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UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL PROBLEMS 5TH EDITION By M. MORGAN – Test Bank

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UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL PROBLEMS 5TH EDITION By M. MORGAN – Test Bank

1. What do we call the lack of basic necessities of life, such as food, clean water, and housing?
a. total poverty
b. absolute poverty
c. basic poverty
d. relative poverty
ANSWER: b

2. What do we call a deficiency of material and economic resources compared with some other group(s)?
a. relative poverty
b. comparative poverty
c. absolute poverty
d. standardized poverty
ANSWER: a

3. What does the Human Poverty Index assume?
a. that poverty is a multi-dimensional problem
b. that poverty is immeasurable
c. that poverty will only be eradicated through non-governmental efforts
d. that $20 a day is enough for an average Canadian to live on
ANSWER: a

4. What is the “market basket measure”?
a. a measure of total poverty
b. a measure of relative poverty
c. a measure of caloric intake
d. a measure of absolute poverty
ANSWER: d

5. What is the “poverty threshold” set by the World Bank in industrialized countries?
a. $1.25 per day
b. $14.25 per day
c. $25.25 per day
d. $31.25 per day
ANSWER: b

6. Among the 17 industrialized countries for which the Human Poverty Index was calculated in 2001, which country had the lowest rate of human poverty?
a. Canada
b. Sweden
c. the United States
d. England
ANSWER: b

7. According to a study that followed the same families over a five-year period in six countries (Canada, the United States, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), in which country were the poor most likely to leave poverty from one year to the next?
a. Germany
b. the United States
c. Canada
d. the Netherlands
ANSWER: d

8. Which of the following measures of poverty was developed by Statistics Canada?
a. LCBO
b. LICO
c. LMPO
d. HPI
ANSWER: b

9. In Canada, low income cut-off lines are primarily based on size of family and one other factor. What is the other factor?
a. size of community in which one lives
b. mortgage rates
c. cost of borrowing money
d. relative value of the Canadian dollar
ANSWER: a

10. According to the Canadian government (Statistics Canada), who do the low income cut-offs (LICOs) effectively measure?
a. people living in poverty
b. people living in strained circumstances
c. people living with inadequate health care
d. people who are considered to be the “working poor”
ANSWER: b

11. Since 1996, by what percentage have transfer payments to Aboriginals living on reserves increased?
a. 1 percent
b. 2 percent
c. 5 percent
d. 7 percent
ANSWER: b

12. According to the Global Poverty Report (2000), what percentage of global wealth do the poorest 50 percent of the world’s population account for?
a. 1 percent
b. 2 percent
c. 4 percent
d. 6 percent
ANSWER: a

13. Some argue that the poor living in underdeveloped countries are that way because they haven’t done something. What are they said not to have done?
a. They have not cooperated with the United Nations.
b. They have not embraced globalization.
c. They have not embraced technological advancements.
d. They have not keep up with the times.
ANSWER: b

14. What does the structural-functionalist perspective say about social classes and poverty?
a. They are not necessary.
b. They are the result of greed.
c. They are inevitable.
d. They are corporate by-products.
ANSWER: c

15. Which perspective takes the view that an unequal economic reward system helps to assure that the person who performs a particular role is the most qualified?
a. the conflict perspective
b. the structural-functionalist perspective
c. the symbolic interactionist perspective
d. the political economy perspective
ANSWER: b

16. Which view of poverty has received a great deal of criticism from contemporary sociologists, who point out that many important occupational roles (such as child care worker) are poorly paid, whereas many individuals in nonessential roles (such as entertainers) earn astronomical sums of money?
a. conflict view
b. structural-functionalist view
c. symbolic interactionist view
d. feminist view
ANSWER: b

17. According to a study conducted by Reutter et al. (2006), what do Canadians usually attribute poverty to?
a. bad luck
b. poor choices
c. structural factors
d. corporate decisions that result in job losses
ANSWER: c

