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Understanding Dying, Death, And Bereavement 7th Edition By Michael R. Leming -Test Bank

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Understanding Dying, Death, And Bereavement 7th Edition By Michael R. Leming -Test Bank


Seventh Edition

Prepared by

Michael R. Leming

St. Olaf College

Northfield, MN 55057

George E. Dickinson

College of Charleston

Charleston, SC 29424

Copyright © 2011

Wadsworth/Cengage Learning

Belmont, CA


The intent of this instructor’s manual is to assist you in using Understanding Dying, Death, and Bereavement (7th Edition), in a course on death and dying. Test questions (true-false, multiple-choice, and essay) are included for your use in making examinations. Also included are lists of questions for selected death-related professionals.

In addition to reading assignments and classroom audiovisuals, we suggest inviting speakers for classes on death and dying. A physician and/or a nurse can discuss how they relate to terminally ill patients. Discussing preventive measures of illness such as diet, exercise, and daily habits can make for an informative session with a medical doctor. Invite a social worker from a nursing home or hospice to share experiences of working with terminally ill patients. Contact your local or state American Cancer Society about bringing in a cancer patient to discuss death and dying from a patient’s perspective. A clinical psychologist can talk about signs of suicide and how to react to a suicidal person. A nutritionist speaking on cancer and diet can contribute to the class and give practical advice toward better eating habits. Side effects of medications are a good topic for a pharmacist to present in your class. An insurance agent can discuss various kinds of life insurance. A panel of clergy representing various faiths can relate to dealing with dying, death, and bereavement. A coroner can discuss his or her role in the community and can contribute toward a most interesting class session. A funeral director or cemetery superintendent can talk about his or her legal and social responsibilities. Invite a memorial society representative to discuss the goals of this organization. Ask a veterinarian to come to your class to discuss death and pets. A philosopher can speak on medical ethics, and an attorney can discuss the importance of having a will and recent legislation on living wills.

We also encourage field trips to enhance classroom activities. Take your class to a local funeral home. Let the students have a question and answer session with the funeral director prior to viewing the casket selection room, the viewing rooms, and the embalming room. Visit local cemeteries to observe epitaphs, dates of deaths, size of monuments for males and females, symbols on gravestones, and the overall neatness (or lack thereof) of cemeteries. If one is nearby, visit a crematory. Ask students to write a brief reaction paper to each of the field trips to ensure that they reflect on this experience.

A combination of speakers on specific topics and leaving the classroom for field trips can enhance classroom discussions and reading materials. In addition, we recommend that you ask students to write their own obituaries stating how, when, and where they died. The students may tell anything they wish about themselves in the obituaries and should include final disposition of the body. When you are discussing children and death, ask students to recall their own first experience with death. Instruct them to write about their first experience with death, to give their age at the time, relate who or what died, and note anything remembered about that event. Such an exercise can be rather revealing about how vivid these early experiences were for students.

For individual or group term projects, we suggest the following topics as starters:

Children’s attitudes toward death (ask them to draw pictures of death)

Interviews with the elderly about funeral customs when they were young

Religious beliefs related to death attitudes

Death attitudes of various professional groups (nurses, physicians, funeral directors, teachers, attorneys)

Death themes in classical music, rock music, and poetry

College students’ perceptions of dying and death

Death themes in the visual arts

Death in literature

History of the funeral industry

Death as depicted in movies

Death on television

Death humor

Veterinarians and euthanasia

Roadside memorials

Internet obituaries

Evolution of the funeral industry to meet the needs of Baby Boomers

Art therapists and end-of-life issues

Attitudes of different age groups toward death

Death education in public schools

Comparison of epitaphs on grave markers in ethnic cemeteries

College students’ knowledge of hospice

History of gravestones

Music therapists and end-of-life issues

Internet suicide chat rooms

End-of-life issues with health care professionals

Cross-cultural analysis of funeral customs

Current ethical issues about death

Cross-cultural views on suicide

Hospice evolution since the 1970s

Physician-assisted suicide

Child-life specialists (play therapy) and end-of-life issues

Best of luck as you teach your death and dying course.

Michael R. Leming and George E. Dickinson










Chapter 9 SUICIDE 78




Chapter 13 COPING WITH LOSS 123





Chapter Outline

Current Interest in Death and Dying

Why the Increased Interest?

