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Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition 9th Edition By Sharon Rady Rolfes – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1111999902
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1111999902

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Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition 9th Edition By Sharon Rady Rolfes – Test Bank

Chapter 11 – The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K

An. Page(s)/difficulty K = knowledge-level, A = application level

Multiple Choice

Questions for Section 11.0 Introduction

c 355(A) 01. Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
a. Require bile for absorption
b. Found in the fat and oily parts of foods
c. Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
d. Pose a greater risk for developing a toxicity than water-soluble vitamins

c 355(K) 02. What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
a. Albumin
b. Cholesterol
c. Chylomicrons
d. Liposoluble binding proteins

c 355(K) 03. Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
a. Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria
b. Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation
c. Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
d. Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins

Questions for Section 11.1 Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene

d 355(A) 04. If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
a. Eyes
b. Kidneys
c. Adipose cells
d. Intestinal cells

d 355(K) 05. Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
a. Tryptophan
b. Chlorophyll
c. Xanthophyll
d. Beta-carotene

c 355(K) 06. How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 5

d 355(K) 07. All of the following are forms of vitamin A except
a. retinol.
b. retinal.
c. retinoic acid.
d. retinoquinone.

c 356(K) 08. Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues?
a. Albumin
b. Rhodopsin
c. Retinol-binding protein
d. Transcarotenoid protein

a 356-358(A) 09. As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?
a. Blood clotting
b. Growth of bones and teeth
c. Synthesis of visual pigment
d. Maintaining mucous membranes

b 356-357(A) 10. What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
a. Growth is stunted
b. Blindness develops
c. Retinal synthesis is stimulated
d. Retinol synthesis is stimulated

b 357(K) 11. Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
a. Retinoic acid is the form required for synthesis of retinoblasts
b. Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
c. Retinol is the form bound to beta-carotene in the corneal membrane
d. Pigment molecules in the retina are composed of a molecule of vitamin A bound to an omega-3 fatty acid

c 357(K) 12. Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response?
a. Opsin
b. Keratin
c. Retinal
d. Carotene

a 357(K) 13. Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?
a. Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
b. Light energy strikes the cornea and excites pigments to release retinoic acid
c. Visual pigments deep in the brain are excited by light transmitted through the retina
d. Epithelial cells on the surface of the eye respond to light energy by transmitting opsin molecules along nerve pathways to the brain

d 358(K) 14. Approximately what percent of the body’s vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
a. 20
b. 50
c. 70
d. 90

a 358(K) 15. What tissue contains the majority of the body’s store of vitamin A?
a. Liver
b. Adipose
c. Retinal cells
d. Intestinal mucosal cells

c 358(K) 16. Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?
a. It stimulates uptake of calcium from the intestines
b. It promotes synthesis of specific bone proteins involved in the mineralization process
c. It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
d. It inhibits oxidation of bone mucopolysaccharides thereby preserving bone crystal integrity and promoting growth

d 358(K) 17. If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
a. 2 weeks
b. 1 to 2 months
c. 6 months
d. 1 to 2 years

d 358(A) 18. Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he’s consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn’t eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear?
a. “Take a vitamin A supplement as soon as you can!”
b. “As long as you eat some chicken tonight you will not develop chicken eyes.”
c. “Well, there isn’t any vitamin A in carrots so you probably haven’t consumed vitamin A for some time now.”
d. “Don’t worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects.”

c 358(K) 19. Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?
a. 5 million
b. 25 million
c. 250 million
d. 500 million

d 358(A) 20. Why does vitamin A status depend on the person’s protein status?
a. Adequate protein intake is a marker for liberal intake of the vitamin
b. Dietary protein assures synthesis of the vitamin’s GI tract transporter
c. Adequate protein intake reduces the risk for infection from bacteria that degrade the vitamin
d. Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein

b 358-359(K) 21. Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of
a. iron.
b. vitamin A.
c. folic acid.
d. phylloquinone.

a 358;368(A) 22. Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?
a. Inhibition of oxidation
b. Prevention of keratinization
c. Inhibition of bone calcium loss
d. Prevention of hemolytic anemia

c 359(K) 23. The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually
a. xerosis.
b. xerophthalmia.
c. night blindness.
d. corneal keratinization.

c 359(K) 24. Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis?
a. Toxicity of vitamin A
b. Toxicity of beta-carotene
c. Deficiency of vitamin A
d. Deficiency of vitamin D

d 359(A) 25. Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?
a. Acne
b. Rickets
c. Osteomalacia
d. Night blindness

c 358-359(A) 26. The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group?
a. Adults
b. Elderly
c. Newborns
d. Adolescents

c 359(A) 27. Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?
a. Osteomalacia
b. Osteoporosis
c. Xerophthalmia
d. Prolonged blood-clotting time

c 359(K) 28. Keratinization is the result of
a. toxicity of vitamin A.
b. toxicity of vitamin D.
c. deficiency of vitamin A.
d. deficiency of vitamin D.

