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What is Psychology 3rd Edition by By Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1111650373
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1111650377

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What is Psychology 3rd Edition by By Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

Chapter 8—Motivation and Emotion: What Guides Our Behavior?

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The tendency to desire and seek out positive outcomes and avoid negative ones would best be considered a(n)
a. emotion.
b. thought.
c. motive.
d. instinct.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

2. Jameel has a desire to learn as much about psychology as he can. Psychologists would call this desire a(n)
a. emotion.
b. thought.
c. motive.
d. instinct.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

3. Since there is something inside of us the drives us to do most everything we do, it is safe to say that ____ plays a big role in our everyday behaviors.
a. emotions.
b. thoughts.
c. instincts.
d. motivation.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

4. The term motivation technically applies to behaviors that have
a. long-term positive consequences only.
b. short-term negative consequences only.
c. short- or long-term positive consequences only.
d. short- or long-term positive or negative consequences.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

 

5. Motivation would best be defined as
a. a biological drive to avoid hunger, thirst, and sexual deprivation.
b. a learned tendency to seek out rewards.
c. an innate need for arousal and stimulation.
d. a tendency to desire or seek out positive outcomes and avoid negative ones

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

6. Wanting to get a college education would be an example of a(n)
a. emotion.
b. motivation.
c. instinct.
d. impulse.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

7. Helena works for a fast food restaurant. For the last three months, she has been named the employee of the month. In psychological terms, Helena appears to have a great deal of ____ to succeed at her job.
a. desire
b. motivation
c. hunger
d. wish

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

8. Which of the following is the best metaphor for a motive?
a. A catalyst that starts a chemical reaction
b. An ice cream cone melting in the sun
c. A firecracker that explodes when lit
d. An award you receive for winning a contest

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

9. You are participating in a debate on whether motives are good or bad for us. You have been assigned to argue that motives are beneficial. Which of the following arguments could be legitimately used to support your position?
a. Motives give our lives meaning.
b. Motives always contribute to our ability to survive in the world.
c. Motives generally help us achieve reward and avoid punishment.
d. Motives keep us from getting bored.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

10. If you lost the ability to be motivated in any way, what would likely happen to you?
a. Nothing much. You would be fine.
b. You’d be happier and free of stress.
c. You’d sleep all the time.
d. You’d be unable to take care of your basic needs.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 305
OBJ: The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Astray?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

11. Which of the following is not mentioned in the textbook as a theory of motivation?
a. Learning theory
b. Instinct theory
c. Drive theory
d. Arousal theory

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 308-310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

12. A criticism of William James’ theory of instincts was that ____ seemed to be eligible for inclusion in the list of possible instincts.
a. very few behaviors
b. almost every behavior
c. only biological-related behaviors
d. only social behaviors

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

13. Instinct theory as an explanation of motivation would best be considered a ____ theory.
a. sociological
b. learning
c. biological
d. cognitive

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

14. The earliest theory to explain human motivation was
a. drive theory.
b. arousal theory.
c. incentive theory.
d. instinct theory.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

15. Which theorist proposed that human motivation was best explained by biological instincts?
a. Abraham Maslow
b. John Watson
c. William James
d. Wilhelm Wundt

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

16. The drive theory of motivation states that drives are
a. innate instincts that push us toward specific behaviors.
b. uncomfortable states that we are motivated to reduce.
c. positive states that we are motivated to increase.
d. learned reactions stemming from social incentives.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

17. The motivation to engage in sexual activity is typically accompanied by a desire to increase, rather than decrease, sexual arousal. Which theory of motivation would have the greatest difficulty explaining this desire?
a. Drive theory
b. Incentive theory
c. Cognitive theory
d. Arousal theory

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

18. Our motivation to sleep can be explained by drive theory because it seems to
a. stem from an innate instinct.
b. occur in response to learned incentives.
c. correspond with a need to increase nervous system arousal.
d. involve a negative feedback loop.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

19. Those who view motivation as a drive distinguish between primary drives, which are ____, and secondary drives, which are ____.
a. important; unimportant
b. biological; learned
c. cognitive; emotional
d. fulfilled by ourselves; fulfilled by the actions of others

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 308-309 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

