22. When you go to the store in search of a particular brand or style of shoes, you are searching most directly within a ____.
a. superordinate category
b. mid-level category

c. subordinate category

d. basic level category

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

23. What is the most basic level of knowledge that contains the most specific concepts?
a. superordinate category
b. mid-level category

c. subordinate category

d. basic level category

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

24. Regarding the categories we use to organize our knowledge, superordinate categories are ____ and subordinate categories are ____.
a. formal; natural

b. specific; general
c. natural; formal

d. general; specific
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

25. When we think about the world there are three conceptual levels that we use to categorize our knowledge. Typically, our thinking of the world falls within the ____.
a. subordinate category

b. superordinate category
c. basic level category

d. mid-level category

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

26. Which item is the best example of a basic level category?
a. dog

b. spaniel

c. animal

d. mammal
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

27. Which item belongs in the subordinate category?
a. dog

b. spaniel

c. animal

d. mammal
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

28. With regard to how we acquire the concepts that help to organize our thinking, formal concepts are more likely ____, whereas natural concepts are more likely____.
a. taught; experienced

b. experienced; taught

c. subordinate; superordinate
d. superordinate; subordinate
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

29. When you learn the specific criteria or rules that psychologists use to diagnose attention deficit disorder in children, you are learning the ____ involved in this type of diagnosis
a. normal concepts

b. structured concepts
c. validated concepts
d. formal concepts

ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

30. Many students are surprised to learn that the idea they had of a tomato being a vegetable is different from what they learn to be the true botanical definition of a tomato as actually a fruit. The students’ prior idea that they learned outside of the classroom would be a good example of a(n) ____.
a. formal concept

b. natural concept

c. empirical concept

d. subordinate concept
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

31. Natural concepts ____.
a. have fuzzy boundaries

b. are usually learned formally

c. usually use rigid rules to define their elements
d. are typically universally held by all people

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

32. Prototypes are most closely associated with which term?
a. basic level categories
b. natural concepts

c. cognitive maps

d. image scanning

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

33. If you assume that a man is homeless because his hair is messy and his clothes are old and tattered (which fits your concept of a typical homeless person), you are using a(n) ____ as the basis for your assumption.
a. sample

b. algorithm
c. phoneme
d. prototype
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

34. Which item is the best example of a prototype for the category fruit?
a. kiwi

b. tomato
c. apple

d. apricot
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

35. Exemplars are to ____ as prototypes are to ____.
a. elements that stand out; subtle elements
b. actual examples; typical members

c. similarities; differences

d. natural concepts; formal concepts

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

36. In contrast to prototypes, exemplars are ____.
a. abstract

b. not accurate
c. real

d. complex

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

37. Which item best illustrates an exemplar for the category fruit?
a. kiwi

b. apricot

c. the apples that grow in your backyard
d. the many varieties of tomatoes

ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

38. If a problem has a clear pathway to a solution, then it is considered a(n) ____.
a. ill-structured problem

b. well-structured problem
c. prototypical problem

d. algorithmic problem

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

39. Cooking without using strict measurements, but relying upon past experience and cooking wisdom to determine the correct proportions of ingredients, is an example of using a(n) ____
a. prototype

b. heuristic

c. underextension
d. algorithm

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

40. Algorithms can thought of as “____” as heuristics can be thought of as “____”.
a. always correct; may not be correct
b. a quick process; a slow process

c. ill-structured; well-structured

d. insightful; procedures

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

41. Determining the number of miles per gallon you got on your last tank of gas by dividing the total mileage since your last fill-up by the number of gallons of gas purchased would be an example of using a(n) ____.
a. heuristic

b. morpheme

c. overextension
d. algorithm

ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

42. Well-structured problems can be solved through the use of ____.
a. heuristics only

b. algorithms only

c. natural concepts only

d. heuristics or algorithms
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

43. What is the best example of a well-structured problem?
a. balancing your checkbook

b. finding the best layout for the furniture in your apartment
c. choosing the right outfit to wear on your next date

d. deciding what to major in at college

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

44. Well-structured problems are to ____ as ill-structured problems are to ____.
a. heuristics; algorithms

b. natural concepts; formal concepts

c. clear solutions; unclear solutions

d. inductive reasoning; deductive reasoning
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

45. Jason is playing a computer game and just cannot seem to solve a particular problem. He gets frustrated, so he just keeps guessing over and over and over. Jason is using a(n) ____.
a. construct

b. concept

c. heuristic

d. algorithm
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

46. In determining the perfect suit to wear to a job interview, you can use a(n) ____.
a. heuristic

b. algorithm

c. well-structured solution
d. heuristic or algorithm

ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Apply

47. Which statement is TRUE with regard to problem solving?
a. Guessing and trial and error are not types of heuristics.

b. Algorithms are always the best way to solve problems.

c. Ill-structured problems do not have clear algorithms.

d. Culture does not influence the approach we take to solve problems.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Understand

48. Which statement is TRUE of insight?
a. Insight is problem solving without any effort or deep thinking.
b. Insight is sometimes referred to as an “Aha!” experience.

c. Insight rarely requires formal knowledge or training.

d. Insight typically results in an incorrect solution.

ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use
KEYWORDS: Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

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