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Wardlaw’s Perspectives in Nutrition A Functional Approach 2nd Edition – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1259933849
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1259933844

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Wardlaw’s Perspectives in Nutrition A Functional Approach 2nd Edition – Test Bank

Perspectives in Nutrition, A Functional Approach, 2e (Byrd)
Chapter 7 Protein

1) The basic building blocks of protein are ________.
A) amino acids
B) polypeptides
C) enzymes
D) hormones

2) The presence of ________ chemically distinguishes protein from carbohydrate and fat.
A) carbon
B) choline
C) nitrogen
D) hydrogen

3) Dietary proteins supply ________ kcal per gram.
A) 4
B) 7
C) 9
D) 15

4) Which bodily function is not associated with protein?
A) blood clotting
B) fluid balance
C) cell growth and repair
D) sparing glucose for energy use as the primary source of energy

5) Over time, if protein intake does not meet the body’s protein needs for building and repair of tissues, ________.
A) skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the liver decrease in size
B) excessive body fluid begins to accumulate in the extracellular spaces
C) the immune system fails to function properly
D) All of these choices are accurate.

6) Which of the following foods provides all of the essential amino acids?
A) wheat
B) peanut butter
C) navy beans
D) milk
7) The side chain, or R portion, of an amino acid ________.
A) can be synthesized if there is a source of nitrogen
B) can be synthesized if caloric intake is adequate
C) cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet body needs
D) determines the name of the amino acid

8) Which of the following amino acids is classified as a “conditionally essential” amino acid?
A) methionine
B) phenylalanine
C) tyrosine
D) lysine

9) Foods containing all essential amino acids in the proportion needed by the body are designated as ________.
A) incomplete proteins
B) high-quantity proteins
C) dispensable proteins
D) complete proteins

10) Good sources of high-quality (complete) protein include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) soybeans
B) eggs
C) whole wheat
D) fish

11) When over 10 amino acids are chemically linked by peptide bonds, the resulting product is known as ________.
A) a dipeptide
B) a tripeptide
C) an oligopeptide
D) a polypeptide

12) Cooking an egg destroys its physiological property by ________.
A) denaturation
B) emulsification
C) esterification
D) detoxification
13) When 2 or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins are called ________.
A) nonessential proteins
B) complementary proteins
C) conditional proteins
D) corrected proteins

14) DNA-coded instructions for protein synthesis consist of a sequence of ________ nucleotides per unit.
A) 2
B) 3
C) 5
D) 10

15) The nucleotide units that represent a specific amino acid in protein synthesis are called ________.
A) blocks
B) bonds
C) peptides
D) codons

16) The genetic disorder sickle-cell anemia produces a profound change in ________ structure.
A) hemoglobin
B) albumin
C) phenylalanine
D) lysine

17) The sequential order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain is called the ________.
A) primary structure
B) secondary structure
C) tertiary structure
D) quaternary structure

18) Worldwide, approximately ________ of protein comes from animal sources.
A) 10%
B) 35%
C) 50%
D) 75%
19) Protein quality is determined by all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) the food’s digestibility
B) the food’s cost
C) the food’s amino acid composition
D) the food’s ability to support body growth

20) Which of the following conditions would result in negative nitrogen balance?
A) recovery from injury
B) weight training
C) pregnancy
D) kwashiorkor

21) Nitrogen makes up approximately ________ of the weight of an amino acid.
A) 8%
B) 16%
C) 24%
D) 32%

22) The RDA for protein for most healthy adults is ________.
A) 0.5 g/kg of body weight
B) 0.8 g/kg of body weight
C) 1.2 g/kg of body weight
D) 2.0 g/kg of body weight

23) When food proteins reach the stomach, HCl ________ the protein.
A) esterifies
B) emulsifies
C) transaminates
D) denatures

24) Which of the following enzymes aids in digesting polypeptides into shorter peptides and amino acids?
A) lipase
B) trypsin
C) HCL
D) lactase

25) The functions of protein include ________.
A) providing structural support to body cells
B) producing antibodies to fight infection
C) contributing to acid-base balance
D) All of these are functions of protein.
26) Edema in the lower extremities may appear when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because ________.
A) sodium is retained in the body
B) blood protein levels drop and fluid shifts into interstitial spaces
C) blood protein levels increase and force fluid into the cells
D) the kidneys cannot efficiently excrete excess fluid

27) Amino acids are required for the synthesis of ________.
A) enzymes
B) neurotransmitters
C) some hormones
D) All of the responses are accurate.