20. Which of the following is true regarding secondary drives?
a. They are more important to human survival than primary drives.
b. They fall under the arousal theory of motivation.
c. They are explained quite adequately by the drive reduction theories of motivation.
d. They tend to be expressed quite differently across individuals.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 309-310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

21. Which of the following is not a primary drive?
a. The need for food
b. The need for water
c. The need for love
d. The need for warmth

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

22. The concept of drive reduction explains ____ drives best.
a. learned
b. secondary
c. instinctual
d. primary

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

23. The fact that we sometimes engage in survival-related behaviors even when survival is no longer an issue presents problems for the ____ theory of motivation.
a. drive reduction
b. arousal
c. incentive
d. classical

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

24. The concept of homeostasis is most closely associated with which of the following?
a. Arousal theory
b. Incentive theory
c. Primary drives
d. Secondary drives

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

25. Which of the following represents the best analogy to explain primary drives?
a. A toaster
b. A computer
c. A thermostat
d. A TV

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 308-309 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

26. Secondary drives
a. are learned.
b. need to be met in order to survive.
c. are innate.
d. all of these choices

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 309 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

27. Drive reduction theorists developed the notion of secondary drives to help explain
a. behaviors that are not directly related to survival.
b. thrill-seeking behaviors.
c. the desire to procreate.
d. behaviors that are innate but not necessary for survival.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 309 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

28. When you don’t drink any fluids for several hours, your body sends information to your brain causing a motivation to drink. This process is best explained by
a. instinct theory.
b. incentive theory.
c. drive theory.
d. arousal theory.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 308-310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

29. The arousal theory of motivation would have the easiest time explaining why a person would
a. ride a roller-coaster.
b. eat a meal.
c. study hard for a test.
d. seek companionship.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 310-311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

30. According to arousal theory, those who engage in physical activities that are extremely risky or dangerous are
a. attempting to reduce physical tension.
b. seeking high levels of physiological arousal.
c. fulfilling an instinctual need.
d. satisfying a social desire to compete with others.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 310-311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

31. Arousal theories of motivation state that
a. arousal drives us toward engaging in survival-related behaviors.
b. we all seek to maintain an optimal level of arousal.
c. we are all motivated to maximize our arousal.
d. internal arousal cannot ultimately be manipulated so society must do it for the individual.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 310 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

32. Most people perform best when arousal is
a. absent.
b. low.
c. moderate.
d. high.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 310-311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

33. Sensation seeking is best explained by ____ theory.
a. arousal
b. drive reduction
c. incentive
d. instinct

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

34. Low levels of monoamine oxidase are associated with
a. hunger.
b. sensation seeking.
c. thirst.
d. lack of motivation.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

35. Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that ____ neurotransmitters.
a. mimics the activity of
b. stimulates the release of
c. blocks the release of
d. breaks down

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

36. Sensation seeking is associated with
a. increased dopamine activity.
b. decreased serotonin activity.
c. increased GABA activity.
d. decreased melatonin activity.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

37. Sensation seekers who habitually seek out high levels of physiological arousal may be responding to high levels of
a. GABA activity.
b. acetylcholine activity.
c. dopamine activity.
d. serotonin activity.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

38. Your motivation to study hard in school in order to get good grades and prepare for a career would be best explained by
a. self-determination theory.
b. drive theory.
c. arousal theory
d. instinct theory.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 312 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

39. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are elements of ____ theories of motivation.
a. incentive
b. arousal
c. incentive
d. drive

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 312 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

40. Incentive theories of motivation differentiate between intrinsic motivation, which comes from ____ sources, and extrinsic motivation, which comes from ____ sources.
a. biological; environmental
b. primary; secondary
c. cognitive; emotional
d. internal; external

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 312-313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

41. Doing a job well because of a sense of pride in your accomplishment would be a good example of ____ motivation.
a. extrinsic
b. arousal
c. intrinsic
d. drive

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 312 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

42. Working hard to improve your basketball skills in order to be selected to the all-star team would be a good example of ____ motivation.
a. arousal
b. intrinsic
c. extrinsic
d. drive

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

43. Hannah is a psychologist who believes that motives are innate tendencies that direct our behavior. Hannah’s belief is most compatible with which theory of motivation?
a. Drive-reduction theory
b. Instinct theory
c. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
d. Incentive theories of motivation

