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USA Narrative History Volume 2 Since 1865 7th Edition by James West Davidson – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0077780361
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0077780364

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USA Narrative History Volume 2 Since 1865 7th Edition by James West Davidson – Test Bank

Chapter 07
The American People and The American Revolution 1775-1783

Multiple Choice Questions

1. (p. 120-121) The chapter introduction tells the story of the Battle of Bunker Hill to make the point that
A. Americans won their revolution by pitting dedicated amateur soldiers against the might of Britain’s professional redcoats.
B. initially the war went badly for the Americans, testing their commitment to liberty and independence.
C. a key question in that battle and throughout the war was whether Americans would really fight to win their independence.
D. declaring independence was one thing, but after the Declaration, actually fighting against the authority of one’s own king was quite another.

Topic: The Decision for Independence

2. (p. 124, 129, 132, 136) A fundamental question at the outset of the Revolution was, “Will they fight?” Different individuals answered this in different ways. Which of the following does NOT accurately state one of the responses?
A. Northern Anglicans and recent emigrants from the British Isles tended to remain loyal to the British.
B. Most middle-class American revolutionaries preferred to join the Continental Army rather than merely become part of their local militias.
C. The war to protect liberty and property was, ironically, waged by those classes of Americans who were poor and least free.
D. In the latter part of the war, brutal civil war between loyalist and rebel bands raged across the South.

Topic: The Decision for Independence
Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

3. (p. 122) During the first year of the Revolution, American war aims shifted from a desire for redress of grievances to a demand for complete independence. Which of the following influenced this shift?
A. the impact of Tom Paine’s Common Sense
B. Washington’s refusal to command the Continental Army until independence was declared
C. congressional actions on war aims and treaties with France
D. British actions to crush American resistance by using Indian tribes

Topic: The Decision for Independence

4. (p. 122) All of the following actions, which seemed to be the actions of an independent government, were taken by the Continental Congress before the Declaration of Independence, EXCEPT
A. drafting the “Olive Branch Petition.”
B. creating a Continental Army.
C. dealing with Canada.
D. issuing paper money to pay for troops.

Topic: The Decision for Independence

5. (p. 122) The Declaration of Independence based the case for independence on
A. the violations of colonials’ “rights as Englishmen.”
B. Parliament’s infringements on American liberty.
C. George III’s infringements on American liberty.
D. the argument that monarchical government violated both reason and the Bible.

Topic: The Decision for Independence

6. (p. 122-123) The first, briefer section of the Declaration of Independence dealt with _______, while the second included _______.
A. American grievances; reasons for now becoming independent of the English
B. the general right of revolution based on natural rights; the specific offenses of King George III by which England forfeited its right to rule Americans
C. the announcement of American independence; the reasons why such a declaration must be made at this time
D. the assertion that all men are created equal; the rights of life, liberty, and happiness as justifications for severing ties with England

Topic: The Decision for Independence

7. (p. 125) What was the most dominant common characteristic among the diverse group of people who remained loyal to Britain?
A. They were devout Christians who believed the Bible commanded obedience to authority.
B. They were old-stock wealthy planters and merchants from the coastal areas whose families had long prospered under British rule.
C. They owed their livelihood and social status to Crown appointments and thus were unmoved by constitutional arguments.
D. They were fearful of divisions and instability within American society.

Topic: The Decision for Independence

8. (p. 124) The ranks of loyalists included
A. a disproportionate number of New Englanders.
B. a majority of southern Anglicans.
C. a large number of recent emigrants from the British Isles.
D. middle-class artisans in the port towns of the middle colonies.

Topic: The Decision for Independence

9. (p. 125) What event helped overcome republican fears of a standing Continental Army?
A. the battle of Bunker Hill
B. the passage of the Quartering Act by Parliament
C. the dwindling number of “citizen-soldier” volunteers
D. General Washington’s reassurance of professionalism in the officer ranks

Topic: The Fighting in the North

10. (p. 125, 129) At first, the bulk of the Continental Army was recruited from _______, but eventually most Continental soldiers were _______.
A. the New England states; from the middle states plus Virginia
B. the lower classes; solidly middle class
C. the militias; drawn from the poorest and least free
D. farmers conscripted by the provincial congresses and state legislatures; volunteers

Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

11. (p. 127) After evacuating Boston, the British army took the initiative, launching a successful assault on
A. New York City.
B. Philadelphia.
C. the Carolina backcountry.
D. the Jersey shore.

