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The Philosophical Journey An Interactive Approach 7TH Edition By William Lawhead – Test Bank

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The Philosophical Journey An Interactive Approach 7TH Edition By William Lawhead – Test Bank

The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach, 7e (Lawhead)

Chapter 4 The Search for God

1) Monotheism is the belief that God and the world are identical.

Answer: FALSE

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2) An evidentialist is one who claims that belief in God must be supported by objective evidence.

Answer: TRUE

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3) There are both atheists and theists who are evidentialists.

Answer: TRUE

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4) It is an essential claim of all atheists that it can be proven that God does not exist.

Answer: FALSE

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5) To be an agnostic is, by definition, to be a nonevidentialist.

Answer: FALSE

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6) Fideism is one form of nonevidentialism.

Answer: TRUE

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7) A priori arguments are based on reason alone and not data obtained from experience.

Answer: TRUE

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8) The cosmological argument for God is a type of a posteriori argument.

Answer: TRUE

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9) All versions of the cosmological argument contain the claim that the universe is not self-explanatory.

Answer: TRUE

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10) An essential premise of the cosmological argument is the claim that everything has a cause for its existence.

Answer: FALSE

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11) Thomas Aquinas believed that it was logically impossible for the world to have always existed without a beginning.

Answer: FALSE

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12) The opposite of a contingent being is a necessary being.

Answer: TRUE

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13) The teleological argument is a type of a priori argument.

Answer: FALSE

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14) Another name for the teleological argument is the argument from design.

Answer: TRUE

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15) Intelligent design theory is an attempt to show that the theory of evolution by itself is able to explain the appearance of design in the world.

Answer: FALSE

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16) The fine-tuned universe argument for God attempts to undermine the claim that the universe was produced by the Big Bang.

Answer: FALSE

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17) F. R. Tennant attempted to reconcile Darwinian evolution with a revised version of the teleological argument.

Answer: TRUE

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18) The ontological argument is an example of an a priori argument.

Answer: TRUE

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19) Anselm believed that God was so far beyond human reason that it was impossible for the mind to conceive of him.

Answer: FALSE

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20) Anselm’s critic, Gaunilo, rejected the ontological argument because he was an atheist.

Answer: FALSE

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21) Anselm assumes that existence is a property that makes a being more perfect.

Answer: TRUE

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22) Blaise Pascal believed that faith could be proven by reason.

Answer: FALSE

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23) According to Pascal, deciding whether or not to believe in God is not an optional decision.

Answer: TRUE

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24) Pascal assumes that the only options are belief or disbelief in the Christian God, but he does not consider other religious options.

Answer: TRUE

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25) W. K. Clifford’s argument rejects the notion of basing beliefs on faith alone.

Answer: TRUE

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26) William James’s essay “The Will to Believe” was an attempt to defend W. K. Clifford’s position.

Answer: FALSE

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27) Søren Kierkegaard believed that faith should never go beyond what can be proven on the basis of reason.

Answer: FALSE

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28) According to Kierkegaard, there is a difference between knowing about God and having faith in him.

Answer: TRUE

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29) The problem of evil is that of explaining how to turn people from their evil ways to do good.

Answer: FALSE

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30) The problem of evil is used by the atheist to provide positive evidence for the nonexistence of God.

Answer: TRUE

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31) Everyone who believes in God agrees with the premise that he is all-powerful.

Answer: FALSE

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32) According to the text, moral evil is the only kind of evil there really is.

Answer: FALSE

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33) Albert Camus’s novel The Plague presents the view that all suffering is justified and serves a good purpose.

Answer: FALSE

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34) A theodicy is an attempt to justify God’s permitting evil to occur.

Answer: TRUE

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35) The greater goods defense claims that some evils are necessary in order to achieve certain good ends.

Answer: TRUE

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36) The free will defense claims that God could not create free agents with the guarantee that they would always do what was good.

Answer: TRUE

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37) John Hick argues that God made the world a paradise in which we could experience nothing but pleasure, thus human moral wickedness is the cause of all suffering.

Answer: FALSE

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38) Pantheism is the view that God is separate from the world.

Answer: FALSE

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39) Hindu thought affirms the doctrine of reincarnation.

Answer: TRUE

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40) The Hindu doctrine of karma is not fatalistic, for we control our destiny through our actions.

Answer: TRUE

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41) Buddha means “the enlightened one.”

Answer: TRUE

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42) In the traditional teachings of the Buddha, there was very little mention of God or the gods.

Answer: TRUE

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43) According to the most ancient sources, the central teaching of the Buddha is the importance of having faith in him.

Answer: FALSE

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44) According to Buddhist teaching, Nirvana is a place (like heaven) where the morally good people go after death.

Answer: FALSE

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45) An agnostic is someone who claims that

  1. A) God does not exist.
  2. B) belief in God should be based on faith and subjective reasons.
  3. C) each individual is really a part of the being of God.
  4. D) there is not sufficient evidence to support either theism or atheism.

Answer: D

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46) Natural theology is

  1. A) the belief that nature is divine and should be worshiped.
  2. B) the attempt to prove God’s existence on the basis of reason and experience alone.
  3. C) the application of divine revelation to our understanding of nature.
  4. D) the belief that nature is all that exists and that there are no supernatural beings.

