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Wardlaw’s Perspectives in Nutrition 11th Edition by Carol Byrd-Bredbenner – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1260092208
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1260092202

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Wardlaw’s Perspectives in Nutrition 11th Edition by Carol Byrd-Bredbenner – Test Bank

Perspectives in Nutrition, 11e (Byrd)
Chapter 6 Lipids

1) Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are classified as ________ fatty acids.
A) essential
B) nonessential
C) saturated
D) trans

2) Which is correct regarding trans fatty acids?
A) They raise HDL and LDL cholesterol.
B) They lower LDL cholesterol.
C) They raise blood cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol.
D) They raise blood glucose.

3) Which of the following correctly characterizes lipids?
A) They do not dissolve in water.
B) They contain carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
C) They dissolve in water.
D) They are all classified as sterols.

4) In what form is most body fat stored?
A) cholesterol
B) phospholipids
C) triglycerides
D) None of these responses are correct.

5) The functions of fat include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) build and repair tissue
B) cushion and protect vital organs
C) insulate the body
D) transport fat-soluble vitamins

6) All of the following are ways in which fatty acids can differ from one another EXCEPT ________.
A) number of double bonds
B) degree of saturation
C) chain length
D) average number of calories per gram

7) Phospholipids consist of ________.
A) glycerol and three fatty acids
B) glycerol, two fatty acids, and phosphate
C) multiple chemical rings
D) chylomicrons

8) Lipids with high saturated fatty acid content are generally ________ at room temperature.
A) solid
B) liquid
C) warm
D) gaseous

9) Arachidonic acid is associated with ________.
A) glucose metabolism
B) omega-3 fatty acid metabolism
C) omega-6 fatty acid metabolism
D) cholesterol metabolism

10) Which of the following lipids is a precursor for estrogen and bile?
A) cholesterol
B) alpha-linoleic acid
C) eicosinoids
D) saturated fat

11) Recommendations suggest that we consume approximately 20% of our fat as monounsaturated fats. All of the following would be appropriate to use to achieve this goal EXCEPT ________.
A) peanut oil
B) canola oil
C) coconut oil
D) olive oil

12) Lard, butter, and cream are rich sources of ________.
A) saturated fatty acids
B) monounsaturated fatty acids
C) polyunsaturated fatty acids
D) trans fatty acids

13) The chief contributors of saturated fatty acids in the U.S. diet include ________.
A) whole grains
B) sunflower, soybean, and safflower oils
C) lecithins
D) animal products

14) Saturated fatty acids predominate in which of the following lipids?
A) canola oil
B) safflower oil
C) butter
D) olive oil

15) Which of the following groups of foods would contribute a substantial amount of monounsaturated fatty acids to the diet?
A) olive oil, peanuts, and almonds
B) beef franks, bologna, and ham
C) carrots, beets, and peppers
D) bacon, eggs, and butter

16) Monounsaturated fatty acids ________.
A) are liquid at room temperature
B) have one double bond in the fatty acid chain
C) lower cholesterol
D) All of these responses are correct.

17) Fats that are liquid at room temperature can be made more solid by the process of ________.
A) saponification
B) hydrogenation
C) emulsification
D) calcification

18) Which of the following fats and oils provides the most polyunsaturated fatty acids?
A) olive oil
B) butter
C) soybean oil
D) lard

19) Which essential fatty acid is responsible for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease?
A) alpha-linolenic
B) linoleic
C) omega-6 fatty acids
D) omega-9 fatty acids
E) None of these choices are correct.

20) Lecithin is classified as a ________.
A) triglyceride
B) phospholipid
C) sterol
D) fatty acid

21) Ergosterol is a type of sterol found in ________.
A) eggs
B) meat
C) plants
D) None of the above are correct.

22) Cholesterol is ________.
A) not essential in the diet; the human body can synthesize it
B) not found in foods of plant origin
C) an important part of human cell membranes and is necessary to make some hormones
D) All of these choices are correct.