18. According to Karl Marx, what does the term “bourgeoisie” refer to?
a. workers
b. the underclass
c. racialized minorities
d. owners of the means of production
ANSWER: d

19. According to Marx, how do the bourgeoisie develop their wealth?
a. by remaining childless
b. by extracting surplus value
c. by making wise financial decisions
d. by working in a cooperative manner with the proletariat
ANSWER: b

20. Which perspective is concerned with the effects of being labelled “poor”?
a. the conflict perspective
b. the structural-functionalist perspective
c. the symbolic interactionist perspective
d. the social control perspective
ANSWER: c

21. Which perspective emphasizes that norms, values, and beliefs are learned through social interaction and that social interaction influences the development of one’s self-concept?
a. the social control perspective
b. the structural-functionalist perspective
c. the symbolic interactionist perspective
d. the conflict perspective
ANSWER: c

22. To the Dinka, an ethnic group in sub-Saharan Africa, what forms a large part of wealth measurement?
a. how many gold necklaces a person owns
b. how many snake skins a person owns
c. how many clay pots a person owns
d. how many cows a person owns
ANSWER: d

23. According to Lewis (1966), what is the “culture of poverty” characterized by?
a. male-centred households
b. an emphasis on deferred gratification
c. a relative lack of participation in society’s major institutions
d. a belief in the value of the work ethic
ANSWER: c

24. Which perspective’s work on poverty uses unique methods such as narrative analysis?
a. the conflict perspective
b. the feminist perspective
c. the structural-functionalist perspective
d. the symbolic interactionist perspective
ANSWER: b

25. If an individual has basically lived in poverty for his or her entire life, which group is that person most likely a member of?
a. the homeless
b. the bourgeoisie
c. the underclass
d. the lower-middle class
ANSWER: c

26. The federal government consistently develops policies that favour the wealthy members of society. What is this a good example of?
a. corporate welfare
b. nepotism
c. wealthfare
d. bi-partisan favouritism
ANSWER: c

27. In Canada, there are been political efforts to reduce poverty among children. What has been the result of these efforts?
a. a large reduction in the problem
b. little impact on the problem
c. worsening of the problem
d. very mixed results in terms of the problem
ANSWER: b

28. In Canada, which group among seniors has the highest rate of poverty?
a. unattached women
b. couples
c. unattached men
d. those over the age of 85
ANSWER: a

29. What type of family structure in Canada has the highest rate of poverty?
a. common-law couple families
b. married couple families
c. female-headed single-parent families
d. male-headed single-parent families
ANSWER: c

30. In Canada, what type of problem do people with disabilities often have in relation to finding employment?
a. Many employers are willing to hire them but only for short periods.
b. They have to convince potential employers that they are capable.
c. They lose their disability benefits if hired.
d. They do not have transportation to and from work
ANSWER: b

31. In Canada, which of the following groups is most likely to live as lone parents?
a. women without a disability
b. women with a disability
c. men without a disability
d. men with a disability
ANSWER: b

32. In a 1995 Statistics Canada study, 44 percent of one group was found to be living below low-income cut-off lines. What was that group?
a. people with disabilities
b. Aboriginals
c. farmers
d. single mothers
ANSWER: b

33. Bob has a minimum-wage job. Which group is he most likely to belong to?
a. the proletariat
b. the working poor
c. the underclass
d. the lower middle class
ANSWER: b

34. Which of the following do the stresses associated with poverty contribute to?
a. substance abuse
b. welfare fraud
c. homicide
d. elder abuse
ANSWER: a

35. Which of the following is the strongest predictor of children’s educational ability and achievement?
a. family structure
b. parental schooling
c. family income
d. parental religious affiliation
ANSWER: c

36. What does the term “underclass” refer to?
a. people who are the first members of their family to go to university
b. people who live in persistent poverty
c. people who are under age 18 and live in poor households
d. people who are employed in illegal occupations
ANSWER: b

