## The Basics of Social Research 7th Edition by Earl R. Babbie – Test Bank

1. Nonprobability sampling: a. always produces samples that possess distorted characteristics relative to the population. b. denies the researcher the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferences. c. should never be used under any circumstances. d. includes stratified sampling. e. requires the use of sampling frames.

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Entire chapter TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

2. In general, as sample size increases: a. the standard error increases in size. b. the standard error decreases in size. c. the standard error will remain the same regardless of changes in sample size. d. the standard error is a constant. e. the standard error fluctuates in size.

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability Sampling TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

3. You are doing research on hospital personnel—orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling. An appropriate strategy would be: a. simple random sampling. b. quota sampling. c. cluster sampling. d. stratified sampling. e. accidental sampling.

ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

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4. Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample: a. generally occurs when the variables used to stratify are known to be associated with the dependent variable. b. eliminates the need for simple random sampling. c. is most useful for studying a homogeneous population. d. eliminates the need for probability sampling. e. is an alternative systematic sampling.

ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

5. The chief aim of probability sampling is to be able to select: a. a sample whose parameters are representative of an unknown population parameter. b. a sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown population parameter. c. a sample whose parameters will accurately portray an unknown population statistic. d. a sample whose statistics will accurately portray a known population parameter. e. a sample whose unknown statistics will accurately portray a known parameter.

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Modified

6. Drawing a judgmental sample: a. allows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the population. b. enlists the aid of uninformed respondents. c. results in a sample that has no researcher bias. d. ensures a representative sample. e. requires the development of a quota matrix.

ANSWER: a REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

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7. The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a(n): a. universe. b. sampling unit. c. statistic. d. sampling frame. e. element.

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

8. A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are to be in the sample? a. 5 b. 50 c. 100 d. 200 e. 1000

ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

9. Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher because: a. the method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias. b. the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimated. c. they are perfectly representative of the population from which they are drawn. d. all of these choices indicate the advantages of probability sampling. e. the method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimated.

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

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10. A summary description of a given variable in a survey sample is called a: a. variable. b. parameter. c. confidence level. d. confidence interval. e. statistic.

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

11. Dr. Smith is instructing his graduate students to put together a sample for an upcoming research study of college students. The graduate students were asked to stand outside of the student union to solicit participants, finding 50 freshmen, 50 sophomore, 50 juniors, and 50 seniors. What sort of sampling method is being used? a. Simple random sampling b. Quota sampling c. Cluster sampling d. Stratified sampling e. Accidental sampling

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

12. Dr. Chang is conducting a research study of undergraduate students at her college. She wants to ensure an equal number of students from each grade level, so she uses the list of all students provided by the registrar’s office. From each list, she randomly selects 50 students from each group. What strategy of sampling is Dr. Chang using? a. Simple random sampling b. Quota sampling c. Cluster sampling d. Stratified sampling e. Accidental sampling

ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

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13. You want to examine the relationship between family size and family cohesion. You use as your sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using? a. Simple random sampling b. Quota sampling c. Cluster sampling d. Stratified sampling e. Reliance on available subjects

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

14. To ensure a sufficient number of cases from strata of varying sizes, researchers use: a. simple random sampling. b. systematic sampling. c. proportionate sampling. d. disproportionate sampling. e. quota sampling.

ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

15. ______ is the general term for samples selected in accord with probability theory. a. Probability sampling b. Nonprobability sampling c. Correlation d. Theory e. Snowball sampling

ANSWER: a REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: New

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16. Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used by the researcher: a. to ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample subpopulations. b. to give a proportionate representation to each sample element. c. to provide a representative picture of the total population. d. to handle situations involving the errors and approximation that are often inherent in complex, multistage designs. e. to ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample subpopulations; to give a proportionate representation to each sample element; to provide a representative picture of the total population; and to handle situations involving the errors and approximation that are often inherent in complex, multistage designs.

