## The Power of Logic 5th Edition by Howard-Snyder – Test Bank

6

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. The predicate term of the conclusion in a standard form categorical syllogism is called the A. major premise. B. minor term. C. middle premise. D. major term.

2. Which of the following is not required in order for a categorical syllogism to be in standard form? A. The premises and the conclusion are true. B. The first premise contains the major term. C. The second premise contains the minor term. D. The conclusion is stated last.

3. The mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism whose major premise is universal affirmative, minor premise is particular affirmative, and conclusion is particular affirmative would be A. IAI. B. IIA. C. AII. D. III.

4. The figure of a standard-form categorical syllogism whose middle term is the subject term of the major premise and subject term of the minor premise would be A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4.

5. The form of a categorical syllogism is completely specified by A. its mood. B. its figure and mood. C. its figure. D. its mood, figure, and validity.

6. Which of the following categorical syllogisms is in standard form? A. All dogs are mammals. Cats are not dogs. So, no cats are mammals. B. All dogs are mammals. No fish are mammals. So, no dogs are fish. C. Some mammals are small. No whales are small. So, no whales are mammals. D. No whales are mammals. Some whales are fish. So, some fish are not mammals.

7. Identify the mood and figure of this standard-form categorical syllogism:

Some turncoats are not confederate soldiers. No confederate soldiers are abolitionists. So, some turncoats are abolitionists. A. OEI-4 B. OEI-1 C. IEO-1 D. IAO-4

8. Identify the mood and figure of this standard-form categorical syllogism:

All excellent teachers are people who care about students. All University 101 instructors are people who care about students. So, all University 101 instructors are excellent teachers. A. AAA-3 B. AAA-2 C. EEE-2 D. EEE-3

9. The Venn diagram representation of “All sailors are pirates” is which of the following? A.

B.

C.

D.

10. The Venn diagram representation of “No sailors are pirates” is which of the following? A.

B.

C.

D.

11. The Venn diagram representation of “Some sailors are pirates” is which of the following? A.

B.

C.

D.

12. The Venn diagram representation of “Some sailors are not pirates” is which of the following? A.

B.

C.

D.

13. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:

All minerals are rocks. All diamonds are rocks. So, all minerals are diamonds. A.

B.

C.

D.

14. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:

Some ultraviolet radiation is not harmful to humans. All ultraviolet radiation is a carcinogen. So, some carcinogens are not harmful to humans. A.

B.

C.

D.

15. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:

Some violinists are percussionists. Some trombonists are percussionists. So, some trombonists are violinists. A.

B.

C.

D.

16. A categorical statement has existential import if and only if A. it is a particular statement. B. it implies that one of its terms denotes a nonempty class. C. it implies that its subject term denotes a nonempty class. D. it has importance for the nature of human existence.

17. Which of the following relations on the Square of Opposition is valid, according to modern categorical logic? A. contradictories B. subcontraries C. subalterns/subalternation D. contraries

18. Which of the following immediate inferences is invalid according to modern categorical logic? A. conversion B. obversion C. contraposition D. contraposition by limitation

19. An enthymeme is an argument that A. is found to be valid when tested with a Venn diagram. B. has missing or unstated steps. C. is a standard form categorical syllogism. D. has the mood and figure AAA-1.

20. When supplying unstated steps, the principles of fairness and charity require that we A. make the invalidity of the argument more apparent. B. add only true (or at least plausible) steps. C. supply premises that would improve the argument. D. not make any critical remarks.

21. Which of the following is not a feature of standard-form sorites? A. Each statement in the argument is a standard-form categorical statement. B. Each premise (except the first) has a term in common with the immediately preceding premise. C. The predicate term of the conclusion occurs in the last premise. D. Each term appears twice—once in each of two different statements.

22. A sorites is A. a chain of syllogisms in which the final conclusion is stated but the subconclusions are unstated. B. an argument with an unstated premise or an unstated conclusion. C. an argument comprised entirely of categorical statements. D. a chain of inferences moving from the particular to the general.

23. When removing term-complements, which of the following is not a permissible change? A. changing “No S are P” to “No P are S” B. changing “All S are P” to “Some P are S” C. changing “Some S are not P” to “Some non-P are not non-S” D. changing “Some S are P” to “Some S are not non-P”

24. When removing term-complements, which of the following is a permissible change? A. changing “Some S are P” to “Some non-P are non-S” B. changing “All S are P” to “Some P are S” C. changing “Some S are not P” to “Some non-P are not non-S” D. changing “No S are P” to “Some S are not P”

25. A term is distributed in a statement when A. it occurs in the subject position. B. it occurs in the predicate position. C. the statement says something about every member of its class. D. the statement denies something about its class.

26. A fallacy of the undistributed middle is a violation of which of the following rules for evaluating categorical syllogisms? In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism¼ A.

there are exactly three terms, and each term must be used with the same meaning throughout the argument. B. the middle term is distributed in at least one premise. C. a term must be distributed in the premises if it is distributed in the conclusion. D. if the conclusion is particular, then at least one of the premises must be particular.

