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Understanding Human Sexuality 6th Edition By Janet Shibley Hyde – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1259024768
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1259024764

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Understanding Human Sexuality 6th Edition By Janet Shibley Hyde – Test Bank

c5
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Hormones are:
A. manufactured solely by the sex glands—the testes and the ovaries.
B. secreted directly into the bloodstream.
C. slow to affect those areas that are distant from where they are manufactured.
D. of only two types—androgens and estrogens.

2. Which of the following statements is true of the pituitary and the hypothalamus?
A. The pituitary and the hypothalamus are located in the frontal lobe.
B. The hypothalamus directly secretes the gonadotropic hormones.
C. The pituitary is the master gland of the endocrine system.
D. The hypothalamus solely focuses on regulating the eating behaviour in humans.

3. The _____ plays a major role in regulating the four functions of eating, drinking, fighting, and sexual behaviour.
A. cerebellum
B. adrenal glands
C. gonads
D. hypothalamus

4. Which of the following regulates the pituitary gland?
A. Cerebellum
B. Hypothalamus
C. Gonads
D. Adrenal glands

5. The production of FSH and LH takes place in the:
A. hypothalamus.
B. ovaries and testes, respectively.
C. pituitary gland.
D. pancreas.

6. The region of the brain that secretes GnRH, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone, is the:
A. hypothalamus.
B. pituitary.
C. medulla.
D. hippocampus.

7. Which of the following hormones regulates the production of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland?
A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
B. Testosterone
C. Progesterone
D. Estrogen

8. Which of the following regulates the output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus in males?
A. Follicle-stimulating hormone
B. Luteinizing hormone
C. Pituitary gland
D. Testosterone

9. Which of the following would most likely result from having low levels of testosterone in the blood?
A. Increased production of inhibin by the testes
B. Decreased production of LH by the pituitary gland
C. Increased production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus
D. Decreased production of oxytocin hormones by the testes

10. Identify the hormone that controls sperm production.
A. Luteinizing hormone
B. Follicle-stimulating hormone
C. Oxytocin
D. Estrogen

11. Which of the following hormones is most likely to be found at a fairly constant level in males?
A. Testosterone
B. Progesterone
C. Estrogen
D. Prolactin

12. _____ regulates estrogen production in females and testosterone production in males.
A. Adrenaline
B. The luteinizing hormone
C. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone
D. Oxytocin

13. Which of the following produces the hormone called inhibin?
A. Adrenal glands
B. Cells of Bartholin’s gland
C. Sertoli cells of the testes
D. Pituitary gland

14. Inhibin:
A. is a hormone found only in men.
B. plays a major role in increasing sperm production.
C. primarily regulates LH production.
D. regulates FSH levels in a negative feedback loop.

15. One of the main functions of estrogen includes:
A. stimulating breast growth.
B. decreasing the mucous membrane of the vagina.
C. enhancing muscle growth.
D. promoting bone growth past the pubertal years.

16. Identify the hormone that is responsible for maintaining the mucous membranes of the vagina and stopping the growth of bone and muscle.
A. Prolactin
B. Oxytocin
C. Progesterone
D. Estrogen

17. Which of the following would most likely result from increased levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in females?
A. Decreased levels of estrogen
B. Increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone
C. Increased levels of luteinizing hormone
D. Decreased levels of estradiol

18. Which of the following would most likely occur due to increases in the level of estrogen?
A. Increased production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone
B. Decreased production of luteinizing hormone
C. Increased production of prolactin and oxytocin
D. Decreased production of testosterone

19. A hormone that plays a specific and important role in the stimulation of milk production is _____.
A. oxytocin
B. estrogen
C. progesterone
D. prolactin

20. Which of the following glands produces prolactin?
A. The adrenal gland
B. The pineal gland
C. The pituitary gland
D. The thyroid gland

21. Oxytocin:
A. results from secretions by the ovaries.
B. curbs the contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
C. suppresses milk ejection from the nipples.
D. fosters bonding between parent and the newborn.

22. Estrogen and progesterone are manufactured by the:
A. ovaries.
B. testes.
C. pituitary gland.
D. hypothalamus.

23. Identify the hormone that stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
A. Progesterone
B. Estrogen
C. Oxytocin
D. Prolactin

24. Gonad differentiation occurs:
A. at the same time for males and females.
B. earlier for females.
C. earlier for males.
D. during puberty.

25. In Klinefelter’s syndrome, a genetic male has:
A. an extra X chromosome.
B. an extra Y chromosome.
C. an extra chromosome 21.
D. no Y chromosome.

26. Which of the following is true of Klinefelter’s syndrome?
A. It occurs in genetic females that have a single X chromosome.
B. It can be reversed by surgery.
C. It involves overproduction of sperm and low testosterone levels.
D. It occurs when a genetic male has an extra X chromosome (XXY).

