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Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition by Eleanor Noss Whitney- Sharon Rady Rolfes – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 133727609X
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1337276092

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Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition by Eleanor Noss Whitney- Sharon Rady Rolfes – Test Bank

Chapter 6 – Protein: Amino Acids

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?
a. The side group
b. The central carbon atom
c. The number of oxygen atoms
d. The number of nitrogen atoms
e. The presence of a central hydrogen atom

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

2. Which element is found in certain amino acids?
a. Iron
b. Sulfur
c. Calcium
d. Potassium
e. Mercury

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

3. Which term is used to classify amino acids in the diet?
a. Essential
b. Unessential
c. Partially essential
d. Moderately essential
e. Rarely essential

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

4. Which item is contained in an amino acid?
a. An acid group
b. An ester group
c. An aldehyde group
d. A central hydrogen atom
e. A central oxygen atom

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

5. What is the simplest amino acid?
a. Valine
b. Glycine
c. Alanine
d. Methionine
e. Tryptophan

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

6. Which item is a nonessential amino acid in human nutrition?
a. Proline
b. Threonine
c. Methionine
d. Tryptophan
e. Phenylalanine

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

7. Which item is an essential amino acid?
a. Cysteine
b. Leucine
c. Glutamine
d. Serine
e. Alanine

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

8. What amino acid is classified as conditionally essential when dietary intake of phenylalanine is insufficient or the body cannot normally metabolize phenylalanine?
a. Cysteine
b. Tyrosine
c. Glutamine
d. Isoleucine
e. Asparagine

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

9. What type of reaction is required to bind two molecules of glycine together and release a molecule of water?
a. Hydrolysis
b. Deamination
c. Denaturation
d. Condensation
e. Transnaturation

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

10. When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a ____.
a. dipeptide
b. diglyceride
c. polypeptide
d. disaccharide
e. polysaccharide

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

11. Which of the following is a feature of hemoglobin?
a. It has no tertiary structure.
b. It holds the mineral calcium.
c. It is constructed of four polypeptide chains.
d. It has no primary or secondary structure.
e. It is a ring protein.

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

12. An example of a protein with quaternary polypeptide structures is ____.
a. insulin
b. tryptophan
c. hemoglobin
d. disulfide bridges
e. valine

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

13. What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?
a. Digestion
b. Condensation
c. Denaturation
d. Hydrogenation
e. Hydrolysis

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

14. The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as ____.
a. stiffening
b. condensation
c. denaturation
d. destabilization
e. hydrolization

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.1 Recognize the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins.

15. In what organ is pepsin active?
a. Stomach
b. Pancreas
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine
e. Liver

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.2 Summarize protein digestion and absorption.

16. What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
a. Pepsin
b. Transaminase
c. Pancreatic protease
d. Intestinal peptidase
e. Salivary protease

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.2 Summarize protein digestion and absorption.

17. The function of a protease is to ____.
a. hydrolyze proteins
b. synthesize proteins
c. hydrolyze ribosomes
d. synthesize ribosomes
e. synthesize macrophages

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.2 Summarize protein digestion and absorption.

18. The chief function of pepsin is to ____.
a. emulsify dietary proteins
b. activate hydrochloric acid
c. activate pancreatic proteases
d. cleave proteins into smaller polypeptides
e. renature nonessential proteins

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Remember
REF: 6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.2 Summarize protein digestion and absorption.

19. What is the usual fate of orally ingested enzyme supplements?
a. Digestion by gastrointestinal proteases
b. Rapidly degradation by salivary secretions
c. Almost complete absorption in original form from the stomach
d. Complete absorption in original form from the jejunum
e. Rapid excretion through the digestive system

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.2 Summarize protein digestion and absorption.

20. What best describes the structure of pepsin?
a. Lipid
b. Protein
c. Nucleic acid
d. Carbohydrate
e. Sterol

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand
REF: 6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.2 Summarize protein digestion and absorption.

21. The process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template is ____.
a. expression
b. sequencing
c. transcription
d. ribosome assembly
e. translation

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

22. What is a ribosome?
a. A template for protein synthesis
b. A hard knot of subcutaneous protein mass
c. A structure upon which proteins are assembled
d. An antibody synthesized by specialized immune cells
e. The product of failed protein synthesis

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

23. A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease ____.
a. diabetes
b. marasmus
c. phenylketonuria
d. sickle-cell anemia
e. hemolytic anemia

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

24. What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound?
a. Ferritin
b. Albumin
c. Collagen
d. Hemoglobin
e. Enzyme

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

25. What is the relationship between body proteins and water?
a. Proteins attract water.
b. Water attracts proteins.
c. Water degrades proteins.
d. Proteins form polymers of water.
e. Proteins repel water.

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

26. What function does a buffer perform?
a. It helps emulsify fats.
b. It helps maintain a constant pH.
c. It facilitates chemical reactions.
d. It helps protect against plaque buildup.
e. It prevents degradation of proteins.