The Mystery of Death


Ethical Issues

Popular Culture

Death Education

Thanatology Classes

Thanatology Publications

Mortality Statistics

Death Etiology and Life Expectancy

Gender Differences in Mortality Rates

Approaches to the Study of Dying and Death

The Biological Approach

The Psychological Approach

The Philosophical Approach

The Anthropological Approach

The Sociological Approach

Structural-Functional Theory

Conflict Theory

Social Exchange Theory

Symbolic Interactionist Theory



Discussion Questions


Suggested Readings

True-False Questions

  1. The interdisciplinary study of dying, death, and bereavement is called “thanatology.” True
  1. American society formally prepares individuals to deal with dying and death on both personal and emotional levels. False
  1. Death appears to be more abstract for those growing up today than for previous generations. True
  1. In the early 1940s Hollywood began to produce films around the theme of death when the “good guy” died. False
  1. Television specials with a theme of dying and death began emerging in the 1970s in the United States. True
  1. Currently there is almost an obsession, and certainly a fascination, with death-related themes in American movies. True
  1. The “suicide doctor” in Michigan in the late 20th century was Dr. Jack Kevorkian. True
  1. A program for the elderly called Elderhostel does not allow the topic of dying and death to be presented. True
  1. A text published in 1959 for thanatology was an anthology by psychologist Herman Feifel titled The Meaning of Death. True
  1. Jessica Mitford’s The American Way of Death in 1963 was very favorable toward the funeral industry. False
  1. Conflict theory is concerned with explaining the stability of society. False
  1. Exchange theory is primarily concerned with the issue of societal maintenance and social equilibrium. False
  1. The leading cause of death in the United States today is cardiovascular disease. True
  1. Life expectancy in the United States is greater for males than females. False
  1. The conception sex ratio and the sex ratio at birth in the United States favors males over females. True
  1. Anthropologist Ashley Montagu suggested that women have a superior use of emotions because they are more likely to cry than men. True
  1. Biological death has remained much the same over the years and so has the manner in which humans experience death. False
  1. Gerontophobia is the fear of dying of a debilitating disease. False
  1. Physical anthropologists who study death-related phenomena have a special interest in death rituals in different cultures. False
  1. Sociology is a multiparadigm science. True
  1. Symbolic interactionism is an approach stressing the importance of interpretation of others’ behavior. True
  1. A major assumption of social exchange theory is that the profit motive governs social situations. True
  1. The events of September 11, 2001, have caused our society to become more paranoid. True
  1. Kubler-Ross’ On Death and Dying, published in 1969, sparked a lot of interest in the topic of dying and death. True
  1. Jessica Mitford’s The American Way of Death, published in 1963, played a critical role in changes in the funeral industry. True
  1. Leading causes of death in 1900 were cardiovascular diseases and cancer. False
  1. Terror management theory (TMT) suggests that people adhere to cultural worldviews and beliefs in order to suppress death and morality-related thoughts. True
  1. A popular book about a professor dying of ALS in the 1990s is titled Tuesdays with Morrie and was written by Mitch Albom. True
  1. Smoking kills approximately 434,000 Americans each year. True
  1. Smoking accounts for approximately 5 percent of all deaths globally each year. True
  1. A ban was imposed on public smoking in the United Kingdom in 2007. True
  1. Cigarette smoking in movies today is becoming more popular. True
  1. Infant mortality rates in the United States are the lowest of all postindustrial countries in the world today. False
  1. In modern Western countries life expectancy is longer for women than for men. True
  1. Women have a higher morbidity rate than men. True
  1. A longitudinal study is a study done at one point in time. False
  1. The psychological approach looks at dying from a developmental perspective. True
  1. An existentialist approach looks at dying and death from an anthropological perspective. False
  1. The phenomenology approach to dying and death studies “the thing” itself. True
  1. Fictive kin refers to terms for individuals who are not related via kinship. True
  1. A latent function of a funeral is that a funeral is a family reunion. True

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. A communicable disease (such as pneumonia) caused by a number of microorganisms including viruses, fungi, and bacteria is known as
  1. a chronic disease.

*b. an acute disease

  1. a slow death disease.
  2. both a and c above.
  3. none of the above.
  1. The interdisciplinary study of death-related behavior is known as
  1. death etiology.

*b. thanatology.

  1. anthropometry.
  2. gerontology.
  3. geriatrics.
  1. Which was not cited in the text as a reason for the increased interest in the study of dying, death, and bereavement?
  1. An aura of mystery developed with deaths occurring in institutional settings
  2. Prolonged life as a result of medical and scientific breakthroughs resulting in numerous ethical issues

*c. Large percentages of the population leaving urban areas and returning to the farm where death is a daily event

  1. All of the above were cited.
  1. Television specials on death and dying first emerged in the
  1. 1940s.
  2. 1950s.
  3. 1960s.

*d. 1970s.

  1. 1980s.
  1. Published in 1963, this book was most critical of the funeral industry.

*a. Jessica Mitford’s The American Way of Death

  1. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’s On Death and Dying
  2. Herman Feifel’s The Meaning of Death
  3. Ernest Becker’s The Denial of Death
  4. None of the above
  1. The bestselling book on death and dying published in 1969 is
  1. Jessica Mitford’s The American Way of Death.

*b. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’s On Death and Dying.

  1. Herman Feifel’s The Meaning of Death.
  2. Ernest Becker’s The Denial of Death.
  3. Raymond Moody’s Life After Life.
  1. Two professional journals in death and dying today are
  1. Death Education and Death and Life.
  2. Alpha and Omega.

*c. Omega and Death Studies.

  1. Thanatology Studies and Death and Dying.
  2. Death and Dying and Death Studies.
  1. Courses on death and dying began to flourish in the United States in the
  1. 1930s.
  2. 1950s.

*c. 1970s.