28) A diet that is deficient in carbohydrate will ultimately force the liver and, to a lesser extent, the kidneys to ________.
A) produce glucose from amino acids
B) use fat stores to synthesize glucose
C) convert glucose to glycogen in the liver
D) All of the above will occur.

29) Proteins help regulate blood pH by ________.
A) accepting and releasing hydrogen ions
B) keeping the blood more acidic
C) releasing ketone-forming amino acids into the blood
D) pumping potassium out of the cells

30) ________ are compounds that help to maintain acid-base balance within a narrow range.
A) Antibodies
B) Buffers
C) Sterols
D) Enzymes

31) The proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses to help prevent infections are called ________.
A) enzymes
B) hormones
C) collagen
D) antibodies
32) The lack of an immune response to foreign compounds entering the body is called ________.
A) allergy
B) anergy
C) anorexia
D) allopathy

33) A high-quality protein used as a standard for measuring the quality of other proteins is ________.
A) milk
B) beef
C) egg white
D) soybean

34) The biological value of a food protein is a measure of ________.
A) how much of the food one eats
B) the total amount of nitrogen in the blood
C) how closely it meets amino acid needs
D) the weight gained by a growing rat after eating the food protein for 10 days

35) A growing child who is consuming adequate protein but only 50% of his or her energy needs will likely be in ________.
A) nitrogen equilibrium
B) positive nitrogen balance
C) negative nitrogen balance

36) What would be the recommended amount of protein for a 121-pound female?
A) 21 g/day
B) 36 g/day
C) 44 g/day
D) 55 g/day

37) Judy’s dietary intake provides 90 grams of protein. Her total energy intake is 2000 kcal. Approximately what percentage of her energy comes from protein?
A) 8%
B) 11%
C) 18%
D) 28%

38) Most Americans consume ________ dietary protein compared to the RDA.
A) the correct amount of
B) excessive amounts of
C) inadequate amounts of
D) poor quality
39) A high-protein diet is discouraged for patients with ________.
A) infection
B) marasmus
C) kidney disease
D) kwashiorkor

40) A vegan diet may be low in ________.
A) vitamin B-12
B) iron
C) calcium
D) All of these responses are correct.

41) When plant proteins are compared to animal proteins, they ________.
A) usually have equal quantities of essential amino acids
B) are usually superior in their array of essential amino acids
C) are usually deficient in one or more essential amino acids
D) are equal in quality so long as they are not overcooked

42) The recommended amount of protein as a percentage of total energy intake is ________.
A) 15% to 20%
B) 20% to 30%
C) 10% to 35%
D) 40% to 50%

43) The major symptoms of kwashiorkor in children are ________.
A) edema and growth failure
B) nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
C) increased appetite and hyperactivity
D) overweight and an excess accumulation of fat

44) Kwashiorkor ________.
A) is a disease of severely deficient protein intake
B) is a childhood allergy to human breast milk
C) is caused by excessive consumption of cow’s milk
D) develops in infants who consume contaminated, high protein infant formulas

45) Signs of protein deficiency may include ________.
A) edema
B) mild to moderate weight loss
C) poor resistance to infection
D) All of these choices are accurate.
46) After major surgery, hospital patients may be at risk of PEM due to ________.
A) poor prior health
B) low dietary intakes
C) increased needs for recovery
D) All of these choices are correct.

47) An example of two incomplete protein foods eaten together to produce a complete protein meal is ________.
A) bread and butter
B) red beans and rice
C) cereal and milk
D) hamburger with a bun

48) A vegan will eat ________.
A) milk chocolate and quiche dishes
B) dairy products, eggs, and fish
C) dairy products and plant foods
D) only foods from plant sources

49) A process involved in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids is called ________.
A) ketogenesis
B) gluconeogenesis
C) transamination
D) supplementation

50) Which of the following is not a means of determining the protein quality of a food?
A) biological value
B) chemical score
C) protein efficiency ratio
D) complementary score

51) Marasmus is characterized by ________.
A) edema
B) extreme weight loss and fat loss
C) excess energy intakes
D) allergy to cow’s milk

52) An antibody is ________.
A) a protein that breaks down polypeptides for digestion
B) a substance that adjusts hydrogen ion concentration
C) a substance that inactivates foreign proteins in the body
D) the lack of an immune response to foreign substances entering the body
53) Anergy is ________.
A) the space between body cells
B) a substance that adjusts hydrogen ion concentration
C) a substance that inactivates foreign proteins in the body
D) the lack of an immune response to foreign substances entering the body

54) Excess protein intake can result in ________.
A) diabetes
B) iron deficiency
C) loss of calcium
D) excess fiber intake

55) The body needs 18 different amino acids to function properly.