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

27. How do sodium and potassium travel into and out of cells?
a. Antidiuretic hormone transports potassium and prodiuretic hormone carries sodium.
b. Specific transport proteins in the blood deliver the minerals to the cell cytoplasm.
c. The balance of insulin and glucagon determines the movement of these minerals into and out of cells.
d. Transport proteins within the cell membrane pick up and release the minerals across the membrane.
e. A negative feedback loop uses blood glucose levels for transfer.

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

28. What is opsin?
a. An antigen
b. An antibody
c. A light-sensitive protein
d. A blood transport protein
e. A sterol

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

29. Which of the following describes the structure of an antibody?
a. Tripeptide
b. Small nucleic acid
c. Huge protein molecule
d. Large peptide molecule
e. Location of carbons

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

30. Which substance is involved in the clotting of blood?
a. Opsin
b. Fibrin
c. Collagen
d. Transferrin
e. Thyroxin

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

31. Which of the following may be used to determine protein utilization?
a. Calorimetry
b. Nitrogen balance
c. Amino acid pool
d. Supplementary value
e. Body mass index

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

32. When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in ____.
a. a healthy state
b. nitrogen equilibrium
c. positive nitrogen balance
d. negative nitrogen balance
e. nitrogen homeostasis

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

33. What is the amino acid pool?
a. The total amino acid content derived from a 24-hour dietary intake
b. A measure of the circulating essential amino acid levels available for protein synthesis
c. The total amount of free amino acids in the circulation destined for deamination and excretion
d. A mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake
e. The essential and nonessential amino acids from dietary intake that are available for protein synthesis

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

34. What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women?
a. Equilibrium
b. Metabolic
c. Positive
d. Negative
e. Homeostatic

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

35. What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?
a. Glycine
b. Tyrosine
c. Methionine
d. Tryptophan
e. Valine

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

36. What is meant by protein turnover?
a. Nitrogen equilibrium
b. The antibody-antigen complex
c. The synthesis and degradation of body proteins
d. The secondary structure of proteins that initiates folding
e. The failure of the body to form needed proteins

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

37. When amino acids are deaminated, the immediate products are ammonia and often a ____.
a. uric acid
b. keto acid
c. folic acid
d. gluco acid
e. phyto acid

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

38. Protein sparing in the body is best achieved when a person ingests ____.
a. proteins of plant origin only
b. proteins of animal origin only
c. adequate levels of carbohydrate and fat
d. mixed protein sources on alternate days
e. consumes a very low fat diet

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

39. Approximately how much urea (g) can be produced daily by the average adult?
a. 5 g
b. 50 g
c. 100 g
d. 250 g
e. 500 g

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

40. What is the most likely side effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet?
a. Diarrhea
b. Increased thirst
c. Nitrogen toxicity
d. Increased water retention in the body
e. Weight gain

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

41. What is a consequence of excess protein intake?
a. Decreased excretion of calcium
b. Decreased size of the liver and kidneys
c. Increased production and excretion of urea
d. Increased protein storage by the liver and kidneys
e. Improved renal functioning

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

42. What is the process whereby an amino group is combined with a keto acid to form an amino acid?
a. Deamination
b. Ureagenesis
c. Transamination
d. Ammoniogenesis
e. Ketoacidosis

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

43. In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?
a. Excreted as urea
b. Burned for energy
c. Stored in the liver
d. Converted to glucose
e. Recycled in the liver

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

44. What is the most likely reason for a person to have abnormally high blood ammonia levels?
a. Liver dysfunction
b. Kidney dysfunction
c. Protein intake twice the RDA
d. Protein intake one-tenth the RDA
e. Hyperstimulation of the immune system

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

45. What is the most likely reason for having an abnormally high blood urea level?
a. Liver dysfunction
b. Kidney dysfunction
c. Protein intake twice the RDA
d. Protein intake one-tenth the RDA
e. Hyperstimulation of the immune system

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.3 Proteins in the Body
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.3 Describe how the body makes proteins and uses them to perform various roles.

46. What is the percent digestibility of most plant proteins?
a. 30-50
b. 50-60
c. 60-70
d. 70-90
e. 90-99

ANS: D DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.4 Protein in Food
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.4 Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.

47. What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?
a. 50-59
b. 60-69
c. 70-79
d. 80-89
e. 90-99

ANS: E DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.4 Protein in Food
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.4 Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.

48. Which of the following food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?
a. Egg
b. Rice
c. Corn
d. Gelatin
e. Soy

ANS: A DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.4 Protein in Food
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.4 Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.

49. Which animal-derived protein is classified as a poor-quality protein?
a. Fish
b. Cheese
c. Gelatin
d. Turkey
e. Fatty fish

ANS: C DIF: Bloom’s: Remember REF: 6.4 Protein in Food
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.4 Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.

50. If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the likely course of action?
a. Body cells will synthesize it.
b. Protein synthesis will be limited.
c. Health will not be affected as long as other nutrients are adequate.
d. Proteins will be made but they will lack that particular amino acid.
e. Massive muscle wasting will occur.

ANS: B DIF: Bloom’s: Understand REF: 6.4 Protein in Food
OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.6.4 Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.

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