Topic: The Fighting in the North

12. (p. 127, 131-132) The initial fighting in the war occurred in New England; most engagements in the two years after the Declaration of Independence took place in _________; and the conflict in the later war years raged across _______.
A. the Chesapeake; the Hudson valley
B. the Chesapeake; the Carolinas and Georgia
C. the middle states (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania); the Carolinas and Virginia
D. the port towns in the middle states (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania); the backcountry

Topic: The Struggle in the South

13. (p. 127) The Continental Army gained a key victory over the British at _______, demonstrating its ability as a fighting force and winning support for its cause in the region.
A. Trenton
B. New York
C. Brandywine Creek
D. Germantown

Topic: The Fighting in the North

14. (p. 128) What tactical goal did General Howe have in mind when he captured Philadelphia in the summer of 1777?
A. punishment for the city’s overt support of the Continental Army
B. to enable his field officers to resupply their companies
C. to divide the Continental Army from the New England militias
D. to draw the Americans into battle

Topic: The Fighting in the North

15. (p. 128) Which of the following describes the American relationship with the French prior to 1778?
A. The French provided secret aid as a way to gain revenge against the British.
B. The French offered an overt alliance in hopes they could regain their lost North American possessions.
C. The Americans sought French aid with advisors only.
D. The Americans negotiated a treaty with France for Canada and islands in the Caribbean.

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

16. (p. 128) “Saratoga changed everything,” says your text, referring to which of the following?
A. Britain’s success meant they retained control of the seas after all.
B. Britain’s defeat led to a treaty of alliance with France, opening a new phase of the war.
C. Britain’s defeat meant they abandoned all hope of subduing the rebellion and opened negotiations for peace and American independence.
D. The military standoff forced General Howe to turn toward Philadelphia instead of linking up with General Burgoyne.

Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

17. (p. 128) Which of the following best explains why the French fought against Britain in the American Revolution?
A. They expected to be able to regain territory in North America.
B. They sympathized with the republican principles by which the Americans fought.
C. The successful British occupation of Philadelphia convinced them that the Americans were losing and needed help.
D. They feared that the Americans would reconcile with Britain, their historic enemy.

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

18. (p. 129) Despite great triumphs on the battlefield and at the diplomatic bargaining table, the Continental Army suffered at Valley Forge because
A. Congress and the civilians responsible for providing for the army were disorganized and indifferent.
B. the military leadership, in order to instill true discipline, drilled the soldiers beyond their endurance.
C. the winter was unusually harsh and the army was compelled to camp outdoors.
D. the soldiers were never told of the victories elsewhere.

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

19. (p. 129) Which statement about the regulars of the Continental Army is true?
A. Most of the soldiers were older, propertied farmers with families, whose substantial farms, left to the care of wives and children in their long absence, fell into disrepair.
B. Despite the hardships, Continental soldiers—who had enlisted for the sake of liberty—refused the temptations of desertion and mutiny that plagued the hired armies of Europe.
C. While local partisans in the South often ran at the first encounter with the enemy, the Continental Army proved its mettle in a series of victories in the Carolinas and Georgia.
D. In social composition and military tactics, the American army came to resemble the British army.

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

20. (p. 130-131) In the war for independence, most Native Americans
A. sided with the rebels.
B. generally maintained neutrality, although a few tribes sided with the rebels.
C. were pressed by the European powers to become allies.
D. sided with the British until Clark took Vincennes.

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

21. (p. 131) The British shifted to a southern strategy after 1778 because
A. they felt they could exploit slave unrest.
B. they felt they could exploit loyalist support.
C. they had been driven out of their beachheads in northern cities.
D. the Continental Army was tied down defending the North.

Topic: The Struggle in the South

22. (p. 131-132) For the southern backcountry, the Revolutionary War meant
A. relative calm, due to isolation from the fighting.
B. bitter, bloody, partisan civil war.
C. suffering from slave uprisings as well as guerrilla war.
D. a series of significant victories by the Continental Army.

Topic: The Struggle in the South

23. (p. 133) Which of the following statements about British attempts to turn slave rebelliousness into a strategic advantage is the most accurate?
A. British leaders successfully turned former slaves into a black army of 10,000.
B. In attempts to gain loyalties, British leaders created a sanctuary for black loyalists on the southeastern coast.
C. The British helped organize the largest slave revolt in history.
D. British leaders did not think that organizing support among African Americans would be effective.

Topic: The Struggle in the South

24. (p. 135) What was the role of African Americans in the revolution?
A. As the war dragged on, blacks—especially northern free blacks—were increasingly welcome to enlist.
B. Americans generally avoided arming blacks, but the British eagerly recruited runaway slaves.
C. Though still enslaved, they rallied around the revolutionary rhetoric of freedom, uniformly supporting the American cause.
D. Very few slaves escaped to freedom; those who did found themselves welcomed in the North, the West Indies, or Canada.

Topic: The Struggle in the South

25. (p. 135) George Washington’s victory at Yorktown came as a joint achievement of the Continental Army and
A. the French army.
B. the French navy.
C. militia from the area.
D. All of these answers are correct.

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

26. (p. 136) In the end, which of the following is the best answer to this question, posed by the British: Would Americans fight for freedom?
A. Yes, but only according to Indian-style guerrilla warfare.
B. Yes, but only on their own terms.
C. No, not unless they were fighting to defend their own personal property.
D. No, they would not.