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Modified

17. In terms of probability theory, the standard error is valuable because: a. it is an estimate of the parameter. b. it permits us to estimate the degree of error to be expected in a sample design. c. it indicates the extent to which the sample estimates will be distributed around the population parameter. d. it is an estimate of the parameter and it permits us to estimate the degree of error to be expected in a sample design. e. it permits us to estimate the degree of error to be expected in a sample design and it indicates the extent to which the sample estimates will be distributed around the population parameter.

ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

18. Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in: a. simple random sampling. b. systematic sampling. c. disproportionate sampling. d. cluster sampling. e. stratified sampling.

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

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19. After taking a random start between 1 and 20 and then taking every 20th element from the sampling frame, Smith learned that 40% of the sample believed the company’s president was doing a good job. The calculated standard error was 3 percent. This means that: a. between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job. b. you are 95% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job. c. you are 68% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job. d. you are 99% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job. e. none of these choices are correct.

ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

20. A researcher who uses a list of registered voters as a sampling frame, and selects every 5th person on the randomized list is engaging in what kind of sampling? a. Systematic b. Stratified c. Simple random d. Quota e. Multistage cluster

ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

21. If a field researcher wanted to learn a political organization’s pattern of recruitment over time, the researcher might begin by interviewing a fairly recent recruit and ask who introduced that person to the organization. Then the researcher might interview the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political organization. This would be an example of: a. snowball sampling. b. systematic sampling. c. deviant cases sampling. d. accidental sampling. e. quota sampling.

ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

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22. A disadvantage of stratified sampling is: a. that it denies you the use of probability theory. b. that it requires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements in the population prior to drawing the sample. c. that it usually increases the standard error. d. that it usually requires samples that are larger in size than those required by simple random sampling. e. not mentioned in any of these choices.

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Modified

23. Statistical computations assume that you have done: a. simple random sampling. b. systematic sampling. c. cluster sampling. d. stratified sampling. e. any one of these choices.

ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

24. A study population is: a. the theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given survey. b. the theoretically specified aggregation of survey elements. c. that aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected. d. that aggregation or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling. e. that aggregation of elements from which information is collected.

ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

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25. Professor Hall was planning to do a field study of hitchhikers. Hall wanted to be sure that persons representing all different age, racial, and sex categories were included in the sample of hitchhikers. What kind of sampling scheme would you recommend? a. Deviant cases b. Quota sampling c. Stratified sampling d. Snowball sampling e. Cluster sampling

ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

26. Through a review of records, Rebecca was able to determine that the mean age of the population she was studying was 23.4 years old. This is known as a(n) a. statistic. b. inference. c. parameter. d. confidence interval. e. confidence level.

ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

27. Periodicity is particularly important in: a. simple random sampling. b. availability sampling. c. stratified sampling. d. quota sampling. e. systematic sampling.

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

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28. Which of the following statements about informants is FALSE? a. An informant is a member of the group that you want to study. b. You usually want to select informants who are somewhat typical of the group that you are studying. c. Informants are often marginal within their group. d. Informants are useful in field research. e. The terms informant and respondent are interchangeable.

ANSWER: e REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

29. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. If all the members of a population were identical there would be no need for sampling. b. In cases of perfect homogeneity a single case could represent an entire population. c. The human beings who compose any real population are similar. d. Because elements within the population typically differ, we need to do careful sampling. e. All of these statements are TRUE.

ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Modified

30. Samantha reports that 60 percent of the first year students at her university think they should be able to bring a car to campus. She also notes that she is 95 percent certain that between 50 and 70 percent of the first year students agree. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. The range from 50 to 70 percent is a confidence interval. b. 95 percent refers to her confidence level. c. 60 percent is a statistic. d. She could be 99 percent certain that between 55 and 65 percent of the first year students agree. e. All of these choices are TRUE.