Answer: B

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47) Another name for agnosticism is

  1. A) religious skepticism.
  2. B) atheism.
  3. C) theism.
  4. D) fideism.

Answer: A

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48) A posteriori arguments are arguments that are based on

  1. A) faith.
  2. B) experience.
  3. C) divine revelation.
  4. D) logic and reason alone.

Answer: B

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49) According to your text, which two authors defended versions of the cosmological argument?

  1. A) St. Anselm and William Paley
  2. B) Blaise Pascal and William James
  3. C) Thomas Aquinas and Richard Taylor
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: C

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50) The principle of sufficient reason states that

  1. A) everything that exists must have a reason that explains its existence.
  2. B) there is not a sufficient reason to believe in God.
  3. C) reason is sufficient to answer all our religious questions.
  4. D) there is an ultimate and good purpose for everything that happens in life.

Answer: A

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51) A criticism of the cosmological argument mentioned in the text is

  1. A) it seems possible that there could be an infinite series of causes.
  2. B) the uncaused cause of the universe could be matter or energy.
  3. C) it makes no sense to say the existence of something is necessary.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

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52) The teleological argument argues for the existence of God on the basis of

  1. A) the evidence of design in the universe.
  2. B) the existence of contingent beings that require an explanation.
  3. C) our deep-seated conviction that there is a teleos or a purpose and meaning to human life.
  4. D) the need for a first cause that brought the universe into existence.

Answer: A

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53) In his argument for God, William Paley uses the analogy of

  1. A) a large ball found in the woods.
  2. B) the information found in the DNA molecule.
  3. C) a watch found upon the ground.
  4. D) a perfect island.

Answer: C

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54) In his refutation of the teleological argument, David Hume argues that

  1. A) the analogy between human creations and the universe is weak.
  2. B) we have no other universe with which to compare this one.
  3. C) it supports the conclusion that God has all the limitations of human creators.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

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55) According to your text, perspectivalism claims that science and religion

  1. A) have totally incompatible perspectives on the nature of reality.
  2. B) do not conflict because they describe reality in different but compatible ways.
  3. C) each deal with totally different regions of reality.
  4. D) are really making the same claims but use different terminology.

Answer: B

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56) On the relationship between science and religion, your book described René Descartes as an advocate of which position?

  1. A) the adversarial position
  2. B) territorialism
  3. C) perspectivalism
  4. D) the harmonizer view

Answer: B

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57) Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution raised problems for which theistic argument?

  1. A) the cosmological argument
  2. B) the teleological argument
  3. C) the ontological argument
  4. D) pragmatic justifications of religious belief

Answer: B

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58) The claim that evolution explains how our physical bodies evolved but the spiritual soul is a divine creation was presented as an example of which position?

  1. A) the adversarial position
  2. B) territorialism
  3. C) perspectivalism
  4. D) the fine-tuned universe argument

Answer: B

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59) The notion of “specified complexity” is a term identified with which position?

  1. A) anti-religious evolutionists
  2. B) Darwinian perspectivalists
  3. C) Darwinian harmonizers
  4. D) anti-Darwinian intelligent design theorists

Answer: D

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60) The anthropic principle plays a key role in the debate concerning

  1. A) whether humans evolved or were divinely created.
  2. B) the validity of the ontological argument.
  3. C) whether humans have a soul.
  4. D) the fine-tuned universe argument.

Answer: D

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61) Anselm’s argument may be viewed as a reductio ad absurdum argument because

  1. A) he begins with a premise that is the opposite of what he wants to prove and shows that it leads to a contradiction.
  2. B) contemporary philosophers consider his premises to be absurd.
  3. C) it reduces all the traditional properties of God to the one property of perfection.
  4. D) it reduces belief in God to an absurd leap of faith.

Answer: A

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62) Which of the following is a premise in Anselm’s argument?

  1. A) Everything that came into existence had a cause.
  2. B) There cannot be an infinite regress of causes.
  3. C) Existence in reality is greater than existence in the mind alone.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: C

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63) Gaunilo’s point concerning the island is that

  1. A) if God is perfect, then it is possible for him to create a perfect island.
  2. B) the ontological argument could be used to prove the necessary existence of a perfect island.
  3. C) nothing can be perfect, whether this be a God or an island.
  4. D) if one has never experienced a perfect island, then it is impossible to conceive of it.

Answer: B

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64) Pascal’s discussion of gambling and religious belief is intended to show that

  1. A) there is more to gain and less to risk in believing in God.
  2. B) life is a game and should not be taken too seriously.
  3. C) choosing God or choosing unbelief are equally risky choices.
  4. D) the religious person does not gamble but bases his or her choices on knowledge that is certain.

Answer: A

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65) W. K. Clifford’s story of the shipowner was intended to make the point that

  1. A) the best we can do is to act on our sincere convictions.
  2. B) it is better to take risks in the hope that we are right than to never venture out into the unknown.
  3. C) it is always wrong to believe anything on insufficient evidence.
  4. D) faith provides us with a basis for belief when reason fails us.

Answer: C

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66) According to William James, an essential condition for an act of faith to be a reasonable option is when

  1. A) the rational evidence is overwhelmingly in its favor.
  2. B) no doubts are at all possible.
  3. C) the decision one way or the other is unavoidable.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: C

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