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

27. (p. 136) Which of the following is the best statement of why the British signed the peace treaty granting American independence?
A. The Americans had driven the British army out of North America.
B. The French had driven the British navy from the high seas.
C. The timing of the occasional American victories led to a global situation in which the British needed to salvage the rest of their empire by cutting their American losses.
D. They had sent a commission offering peace on prewar terms, which the Congress accepted in all particulars except refusing to remain in the empire.

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

28. (p. 135) During the Revolutionary War, slaves sought freedom from
A. the British.
B. the Americans.
C. whichever side seemed likely to grant it.
D. the French.

Topic: The Struggle in the South

29. (p. 128) Why were the French initially reluctant to support the American cause?
A. The British were important allies to the French.
B. Louis XVI did not like Benjamin Franklin, who was persistent in pursuing French support.
C. The French did not think the American cause was important enough to risk financial and military aid.
D. They were not sure the rebels in America stood a fighting chance.

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

30. (p. 128) Who benefitted the most from the Battle of Saratoga, the patriots or the British?
A. the British, because it proved the patriots could not win a decisive battle
B. the British, because it allowed General Burgoyne to recapture Fort Ticonderoga
C. the Patriots, because it convinced the French to join the American cause
D. neither side, because it ended in a stalemate

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

Fill in the Blank Questions

31. (p. 122) The ” ________ ” Petition was an appeal from the Second Continental Congress affirming American loyalty to King George III.
Olive Branch

Topic: The Decision for Independence

32. (p. 122-123) As written by Jefferson, the ________ both justified why Americans no longer considered themselves English and denied England any authority in the colonies.
Declaration of Independence

Topic: The Decision for Independence

33. (p. 123) Americans called them “tories,” but they called themselves _______.
loyalists

Topic: The Decision for Independence

34. (p. 126-127, 131) British strategy changed several times: First they sought to show force in New England, then take cities in the middle colonies, then finally regain their colonies in the ________ by drawing on American supporters.
South

Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: The Struggle in the South

35. (p. 128) Americans won a decisive victory at ________ that not only repulsed an invasion from Canada but changed the whole strategic picture of the war.
Saratoga

Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

36. (p. 128-129) When the ________ shifted from secret aid to outright alliance with the Americans, the British declared war.
French

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

37. (p. 135-136) The final and decisive American victory was the surrender of the British force trapped at _______.
Yorktown

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

38. (p. 135) _______, a competent Continental officer who became disillusioned with the American cause despite a key role in several American military successes, went over to the British side and ended up fighting rebels in Virginia.
Benedict Arnold

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

39. (p. 136) _______, through astute diplomacy, both won an ally for America and negotiated the treaty that gave Americans their independence.
Benjamin Franklin

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

Essay Questions

40. Describe British and American military strategies as they evolved over the course of the War for Independence.
Answer will vary

Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: The Struggle in the South
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

41. Among what sorts of people and in which areas was loyalism strongest?
Answer will vary

Topic: The Decision for Independence

42. In what different ways did the Declaration of Independence justify the colonies’ break with Great Britain?
Answer will vary

Topic: The Decision for Independence

43. Discuss the role of the white civilian population—both men and women—in the War for Independence.
Answer will vary

Topic: The Fighting in the North

44. Describe how the war affected the lives of black slaves living in the American South.
Answer will vary

Topic: The Struggle in the South

45. Describe the effect of the Battle of Bunker Hill on the course of the War for Independence.
Answer will vary

Topic: The Decision for Independence

46. Discuss the role of the French in the War for Independence. Why were they reluctant at first to intervene? In what key ways did they contribute to the American victory?
Answer will vary

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

47. How did Nathanael Greene provide effective leadership of the American army in the South?
Answer will vary

Topic: The Struggle in the South

48. Why did the British adopt a “southern strategy” after 1778? What could the British have done differently in order to win the war in the South?
Answer will vary

Topic: The Struggle in the South

49. Assess the relative importance of the militia and the Continental Army in securing rebel victories in the War for Independence.
Answer will vary

Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: The Struggle in the South
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

50. What was the single most important reason that the British lost the War for Independence?
Answer will vary

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown

51. From Washington’s point of view, what were the chief obstacles to be overcome in fighting the war? How did he address those problems?
Answer will vary

Topic: The Fighting in the North

52. Henry Laurens, a South Carolina merchant, reported that after the war’s outbreak, local slaves took up the cry of Liberty—he put it—”in thoughtless imitation.” Do you agree? What options were available to African Americans during the Revolution? How did different people exercise those options? Be as specific as possible.
Answer will vary

Topic: The Struggle in the South

53. Discuss the global issues that were involved in the American War for Independence.
Answer will vary

Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

54. Explain the chronology of the American Revolution. Be sure to mention at least three battles and three significant people. Be specific.
Answer will vary

Topic: Surrender at Yorktown
Topic: The Fighting in the North
Topic: The Struggle in the South
Topic: Turning Point of the Revolution

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