ANSWER: d REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

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31. When selecting variables for stratification, it is best to select variables that: a. stratify based on gender. b. stratify based on age. c. stratify based on the variables you want to represent. d. stratify in order to achieve equally sized group. e. always stratify into at most three groups.

ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

32. Tammy wants to do a telephone survey and she turns to you for help. Which of the following statements would mislead her? a. Cell phone numbers are typically not included in phone surveys. b. People who use cell phones exclusively tend to be younger. c. There is a class bias in using telephone directory samples. d. Telephone directories are an excellent listing of a city’s population. e. None of these statements would mislead Tammy.

ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Populations and Sampling Frames TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

33. If possible, always sampling from the entire general population is preferable. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Introduction TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

34. In a sample stratified by gender, the sampling error on this variable is reduced to zero. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

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35. Field researchers are often interested in studying deviant cases in order to improve their understanding of the more typical pattern. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

36. A confidence interval at the 68% confidence level will be larger than one constructed at the 95% confidence level. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

37. Snowball sampling would be an effective strategy for a researcher to use if a researcher was interested in studying a population of gang members. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: New

38. Multistage sampling designs tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling designs. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Multistage Cluster Sampling TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

39. Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

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40. Sampling error is reduced through an increase in the sample size and an increased homogeneity of the elements being sampled. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

41. Each stage in cluster sampling adds additional sampling error that must be taken into account. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Multistage Cluster Sampling TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

42. Stratification represents a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

43. The size of the population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

44. A stratified sample is more likely to be representative on several variables than is a simple random sample. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

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45. In a situation of perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling procedures. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Introduction TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

46. Simple random sampling is the most effective way to further understand uncommon populations. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Types of Sampling Designs TOPICS: Applied NOTES: Pickup

47. We typically sample with replacement. a. True b. False

ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

48. If a population were perfectly homogeneous, a single case could represent the entire population. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Introduction TOPICS: Conceptual NOTES: Pickup

49. Findings based on a sample can be taken as representing the elements that compose the sampling frame. a. True b. False

ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability TOPICS: Factual NOTES: Pickup

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50. You notice that neither you nor anyone in your family has ever been included in a political poll conducted for the media. How do you explain this fact?

ANSWER: Answers will vary. However, answers should include the idea that political polls are typically based on the voting age population or the registered voter population. As there are millions of people in the United States in these two populations and the typical sample is about 1,000 people the likelihood of being selected using probability sampling is small. REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability NOTES: Pickup

51. Your friend is trying to decide whether to select a small probability sample or a large availability sample. He asks for your recommendation. What do you recommend?

ANSWER: Typically, larger samples are better than smaller samples because the standard error tends to be smaller with larger samples. However, this assumes the use of probability sampling. Using nonprobability sampling we are denied the use of statistical theory to estimate sampling error. Consequently, in this case a smaller sample based on probability sampling would be preferable to a larger sample constructed using nonprobability sampling. It is assumed, however, that we have access to a reasonable sampling frame that represents the population to which we would like to generalize our findings. REFERENCES: Entire chapter NOTES: Pickup

52. When would it be preferable to use a non probability sample? Why would we need to do so? What concerns or limitations would we have to deal with? Give examples.

ANSWER: Answer should focus on studying underrepresented or isolated populations in which we would need to oversample (such as ethnic or social minorities) or populations in which a researcher would not have access via conventional probability sampling methods, such as gangs or other secretive organizations. REFERENCES: Nonprobability Sampling NOTES: Pickup

53. Telephone directories are notorious for being inadequate sampling frames for public opinion polls. What problems are associated with using the telephone directory as a sampling frame in a public opinion poll?

ANSWER: Answers will typically include: 1) the telephone directory does not include new subscribers, 2) the telephone directory does not list unlisted numbers, 3) the telephone directory typically involves a social class bias as poor people are less likely to have phone, wealthy people may have more than one line (or even unlisted lines). REFERENCES: The Logic and Techniques of Probability NOTES: Pickup

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