56) The 9 amino acids that the body cannot make are known as nonessential amino acids.

57) An individual with the genetic disease PKU has a limited ability to metabolize the essential amino acid phenylalanine.

58) Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized through a process called transamination.

59) Each strand of DNA is composed of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

60) Vegans need to plan their diets carefully to include adequate complementary proteins that provide the needed essential amino acids.

61) Individuals who are attempting to build up their muscles need 3 times as much protein as those who are not building muscles.

62) Legumes are an excellent source of vegetable protein.

63) The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is the score derived by multiplying a food’s chemical score by its digestibility.

64) For the average North American, protein needs can be easily met through our typical diets without the need for supplementation.

65) During times of recovery from illness or injury, protein needs may range from 0.8 to 2.0 g/kg body weight.

66) Proteins in cow’s milk and egg white are not recommended to be given to infants prior to 12 months of age as they may predispose the infant to allergies.
67) High-protein diets are often associated with increased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet.

68) Marasmus in infants commonly occurs in poverty-stricken countries.

69) An excess intake of protein, especially from protein supplements, can increase the risk of amino acid toxicity.

70) Peanuts, cow’s milk, and shellfish are among foods considered to be highly allergenic.

71) Once a food allergy has developed, it persists throughout life.

72) Compared to the typical American diet, vegetarian diets are generally lower in dietary fiber.

73) Lacto-ovo-vegetarians exclude meat, poultry, fish, and eggs from their diet.

74) The enzymatic digestion of protein begins in the stomach, where proteins are broken down into shorter polypeptide chains of amino acids.

75) Protein intakes above 35% of energy intake may be associated with dehydration, amino acid imbalance, and increased risk of certain cancers.

76) Vegetarian diets are most often low in calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc.

77) Most animal proteins have a high biological value as their tissue amino acid composition is similar to that of human tissues.

78) Explain the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids.

79) Why do individuals with PKU need the nonessential amino acid tyrosine in their diets?

80) Suggest 3 meals that make use of the concept of complementary proteins.

81) What is a limiting amino acid?

82) Define the four levels of protein organization.

83) Explain why denaturation of a protein destroys its biological function.

84) Define and explain the importance of “protein turnover.”

85) List 3 ways of evaluating food protein quality.

86) Calculate the protein needs of a healthy, 140-lb woman.
87) If Krista consumes 65 grams of protein as part of a 1900-kcal diet, what percent of her total calories are from protein?

88) List 2 circumstances in which an individual might be in positive nitrogen balance.

89) List 2 circumstances in which an individual might be in negative nitrogen balance.

90) Explain 3 functions of protein in the body.

91) Compare and contrast kwashiorkor and marasmus.

92) List 3 nutrients that are likely to be low in a vegan diet.

93) List 3 foods that are often allergenic.

94) What suggestions would you give to a mother who would like her 5-year-old child to follow a vegetarian diet?

95) Why are high-protein diets potentially harmful?

96) What suggestions would you give to athletes taking multiple amino acid supplements?

97) List 3 situations in which a North American college student might be at risk of PEM.

98) The weaker chemical bonds that form between amino acids that stabilize the structure create the ________ structure.
A) primary
B) secondary
C) tertiary
D) quaternary

99) What would happen to dietary protein if HCl were not being produced in sufficient quantities?
A) Protein digestion would occur at a faster rate.
B) Protein digestion could not fully occur because proteins could not be denatured and pepsinogen could not be converted to pepsin.
C) Proteins would be digested by gastric lipase in the stomach.
D) None of the choices are correct.
100) If you were cut and needed to heal the wound, which type of protein would the body produce?
A) Ferritin
B) Albumin
C) Collagen
D) Hemoglobin

101) What is the state of nitrogen balance when a person ingests 13 g of food nitrogen and loses 21 g of nitrogen?
A) Equilibrium
B) Positive balance
C) Negative balance
D) Exogenous balance

102) What would be the effect on protein digestion if insufficient amounts of gastrin were being produced?
A) Too much HCL would be produced, resulting in rapid protein digestion.
B) Too little HCL would be produced, resulting in insufficient protein digestion.
C) Too much amylase would be produced, inhibiting the digestion of protein.
D) No effect; gastrin does not play a role in the secretion of enzymes or substances related to protein digestion.

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