27. At about seven weeks post-conception, the sex chromosomes direct the gonads to develop into the _____ in the male.
A. scrotum
B. testis
C. urethra
D. glans

28. The testis-determining factor (TDF) is responsible for:
A. differentiation of gonads into testes.
B. differentiation of the Wolffian ducts into testes.
C. descent of the testes after differentiation.
D. differentiation of the Müllerian ducts into testes.

29. Which of the following statements is true of the SRY?
A. It is a gene related to the prenatal differentiation of the gonads.
B. It is found on a specific location on the X chromosome.
C. It is secreted by the testis-determining factor.
D. It is involved in gonad differentiation in both males and females.

30. In the female, the _____ turn into the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper part of the vagina.
A. gonads
B. tubercle
C. Müllerian ducts
D. Wolffian ducts

31. Wolffian ducts develop into the:
A. epididymis, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct.
B. testes and scrotum.
C. shaft of the penis.
D. prostate gland.

32. The inguinal canal is the passageway for the descent of the:
A. ovaries.
B. testes.
C. scrotum.
D. fallopian tubes.

33. Which of the following statements is true of cryptorchidism?
A. It is a condition resulting from the descent of one or both testes into the scrotum.
B. It occurs when the penis fails to descend from the body.
C. The optimum time for correcting the condition is soon after the first birthday.
D. Treatment is limited to hormonal therapy.

34. Which of the following may be a consequence of “undescended testes” in a male?
A. Decreased likelihood of testicular cancer
B. Increased motility of sperm
C. Inhibition of sperm production
D. Increased testosterone production

35. If testosterone is present during fetal development:
A. the cells in the hypothalamus become insensitive to estrogen present in the blood stream.
B. the androgen receptors become highly insensitive to the levels of testosterone in the blood stream.
C. the androgen receptors become highly sensitive to both estrogen and testosterone.
D. the estrogen receptors become highly sensitive to the levels of testosterone in the blood stream.

36. Which of the following statements regarding brain differentiation in males and females is true?
A. The primary sex-differentiated structure is the cerebellum.
B. The differences in the brain structures of males and females are “hard-wired” differences present from birth.
C. The hypothalamus is the only region of the brain that does not show gender differentiation.
D. Studies using MRI have shown that the hypothalamus and amygdala are larger in males.

37. The embryonic source of the glans penis is the:
A. genital tubercle.
B. genital swelling.
C. Müllerian duct.
D. Wolffian duct.

38. Both the clitoris in females and the glans penis in males develop from the same embryonic tissue—the genital tubercle. Thus, we may say that the clitoris and the glans penis are:
A. autologous organs.
B. heterologous organs.
C. analogous organs.
D. homologous organs.

39. Both the clitoris in females and the glans penis in males play important roles in producing sexual arousal. Based on this information, we may say that the clitoris and the glans penis are:
A. autologous organs.
B. heterologous organs.
C. analogous organs.
D. homologous organs.

40. The Skene’s gland in females and the prostate in males have the same embryonic source—the urethral primordia. The Skene’s gland also secretes a fluid that is biologically similar to the milky alkaline fluid secreted by the male prostate. Based on this, we may say that:
A. these organs are homologous but not analogous.
B. these organs are analogous but not homologous.
C. these organs are both analogous and homologous.
D. these organs are neither analogous nor homologous.

41. Which of the following organs are both homologous and analogous in the adult female and the adult male, respectively?
A. The scrotum and the labia majora (outer lips)
B. The Wolffian duct and the Müllerian duct
C. The hypothalamus and the pituitary
D. The glans penis and the clitoris

42. The testes in the male are homologous to the _____ in the female.
A. clitoris
B. ovaries
C. labia majora (outer lips)
D. labia minora (inner lips)

43. John Money developed eight variables of gender. The particular gender type that refers to the presence of testosterone in the male but not in the female before birth is the:
A. assigned gender.
B. prenatal hormonal gender.
C. pubertal hormonal gender.
D. external genital appearance gender.

44. According to John Money, the gender variable that defined one’s gender at birth, as measured by the appearance of the external genitals, is:
A. chromosomal gender.
B. gonadal gender.
C. pubertal hormonal gender.
D. assigned gender.

45. One of your friends is in medical school. She tells you about a syndrome in which a genetic female develops ovaries normally as a fetus. However, due to the abnormal functioning of the adrenal gland, an excess amount of androgen is produced resulting in external genitals that are partly or completely male in appearance. Your friend is unable to recall the name of the syndrome. You know it and are able to tell her that it is:
A. congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
B. androgen insensitivity syndrome.
C. cryptorchidism.
D. Klinefelter’s syndrome.

46. One of your friends is in medical school. She tells you about a syndrome, where a genetic male produces normal levels of testosterone. However, his body tissues are not responsive to the levels and result in prenatal development being feminized. After describing the syndrome, your friend forgets its name. You know it and are able to tell her that it is:
A. congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
B. androgen insensitivity syndrome.
C. cryptorchidism.
D. Klinefelter’s syndrome.

47. One of the most common intersex syndromes, which often results in identifying genetic females as males, is:
A. congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
B. Triple Y syndrome (YYY).
C. Triple X syndrome (XXX).
D. androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS).