c 359(A) 29. What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia?
a. Bone
b. Liver
c. Cornea
d. Immune cells

c 359(K) 30. Keratinization of lung cells may result from
a. toxicity of vitamin A.
b. toxicity of beta-carotene.
c. deficiency of vitamin A.
d. deficiency of vitamin D.

d 360(A) 31. Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
a. They are teratogenic
b. They are highly toxic
c. They are usually taken orally
d. They have chemical structures similar to vitamin A

a 360(A) 32. What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
a. Children
b. Adolescents
c. Adults
d. Elderly

a 360(A) 33. Which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A?
a. They increase teratogenic risk
b. They are effective in treating acne
c. They lead to keratinization of tissue
d. They reduce risk for neural tube defects

d 360(K) 34. The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is the
a. milligram.
b. global unit.
c. international unit.
d. retinol activity equivalent.

d 360(K) 35. Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?
a. It is effective in treating rickets
b. It is less toxic than pure vitamin A
c. It is known to be effective in treating mild but not severe acne
d. It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women

b 360(K) 36. All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except
a. overconsumption from foods is harmless.
b. overconsumption from supplements is harmless.
c. drinking alcohol worsens the adverse effects of supplements.
d. smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements.

d 360(K) 37. How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 12

a 360(K) 38. On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 8
d. 10

c 360(A) 39. Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?
a. Bone pain
b. Dermatitis
c. Skin yellowing
d. Vitamin A toxicity

c 360(A) 40. Why shouldn’t a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane?
a. It may aggravate existing edema
b. It may lead to prolongation of labor
c. It is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby
d. It contains high concentrations of vitamin D that can cause birth defects
c 360(A) 41. In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur?
a. Adolescent women
b. Overweight adults
c. Those taking vitamin A supplements
d. Those consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily

c 360(A) 42. To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than
a. 5,000 RAE.
b. 10,000 RAE.
c. 4 times the RDA.
d. 10 times the RDA.

c 360(K) 43. The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately
a. 400 mg.
b. 1,000 mg.
c. 800 retinol activity equivalents.
d. 5,000 retinol activity equivalents.

b 360;362(A) 44. Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?
a. Eating beef liver once a month
b. Consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
c. Drinking 2 quarts of vitamin A-fortified milk daily
d. Consuming large amounts of dark green and deep orange vegetables

c 361(K) 45. Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods?
a. Most carotenoids can be converted to vitamin A
b. The carotenoid with the highest conversion rate to vitamin A is lycopene
c. Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
d. Carotenoid absorption is inhibited by foods rich in chlorophyll

d 361(K) 46. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
a. Anthocyanin in beets masks the presence of beta-carotene
b. Margarine made from corn oil is a poor source of vitamin A
c. Most carotenoids can be converted in the body to active vitamin A
d. Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene

c 361(K) 47. Which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in food?
a. Most carotenoids have vitamin A activity
b. Bioavailability depends in part on the presence of preformed vitamin A
c. Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing
d. Bioavailability is highest for alpha-carotene but this form is present in least amounts in the diet

a 361-362(A) 48. Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition?
a. Sweet potato
b. Orange juice
c. Peanut butter
d. Powdered skim milk

b 361-362(A) 49. A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
a. liver.
b. bananas.
c. apricots.
d. sweet potatoes.

b 361-362(K) 50. Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A?
a. Corn
b. Pumpkin pie
c. Baked potato
d. Whole-grain bread

b 361-362(K) 51. Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods?
a. Fast foods are generally considered good sources of vitamin A
b. A regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children
c. Xanthophylls in certain vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the liver
d. Chlorophyll in vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the intestinal cells

a 362(A) 52. Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A?
a. Corn
b. Spinach
c. Carrots
d. Cantaloupe

Questions for Section 11.2 Vitamin D

a 363(K) 53. The plant version of vitamin D is known as
a. ergocalciferol.
b. foliocalciferol.
c. cholecalciferol.
d. phyllocalciferol.

c 363(K) 54. The animal version of vitamin D is known as
a. ergocalciferol.
b. foliocalciferol.
c. cholecalciferol.
d. phyllocalciferol.

d 363(A) 55. All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the
a. skin.
b. liver.
c. kidney.
d. intestines.

d 363(K) 56. Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity?
a. Cholecalciferol
b. 7-Dehydrocholesterol
c. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D
d. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D

a 363(K) 57. Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body’s synthesis of vitamin D?
a. Cholesterol
b. Tryptophan
c. Beta-carotene
d. Eicosapentanoic acid

d 363(A) 58. Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
a. Bone
b. Carotene
c. Tryptophan
d. Exposure to sunlight

c 363(A) 59. In what tissue(s) must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
a. Liver only
b. Kidney only
c. Liver and kidney
d. Liver and intestines

b 363(K) 60. All of the following are other names for vitamin D except
a. calciferol.
b. calcitonin.
c. cholecalciferol.
d. dihydroxy vitamin D.

a 363-364(K) 61. Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?
a. Vitamin D
b. Vitamin K
c. Phylloquinone
d. Alpha-tocopherol

a 364(K) 62. The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the
a. liver.
b. bone.
c. kidney.
d. intestine.