  1. 1990s.
  2. 2010s.
  1. The primary cause of death in the United States today is
  1. accidents.
  2. old age.

*c. cardiovascular disease.

  1. pneumonia.
  2. AIDS.
  1. Which of the following is an example of an acute disease?

*a. Pneumonia

  1. AIDS
  2. Cancer
  3. Arthritis
  4. Diabetes
  1. Most people dying in the U.S. today die
  1. at home.
  2. on the highways.

*c. in a hospital or nursing home.

  1. on city streets.
  2. in their sleep at the office.
  1. Death etiology refers to

*a. the causes of death.

  1. a contagious disease.
  2. a new type of AIDS.
  3. death with dignity.
  4. death during the winter months.
  1. The “suicide physician” in Michigan who assisted with individual deaths in the 1990s was
  1. Michael DeBakey.
  2. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.
  3. Earl Grollman.

*d. Jack Kevorkian.

  1. none of the above.
  1. A sociological study of death is likely to include
  1. an effort to determine whether certain death‑related behavior is moral or ethical.
  2. a consideration of how biological organs function to produce death.
  3. a consideration of how humans originally became subject to death.

*d. a consideration of how social factors influence biological factors related death.

  1. The ISAS interpretation of death‑related behavior emphasizes that
  1. use of any given meaning for some item of behavior always has the same consequences.
  2. any given behavior pattern always stems from the same biological condition.
  3. all individuals experience death in the same way.

*d. the meaning of death may change even though the biological aspects do not change.

  1. Emphasizing the organization of the funeral industry and its relationship with other social structures in a society would be important in which of these conceptual frameworks?
  1. Social conflict

*b. Structural‑functional

  1. Social exchange
  2. Symbolic interaction
  1. Structural‑functional theory can be best described as a theory stressing
  1. roles and role expectations.

*b. the interaction of parts and the whole.

  1. the interaction of families in a symbolic manner.
  2. the independence of societal units.
  1. Conflict theory
  1. emphasizes the undesirability of social change.
  2. represents an equilibrium theory.

*c. is associated with an analysis of disruption and change as being potentially useful.

  1. does none of the above.
  1. The premise that reinforcement and mutual benefit are important in sustaining relations is associated with which theory or frame of reference?
  1. Social conflict
  2. Structural‑functional

*c. Social exchange

  1. Symbolic interaction
  1. Which theoretical framework would investigate the following research question: “What are the rewards and costs involved in developing relationships that are inevitably ended by death?”
  1. Social conflict
  2. Structural‑functional

*c. Social exchange

  1. Symbolic interaction
  1. Which theoretical framework would investigate the following research question: “How do funerals help to promote relationships between kinship groups (grandparents, aunts and uncles, cousins, etc.)?”
  1. Social conflict

*b. Structural‑functional

  1. Social exchange
  2. Symbolic interaction
  1. Which theoretical framework would investigate the following research question: “Are adult children who care for their elderly parents more likely to receive a greater share of their parents’ inheritance than children who do not participate in the terminal care?”
  1. Social conflict
  2. Structural‑functional

*c. Social exchange

  1. Symbolic interaction
  1. Which theoretical framework would investigate the following research question: “What are the dysfunctional consequences of parental inheritance bequests for relationships between children?”

*a. Social conflict

  1. Structural‑functional
  2. Social exchange
  3. Symbolic interaction
  1. Regarding death anxiety and death education, thanatologists
  1. agree that death education relieves death anxiety.
  2. agree that death education does not relieve death anxiety.

*c. cannot agree on whether or not death education relieves death anxiety.

  1. The ISAS paradigm for doing research in the social sciences, especially sociology, is the shorthand formula for
  1. structural functionalism.
  2. the conflict perspective.
  3. social exchange.

*d. symbolic interactionism.

  1. The sex ratio is the number of

*a. males per 100 females.

  1. females per 100 males.
  2. males per 1,000 females.
  3. females per 1,000 males.
  1. A popular 1990s book about a professor dying of ALS and written by his former student is titled
  1. Fridays with Fred.

*b. Tuesdays with Morrie.

  1. Saturdays with Sarah.
  2. Dying of ALS.
  1. Smoking kills approximately ______ Americans each year.
  1. 50,000
  2. 200,000

*c. 450,000

  1. 750,000
  1. Cigarette smoking in movies is becoming

*a. more popular today.

  1. less popular today.
  2. about as popular as in the 1950s.
  3. less trendy.
  1. Morbidity rates for women in the United States

*a. are higher than for men.

  1. are lower than for men.
  2. are no different than for men.
  3. cannot be determined.
  1. A psychological approach to dying looks at dying from
  1. a developmental perspective.
  2. a life stages perspective.
  3. a biological perspective.

*d. both a and b.

  1. A philosophical approach to dying and death may approach the topic from
  1. a phenomenology perspective.
  2. an existentialist perspective.
  3. a psychological perspective.

*d. both a and b.

  1. Regarding death and dying, cultural anthropologists study

*a. rituals through which individuals deal with death and hence celebrate life.

  1. the biological aspects of dying.
  2. human remains and try to reconstruct the behavior.
  3. none of the above.


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