23) Mike has been told to reduce his fat intake to less than 30% of his total calories. It has been recommended to him that he consume an average of 2000 calories per day. How many grams of fat should he consume per day?
A) 76 grams
B) 67 grams
C) 80 grams
D) 93 grams

24) The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that total fat intake should not exceed ________ of total calories and saturated fat intake be limited to ________ of total calories.
A) 20%; 1%
B) 20%; 5%
C) 35%; 10%
D) 50%; 10%

25) In the Mediterranean Diet, the majority of fat in the diet is supplied by ________.
A) olive oil and olives
B) red meat
C) eggs
D) dairy
E) cheese

26) According to guidelines from the American Heart Association for the general population, saturated fats ________.
A) should constitute no more than 7% of total energy in the diet
B) are quite visible in foods, so they should be eliminated from the diet to reduce risk of heart disease
C) are only a health risk if they come from a food that has been fried
D) are only a health risk if they come from gravies, desserts, and dairy products

27) Individuals with bleeding disorders taking anticoagulants or scheduling surgery should be cautious about which supplement?
A) omega-6 fatty acids
B) omega-9 fatty acids
C) omega-3 fatty acids
D) None of these responses are correct.

28) All the following are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids EXCEPT ________.
A) walnuts
B) salmon
C) avocados
D) flaxseed oil

29) Most experts agree that total dietary cholesterol intake should be limited to ________ mg per day.
A) 200
B) 300
C) 400
D) 500

30) Fat digestion begins in the ________.
A) intestines
B) stomach
C) mouth
D) liver

31) Lingual lipase breaks down ________.
A) triglycerides
B) proteins
C) carbohydrates
D) None of these choices are correct.

32) Which lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol from the liver to tissues?
A) chylomicron
B) low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
C) high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
D) chylomicron remnant

33) A fatty acid with 10 carbons will be absorbed via the ________.
A) lymphatic system
B) portal system
C) kidney system
D) None of the above are correct.

34) High levels of ________ in the blood are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
A) LDL
B) HDL
C) total cholesterol
D) triglycerides

35) Lipoproteins are important for ________.
A) transport of fats in the blood and lymphatic system
B) synthesis of triglycerides
C) synthesis of adipose tissue
D) None of these choices are correct.

36) Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest proportion of protein?
A) LDL
B) VLDL
C) HDL
D) chylomicrons

37) Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are the principal transport vehicle for ________ in the blood.
A) glucose
B) triglycerides
C) phospholipids
D) cholesterol
E) free fatty acids

38) LDL clearance in the plasma is mediated via the ________ receptor.
A) B-48
B) B-100
C) CII
D) A

39) Oxidized LDL in the blood is picked up by the ________.
A) B100 receptor
B) scavenger pathway
C) B48 receptor
D) No cell can pick up oxidized LDL.

40) Lipoprotein lipase functions to ________.
A) absorb fatty acids and glycerol into the lymph
B) reassemble chylomicrons into lipoproteins
C) break down triglycerides from lipoproteins for transfer into cells
D) break down diglycerides into cholesterol for transfer into cells

41) The ________ pathway for LDL uptake is a means by which LDL contributes to plaque formation in blood vessels.
A) receptor
B) atherosclerotic
C) intermediate
D) scavenger

42) High-density lipoproteins function in lipid transport by ________.
A) delivering cholesterol to target cells throughout the body
B) picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources for delivery to other lipoproteins and the liver for disposal
C) slowly carrying newly synthesized fats from the liver to various body cells
D) moving newly absorbed dietary fat through the intestinal wall

43) Immediately after a meal, newly digested and absorbed dietary fats appear in the lymph, and then the blood, as a part of which of the following?
A) LDL
B) HDL
C) chylomicrons
D) cholesterol

44) Which apolipoprotein is responsible for activating lipoprotein lipase?
A) Apo B-48
B) Apo C-II
C) Apo C
D) Apo B-100

45) Excessive intakes of saturated fatty acids tend to ________.
A) increase cholesterol deposited in arteries
B) decrease cholesterol levels in the veins
C) be of no concern to heart disease
D) increase HDL levels in the blood

46) Excessive amounts of omega-3 fatty acids can ________.
A) impair the immune system
B) cause excessive bleeding
C) cause hemorrhagic stroke
D) All of these choices are correct.
E) None of these choices are correct.

47) Blockage of a major artery is caused by a blood clot. These clots may form when ________.
A) cholesterol plaques build up in artery walls
B) HDL invades artery walls
C) the dietary intake of cholesterol is less than 200 mg per day
D) LDL fails to remove cholesterol from artery walls

48) Which of the following is considered a desirable blood level for total cholesterol?
A) 200 mg/dl or less
B) 300 mg/dl or less
C) 400 mg/dl or less
D) 500 mg/dl or less

49) Which of the following blood levels of LDL cholesterol would increase risk for cardiovascular disease for an otherwise healthy adult?
A) 100 mg/dl or less
B) 130 mg/dl or less
C) 130-159 mg/dl
D) over 160 mg/dl

50) Which of the following is a risk factor for heart disease?
A) Total blood cholesterol level greater than 200 mg/dl
B) LDL level lower than 100 mg/dl
C) Vigorous physical activity
D) HDL level greater than 60 mg/dl

51) All of the following are uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease EXCEPT ________.
A) gender
B) age
C) genetics
D) hypertension

52) A stroke ________.
A) blocks blood flow in the brain
B) reduces blood flow in the heart
C) reduces blood flow to the gut
D) is not associated with fats or lipids

53) A diet designed to reduce elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels ________.
A) is low in saturated fats
B) is reduced in dietary cholesterol
C) provides adequate amounts of soluble fiber
D) All of these choices are correct.