37. What is thought to be responsible for a “skewed vision” of young mothers?
a. middle-class biases
b. poor choices on their parts
c. their refusal to accept the need for higher education in their lives
d. welfare dependency
ANSWER: a

38. According to the National Welfare Council, what is one of the biggest financial burdens for young people on welfare?
a. food
b. prescription medications
c. housing
d. tuition costs
ANSWER: c

39. According to Mead, what does welfare dependency create?
a. a disincentive for welfare recipients them to upgrade their schooling
b. intergenerational poverty
c. a culture of poverty
d. a comfort level with being impoverished
ANSWER: b

40. According to Briggs, what do widening economic inequalities pose a threat to?
a. the government
b. the economic stability of the country
c. social welfare programs
d. social order
ANSWER: d

41. Which decades saw the introduction of several significant pieces of antipoverty legislation in Canada?
a. 1940s and 1950s
b. 1950s and 1960s
c. 1960s and 1970s
d. 1970s and 1980s
ANSWER: c

42. When the Family Allowance was introduced in 1945, who was eligible to receive this money?
a. single mothers
b. families that had four or more children
c. welfare families
d. everyone
ANSWER: d

43. If the government came up with a new social welfare program for single mothers, what could this money be called?
a. a tax credit
b. a demogrant
c. an add-on benefit
d. a secondary adjustment
ANSWER: b

44. Bob quit his job because he didn’t like his boss. Which of the following benefits does that make him ineligible to receive?
a. family allowance
b. employment insurance
c. social welfare
d. family supplement
ANSWER: b

45. Who does the Canada Student Loans Program provide loans to?
a. all full-time students
b. students no longer living at home
c. students who can demonstrate financial need
d. students who have children
ANSWER: c

46. What have recent changes in child support laws led to?
a. fewer people applying for these payments
b. more men becoming eligible for these payments
c. court orders being enforced more vigorously
d. women having to turn more and more to private lawyers to fight for their money from dead-beat dads
ANSWER: c

47. According to the National Welfare Council (1998), which group accounted for the highest percentage of Canadians on welfare?
a. teenage single parents
b. parents between the ages of 20 and 40
c. those living in urban areas
d. senior citizens
ANSWER: b

48. Marge makes less money than Phil, who does the same job she does. What would Marge be eligible for?
a. employment insurance
b. pay equity
c. workfare
d. a minimum wage increase
ANSWER: b

49. According to the United Nations Development Programme (1997), what do 75 percent of poor people in developing countries rely on for their livelihoods?
a. begging
b. sweatshop labour
c. agriculture
d. crime
ANSWER: c

50. Which conclusion about welfare did the National Welfare Council come to?
a. It is exceedingly generous compared to welfare programs in other nations.
b. It is far better than the system that existed previously.
c. It produces an income that is far below the poverty line.
d. It is meant to be an incentive for people to get off of welfare.
ANSWER: c

51. Under the Constitution Act, which of the following are the provinces and territories responsible for?
a. welfare services
b. pension plans
c. Aboriginals residing in their province/territory
d. senior citizens
ANSWER: a

52. Both the federal and provincial governments have attempted to curtail rising costs associated with social welfare programs. Which of the following was the most frequently used solution to this problem?
a. changing eligibility requirements
b. funding job creation programs
c. offering incentives to employers to hire individuals on social assistance programs
d. stimulating economic growth in the private sector
ANSWER: a

53. In recent years, what has the federal government done to the provinces with respect to assistance to Canadians in need?
a. It has raised transfer payments to the provinces.
b. It has taken over the programs because of perceived provincial mismanagement.
c. It has drastically cut transfer payments.
d. It has allowed the provinces more autonomy over how the transfer monies will be spent.
ANSWER: c

54. Which of the following groups would be most likely to receive “demogrants”?
a. corporations
b. small businesses
c. international conglomerates
d. single mothers
ANSWER: d

55. Starting in 1989, what were family allowances based?
a. eligibility
b. provincial supplements
c. the number of children you had
d. where you lived, and the cost of living there
ANSWER: a