27. A fallacy of illicit minor is a violation of which of the following rules for evaluating categorical syllogisms? In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism¼ A.

there are exactly three terms, and each term must be used with the same meaning throughout the argument. B. the middle term is distributed in at least one premise. C. a term must be distributed in the premises if it is distributed in the conclusion. D. if the conclusion is particular, then at least one of the premises must be particular.

28. Which fallacy is committed by the following categorical syllogism?

All cats are soft and furry animals. Some amphibians are not soft and furry animals. So, no cats are amphibians. A. fallacy of the undistributed middle B. fallacy of the illicit middle C. fallacy of the illicit major D. fallacy of the illicit minor

29. The predicate term of the conclusion is the major term of a standard form categorical syllogism. True False

30. The term that occurs once in each premise is called the bridge term. True False

31. The minor term is the subject term of the conclusion. True False

32. In a standard-form categorical syllogism, the minor premise always comes first. True False

33. In a standard-form categorical syllogism, the conclusion always comes last. True False

34. The figure of a standard-form categorical syllogism indicates the position of the middle term. True False

35. The mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism is an indicator of the position of the middle term in the premises. True False

36. Two different categorical syllogisms cannot have the same mood and figure. True False

37. The form of a categorical syllogism is completely specified by its mood and figure. True False

38. To show that an area of a Venn diagram is empty, we use an “x” in that area. True False

39. When an area of a Venn diagram is shaded, it indicates that there is at least one thing in that area. True False

40. When a syllogism contains both a universal and a particular premise, you should always diagram the universal first. True False

41. A categorical statement has existential import when (and only when) it implies that its subject terms only denote classes that have at least one member (i.e., are nonempty). True False

42. Aristotelian and modern logicians agree that universal categorical statements have existential import. True False

43. According to modern logicians, “All elves are people with infrared vision” is equivalent to “If anything is an elf, then it is a person with infrared vision.” True False

44. The only relationship on the Square of Opposition that both Aristotelian and modern logicians accept is contradictories. True False

45. An enthymeme is an argument with a true conclusion. True False

46. All enthymemes are valid. True False

47. When forced to choose between adding a false premise and making an enthymeme clearly invalid, we adopt the practice of adding a false premise and thereby making the syllogism valid. True False

48. A sorites is a chain of syllogisms in which the final conclusion is stated but the subconclusions are unstated. True False

49. In a standard form sorites, the subject term of the conclusion must occur in the first premise. True False

50. Evaluating the validity of a sorites requires that we identify all its subconclusions. True False

51. When reducing the number of terms (removing term complements) in a categorical syllogism, we are not permitted to use conversion by limitation nor contraposition by limitation. True False

52. The only requirement when removing term complements is that the changes we make to each statement must produce a logically equivalent statement. True False

53. A term is distributed in a categorical statement if the statement says something about every member of the class that term denotes. True False

54. In “Some dogs are mammals,” the subject term is distributed. True False

55. In a universal negative statement, both terms are distributed. True False

56. In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism, the middle term must be distributed in at least one premise. True False

57. Any categorical syllogism with two negative premises is invalid. True False

58. Any categorical syllogism with two affirmative premises is valid. True False

59. From the standpoint of modern logic, a valid standard-form categorical syllogism with a particular conclusion can have two universal premises. True False

60. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: All hyperventilating iguanas are bungee-jumpers since all bungee-jumpers are pencil-pushers and some pencil-pushers are hyperventilating iguanas.

61. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: No drowsy dromedaries are prized prodigies since all prized prodigies are shameless sheiks and no shameless sheiks are drowsy dromedaries.

62. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: No tragic actors are idiots. But some comedians are not idiots. So, some comedians are not tragic actors.

63. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, because all artificial dyes are coal tar derivatives and no artificial dyes are nourishing foods.

64. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Some spaniels are not good hunters, though all spaniels are gentle dogs. Thus, no gentle dogs are good hunters.

65. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: All professional wrestlers are good actors, because some good actors are not powerful athletes and all professional wrestlers are powerful athletes.

66. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: All patriotic citizens are mindless followers of the government, and all soldiers are mindless followers of the government, so all soldiers are patriotic citizens.

67. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Since some science professors are absent-minded persons and all philosophers are absent-minded persons, some scientists are not philosophers.

68. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: No knights are shrubberies, since no shrubberies are jousters and all jousters are knights.

69. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Whereas all Klingon warriors are ferocious opponents and some Klingon warriors are not male, it must be that some ferocious opponents are not males.

70. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Some tax-exempt organizations are religious associations and no tax-exempt organizations are profitable businesses. Thus, some religious associations are not profitable businesses.

71. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Since all aardvarks are CB radio operators, and no CB radio operators are Olympic champions, no Olympic champions are aardvarks.

72. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Some Tibetan monks are bookstore junkies, because no Ronald Reagan movie fans are bookstore junkies and some Tibetan monks are Ronald Reagan movie fans.

73. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: All cartographers are Martians from outer space, and some cartographers are not agents for the CIA, whence it follows that some agents for the CIA are not Martians from outer space.

74. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood and figure: Some Swedish water volleyball team members are not beer drinkers, because some molecular biologists are Swedish water volleyball team members and some molecular biologists are not beer drinkers.

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