48. The type of abnormality where the male fetus (sex chromosome configuration is XY) is insensitive to androgen results in:
A. a womanlike external appearance with no uterus and undescended testes.
B. a male with small testes, enlarged breasts, and reduced sex drive.
C. a tall male with unusual sex preferences.
D. a male of exceptional height and weight with borderline mental retardation.

49. The syndrome known as 5-alpha reductase deficiency is caused by:
A. a genetic-endocrine problem.
B. excessive androgen production.
C. insufficient estrogen production.
D. congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

50. John Money referred to individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and androgen-insensitivity syndrome as _____.
A. transgenders
B. hermaphrodites
C. pseudohermaphrodites
D. homosexuals

51. _____ is the time during which there is sudden enlargement and maturation of the gonads, other genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics, leading to reproductive capacity.
A. Adolescence
B. Prenatal sexual differentiation
C. Puberty
D. Gender differentiation

52. _____ is defined as a psychological transition from the behaviour and attitudes of a child to the behaviour, attitudes, and responsibilities of an adult.
A. Adolescence
B. Adrenarche
C. Puberty
D. Menarche

53. Which of the following statements is true of adolescence?
A. Modern American culture has an unusually short period of adolescence.
B. It merely represents a biological transition from child to adult.
C. A century ago, adolescence was much longer.
D. In some cultures, adolescence does not exist.

54. Adolescence is a developmental period of life:
A. defined by the psychological transition toward adulthood.
B. characterized completely by the physiological changes in the body.
C. marked by the normative and universal time frame of 13 to 18 years.
D. recognized positively and celebrated by all societies of the world.

55. In comparing body growth and sexual development of girls with that of boys, it is found that:
A. girls and boys follow the same pattern of development at the same time.
B. girls and boys follow the same pattern of development, but boys are about 2 years late in development than girls.
C. girls and boys follow significantly different patterns of development, although they occur at the same time.
D. we really cannot say anything definite given our present state of knowledge about sexual development.

56. At age twelve, Anna is 5 feet and 2 inches tall, which makes her taller than most of the boys in her sixth grade class. This can be attributed to the fact that:
A. the growth spurt occurs in girls but not in boys.
B. the growth spurt for girls tends to be longer than the growth spurt for boys.
C. the growth spurt for girls occurs about two years before the growth spurt for boys.
D. the growth spurt for males is reducing with each passing generation.

57. The first sign of a female entering the period of pubescence is _____.
A. the production of a mature ovum
B. the beginning of menstruation
C. the growth of pubic hair
D. the beginning of breast development

58. Penis growth, experienced by the average boy during puberty, is most likely to occur at about the same time as:
A. acne.
B. growth of scrotal sac.
C. growth of testes.
D. the change in his voice.

59. Which of the following statements is true of menarche?
A. It signifies that a girl is capable of becoming pregnant.
B. Most girls tend to react positively than negatively to their first menstruations.
C. There is a wide range in the age at which menarche occurs.
D. Girls lack a visible sign of having attained menarche.

60. Which of the following statements is true of the adrenal glands?
A. They are located just below the kidneys.
B. In females, they are the major producers of androgens.
C. Adrenarche generally begins after 14 years of age.
D. They limit the growth of pubic and axillary hair in females.

61. _____ is a problem faced more often by boys because of the clogging of sebaceous glands during puberty.
A. Acne
B. Obesity
C. Increased secretion of adrenal androgens
D. Growth of pubic hair

62. An adolescent boy experiences temporary breast enlargement. This condition is known as _____.
A. spermarche
B. menarche
C. adrenarche
D. gynecomastia

63. Human females are nearly unique among species in:
A. having an estrous cycle.
B. having a menstrual cycle.
C. experiencing slight spotting during ovulation.
D. engaging in sexual intercourse during estrus.

64. Human females engage in sexual behaviour:
A. primarily in the middle of their estrous cycle.
B. throughout the menstrual cycle.
C. during menstruation because they are least likely to become pregnant during this phase.
D. like other mammals do, when they are in “heat.”

65. Day 1 of the menstrual cycle is:
A. the day just prior to menstruation.
B. the first day of menstruation.
C. the last day of menstruation.
D. the day after the last day of menstruation.

66. The first phase of the menstrual cycle is the:
A. luteal phase.
B. ovulatory phase.
C. follicular phase.
D. proliferative phase.

67. Which of the following is true regarding the ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle?
A. It follows the luteal phase.
B. During this phase, the follicle ruptures and releases a mature egg.
C. The level of FSH rises significantly during this phase.
D. The levels of estrogen and progesterone drop significantly during this phase.

68. In the luteal phase:
A. the follicle turns into a glandular mass of cells called the corpus luteum.
B. the endometrium breaks down and is discharged through the cervix.
C. the degeneration of the corpus luteum is accompanied by a rise in progesterone.
D. the luteinizing hormone is no longer secreted.

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