56. If people are on strike, what are they NOT eligible for?
a. provincial tax credits
b. benefits
c. employment insurance
d. demogrant monies
ANSWER: c

57. What is the maximum number of weeks that one can receive Employment Insurance benefits in Canada?
a. 25 weeks
b. 33 weeks
c. 40 weeks
d. 45 weeks
ANSWER: d

58. Under current legislation, how long does the federal government allow a student to repay a Canada Student Loan?
a. three years
b. five and a half years
c. seven and a half years
d. nine and a half years
ANSWER: d

59. A parent is trying to save money for her daughter’s education. If she contributes $2000 in a calendar year, how much with the federal government contribute in terms of a Canada Education Savings Grant?
a. $200
b. $300
c. $400
d. $800
ANSWER: d

60. What group does pay equity legislation cover?
a. women
b. immigrant women
c. women living on wages below LICO levels
d. women working in the private sector
ANSWER: a

61. A Canadian living below the standard of other Canadians is, by definition, living in absolute poverty.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

62. Statistics Canada developed the low-income cut-off as a measure of poverty in 1968.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

63. Relative poverty is a much fairer way to assess poverty compared to other Canadians.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

64. Compared to other industrialized nations, Switzerland has the lowest level of human poverty.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

65. Aboriginals have one of the highest rates of poverty in Canada.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

66. The structural-functionalist view of poverty suggests that a certain amount of poverty has positive functions for society.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

67. Conflict theorists regard economic inequality as resulting from the domination of the proletariat over the bourgeoisie.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

68. “Wealthfare” refers to laws and policies that favour the working class.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

69. The culture of poverty in Canada has largely resulted from the lack of employment opportunities.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

70. Wealth in Canada is measured by the total amount in one’s bank account at any given time.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

71. A 2001 Statistics Canada survey found that Canada is a decreasingly polarized country in terms of wealth.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

72. Canada’s government has introduced policies that have severely slashed childhood poverty rates.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

73. Canadian policy has had a major impact on reducing poverty among seniors.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

74. The feminization of poverty has seemed to impact single mothers more so than any other group of women in Canada.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

75. In Canada, disability is a strong indicator of poverty.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

76. Since most of the recent immigrants coming to Canada were admitted because of the financial status and education, poverty among this group is surprisingly low.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

77. Most Canadians do not experience health care issues because of universal access to health care.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

78. Family income is a strong predictor of ability to achieve in school.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

79. In Canada, poverty is much more prevalent among female-headed single-parent households than among other types of family structures.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

80. The poverty rate for men with disabilities is virtually identical to the poverty rate for men without disabilities in Canada.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

81. The number of homeless people in Canada is on the increase.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

82. A “demogrant” usually targets specific groups of people in Canada when it comes to poverty.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

83. People who quit their job or are fired are not eligible for Employment Insurance.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True

84. Despite its intent, welfare remains an inadequate tool for handling the needs of the poor in Canada.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

85. “Pay Equity” legislation currently exists in every province and territory in Canada.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False

86. What is the Human Poverty Index and what does it measure?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

87. What is the “low-income cut-off”? What are some of the problems with this measurement tool?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

88. What is the “culture of poverty”? How does it perpetuate poverty?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

89. How is wealth measured in Canada? How can one’s assets contribute to “net worth”?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

90. How does “disability” contribute to poverty in Canada?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

91. Distinguish between the terms “absolute poverty” and “relative poverty.” Which measure does the Canadian government use when publishing poverty statistics?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

92. Identify at least two ways that poverty is measured in Canada. What are the strengths and weaknesses of these measures?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

93. What is the Davis Moore hypothesis on poverty/wealth in Canada? How might this theory be flawed?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

94. Who are the “working poor” in Canada? What can be done to get them above established poverty lines?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

95. What family and parenting problems are associated with poverty?
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

96. Identify at least four myths and realities about welfare assistance and welfare recipients in Canada.
ANSWER: Student responses will vary

 

 

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