d 364(K) 63. What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
a. Promotes secretion of calcitonin
b. Promotes synthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol
c. Promotes synthesis of carotenoids and controls absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
d. Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

d 364(A) 64. A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin
a. A.
b. K.
c. E.
d. D.

b 364(K) 65. What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?
a. Rickets
b. Osteomalacia
c. Keratomalacia
d. Hyperkeratosis

c 364(A) 66. What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?
a. Infants
b. Elderly men
c. Adult women
d. Children ages 2-12 years

b 364(A) 67. In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
a. Nervous
b. Skeletal
c. Muscular
d. Circulatory

a 364(K) 68. Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?
a. Bowed legs
b. Rupture of red blood cells
c. Frequent respiratory infections
d. Abnormally high blood calcium level

a 364(A) 69. Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
a. Osteomalacia and rickets
b. Xerophthalmia and breath pentane release
c. Kwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease
d. Hemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia

b 364(K) 70. Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D deficiency?
a. It causes a calcium deficiency
b. It causes excess iron absorption
c. It leads to overt signs only rarely
d. It leads to low blood calcium which in turn promotes seizures

d 364-366(K) 71. All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition except
a. deficient intake may lead to altered bone composition.
b. excessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys.
c. fortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population.
d. the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.

b 365(K) 72. Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly?
a. Consumption of little or no milk
b. Excessive use of hypertension medications
c. Wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen while outdoors
d. Diminished capacity of liver and kidney synthesis of activated vitamin D

c 365(A) 73. The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced
a. exposure to sunlight.
b. milk intake of older people.
c. absorption of dietary vitamin D.
d. activation of vitamin D by the kidneys.

d 365-366(A) 74. Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
a. Increased bone density
b. Increased bone calcification
c. Deformity of leg bones, ribs, and skull
d. Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney

b 366(A) 75. Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store?
a. Whole-grain bread
b. Vitamin D-fortified milk
c. Vitamin A-fortified carrot juice
d. Omega-3 fatty acid-fortified milk

d 366(K) 76. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
a. The bioavailability of vitamin D from soy milk is low
b. Lifeguards on southern beaches have increased risk for vitamin D toxicity
c. Most adults living in the southern United States need small amounts of dietary vitamin D
d. The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake

c 366(K) 77. Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition?
a. Vitamin D deficiency may be created by a calcium deficiency
b. Only about one-half of the world’s population relies on sunlight to maintain adequate vitamin D nutrition
c. Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
d. In people living in northern U.S. cities, vitamin D stores from synthesis during the summer are usually sufficient to meet the needs during the winter

a 366(A) 78. Which of the following enables much of the world’s population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
a. Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
b. Wide availability of low-cost fish products
c. Wide availability of food assistance programs
d. World Health Organization distribution of vitamin D capsules

a 366(A) 79. Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
a. Excessive intake of vitamin D
b. Inadequate intake of vitamin D
c. Excessive intake of tocopherols
d. Inadequate intake of tocopherols

c 366(A) 80. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
a. Toxicity from vitamin D may result from overexposure to the sun
b. Requirements are much higher in the elderly due to degenerative bone diseases
c. Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
d. Absorption from most food sources is very poor, necessitating the enrichment of grain products

b 366(A) 81. Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?
a. Meat
b. Fortified milk
c. Fruits and vegetables
d. Enriched breads and cereals

d 366(K) 82. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
a. Tanning lamps and tanning booths do not stimulate vitamin D synthesis
b. Sunscreens with sunburn protection factors of 2 and above prevent synthesis of vitamin D
c. The ultraviolet rays of the sun are able to easily pierce heavy clouds and smog to promote vitamin D synthesis
d. Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D

a 366(K) 83. Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D?
a. Egg yolks
b. Red meats
c. Tomato juice
d. Whole-wheat bread

c 366(K) 84. Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition?
a. A dietary source is oily fish
b. The DRI fails to account for skin synthesis of vitamin D
c. Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
d. People who are not outdoors are advised to drink at least 2 cups of vitamin D-fortified milk daily

d 367(K) 85. What is the RDA for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?
a. 5 μg
b. 8 μg
c. 10 μg
d. 15 μg

Questions for Section 11.3 Vitamin E

b 368(A) 86. Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?
a. A
b. E
c. K
d. D

c 368(K) 87. The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
a. peroxide.
b. coenzyme.
c. antioxidant.
d. free radical.

c 368(K) 88. What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
a. Carrier
b. Promoter
c. Eliminator
d. Synthesizer

a 368(K) 89. Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
a. Both function as antioxidants
b. Both require bile for absorption
c. Neither participates in protein synthesis
d. Neither is affected by the processing of foods

b 368(K) 90. How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
a. It inhibits absorption of dietary cholesterol
b. It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
c. It interferes with cholesterol synthesis by the liver
d. It speeds removal of blood cholesterol by the liver

d 368(K) 91. The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of
a. lysosomes.
b. free radicals.
c. mucopolysaccharides.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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