54) Trans fatty acids are now considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids because they ________.
A) are unnatural and only form during fat processing
B) cause excessive blood clotting
C) elevate LDL levels, while decreasing HDL
D) cause sudden cardiac arrest in post-menopausal women

55) Margarine is usually made by a process called ________, in which hydrogen atoms are added to double covalent bonds in the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils.
A) saturation
B) isomerization
C) esterification
D) hydrogenation

56) Since monounsaturated fats are healthier, consuming them in excessive amounts is always considered good.
57) All fat-free foods are generally healthy for you.

58) The decrease in HDL due to the decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women plays a part in the increased risk of heart disease that occurs in older women.

59) High blood levels of HDL are protective against heart disease.

60) Americans typically eat more omega-3 fatty acids than omega-6 fatty acids.

61) Trans fatty acids raise HDL and lower LDL.

62) Plants contain cholesterol.

63) Generally dietary cholesterol is recommended not to exceed 300 milligrams per day.

64) Lecithin and bile are examples of emulsifiers.

Match the term with its description.

A) Phospholipid
B) Fat
C) Cholesterol
D) Oil
E) Triglyceride

65) Comprised of glycerol and fatty acids only

66) Lipid that is solid at room temperature

67) Sterol manufactured in the body

68) Major lipid class that contains phosphorus, fatty acids, and glycerol

69) Lipid that is liquid at room temperature

Match the term with the best description.

A) Produces and secretes enzymes
B) Stores bile for release into small intestines
C) Emulsifies fat
D) Stimulates the gallbladder and pancreas to release bile and pancreatic enzymes
E) Enzyme found in the mouth that breaks down triglycerides

70) Cholecystokinin

71) Bile

72) Gallbladder

73) Pancreas

74) Lingual lipase

Match the lipoprotein with its description

A) HDL
B) LDL
C) Chylomicron
D) VLDL

75) Lipoprotein that transports fat made in the liver

76) Lipoprotein with the greatest cholesterol content

77) Lipoprotein made in the GI tract from digested fat

78) Lipoprotein that delivers cholesterol back to the liver and to other lipoproteins

79) Compare and contrast the typical American diet to the Mediterranean diet.

80) How do antioxidants reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease?

81) How do the plant stanols found in some margarines lower cholesterol?

82) Why are premenopausal women at lower risk for heart disease when compared to men of the same age?

83) What is atherosclerosis and what key blood cholesterol factors are most associated with this disease?

84) Lipids with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content are generally ________ at room temperature.
A) solid
B) liquid
C) warm
D) gaseous

85) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with
A) glucose metabolism.
B) omega-3 fatty acid metabolism.
C) omega-6 fatty acid metabolism.
D) cholesterol metabolism.

86) Eicosanoids are
A) responsible for fat transport in the bloodstream.
B) proteins that act like fat.
C) part of an omega-9 fatty acid.
D) substances that produce diverse hormone-like effects on the body.
87) Saturated fatty acids predominate in which of the following lipids?
A) canola oil
B) safflower oil
C) butter
D) olive oil

88) What is the role of bile acids in the digestion of lipids?

89) Evaluate the following statement: “Heart disease is more likely due to genetics than diet.”

90) How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon participating in a double bond?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

91) Which of the following food sources would have the softest fats at room temperature?
A) lard
B) butter
C) chicken
D) safflower

92) At room temperature, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid the fastest?
A) lard
B) peanut oil
C) soybean oil
D) coconut oil

93) What is a common function of plant sterols?
A) raise LDL and lower HDL
B) inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
C) inhibit absorption of “bad” cholesterol
D) enhance absorption of omega-3 fatty acids

94) Which of the following would be seen on a blood lipid profile of a patient who was recommended to make dietary changes to reduce his or her risk for cardiovascular disease?
A) low LDL and high HDL
B) low HDL and high LDL
C) low VLDL and high HDL
D) low LDL and low HDL

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