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

44. Dr. Williams is a psychologist who believes that motivation is produced when we feel an uncomfortable internal state that pushes us to find a way to feel better. Dr. Williams’s belief is most compatible with which theory of motivation?
a. Drive-reduction theory
b. Instinct theory
c. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
d. Incentive theories of motivation

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 308 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

 

45. The idea that you might go to college and work hard because you hope to get a good job in the future is most compatible with which theory of motivation?
a. Drive-reduction theory
b. Instinct theory
c. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
d. Self-determination theory

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 312 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

46. Feeling the urge to go to the bathroom is a good example of
a. a secondary drive.
b. a primary drive.
c. Maslow’s highest level of the hierarchy.
d. Maslow’s second level of the hierarchy.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 307 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

47. Rick loves to ski, surf, race cars, and engage in extreme sports. Rick is most likely
a. low in sensation seeking.
b. moderate in sensation seeking.
c. high in sensation seeking.
d. to have a high level of MAO in his brain.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

48. Guillermo is high in sensation seeking. Knowing what you know about arousal and motivation, at what level of arousal will Guillermo most likely perform his best?
a. A level of arousal that is far below average
b. A level of arousal that is slightly below average
c. An average level of arousal
d. An above average level of arousal

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

49. If you wanted to develop a drug that would make people crave excitement, what effect would you want that drug to have on the brain?
a. Lower MAO
b. Increase MAO
c. Decrease serotonin
d. Decrease dopamine

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 311 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

 

 

50. If you were to look at food advertisements while you are hungry, you would likely experience ____ motivation to buy food.
a. intrinsic
b. extrinsic
c. subliminal
d. intrinsic and extrinsic

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 312-313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

51. Which theorist developed a hierarchy of needs to explain the different priorities we may assign to aspects of human motivation?
a. Abraham Maslow
b. Carl Rogers
c. Sigmund Freud
d. B.F. Skinner

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

52. According to Maslow, among the following needs which is the most basic?
a. Self-actualization
b. Esteem
c. Cognitive
d. Aesthetic

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

53. The most accurate way to view Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is in the form of a
a. circle.
b. pyramid.
c. square.
d. line.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 314 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

54. If you need to eat because you are starving and at the same time you need companionship because you are isolated from others, according to Maslow which of the following would be true?
a. Both of these needs would be secondary to a need to feel a sense of self-esteem.
b. These needs would have equal weight.
c. The need to eat would take priority over the need for companionship.
d. The need for companionship would take priority over the need to eat.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

 

 

 

55. Abraham Maslow believed that after satisfying our basic physiological and security needs, we can begin to work on our ____ needs.
a. biological
b. emotional
c. safety
d. belonging

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

56. Abraham Maslow believed that after satisfying our esteem and cognitive needs, we can begin to work on our ____ needs.
a. belonging
b. aesthetic
c. safety
d. security

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

57. A person who strives to do his or her best at whatever challenge is faced would most likely be fulfilling Maslow’s ____ needs.
a. achievement
b. competency
c. self-actualization
d. integrity

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

58. According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, a person who is having trouble keeping a job and making enough money to take care of the necessities of life is unlikely to be successful at meeting ____ needs.
a. motivational
b. self-actualization
c. competency
d. internal

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

59. Research on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has
a. provided support for the view that lower needs must be fulfilled before attention can be given to higher-order needs.
b. provided support for the view that as lower needs are satisfied, higher-order needs are automatically addressed.
c. not provided much support for its major hypotheses.
d. not ever been conducted.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 314 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Factual

 

60. Contrary to Maslow’s beliefs about motivation,
a. there appear to be only three different types of motives.
b. emotions seem to be separate and distinct from motives.
c. most motives occur along with other motives and not in isolation to each other.
d. people often seek to fulfill “higher” needs while depriving themselves of “lower” needs.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 314 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

61. The pursuit of self-fulfillment while depriving oneself of love
a. would be inconsistent with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
b. is impossible according to most motivation theorists.
c. is one of the most common causes of depression.
d. would provide evidence for the incentive theory of motivation.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 313 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

62. Advertisers could effectively use Maslow’s theory by
a. using sexual images to sell products.
b. taking the needs of the audience into account.
c. appealing to the emotions of the audience.
d. making their ads memorable, but subtle.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 314 OBJ: What Is Motivation?
MSC: TYPE: Applied

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