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Test Bank Of Foundations-in-Microbiology-Kathleen-Park-Talaro-6th-Edition-Test-Bank

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Test Bank Of Foundations-in-Microbiology-Kathleen-Park-Talaro-6th-Edition-Test-Bank

10
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The use of an organism’s biochemical processes to create a product is
A. genetic engineering.
B. biotechnology.
C. recombinant DNA.
D. gel electrophoresis.
E. gene probes.

2. The various techniques by which scientists manipulate DNA in the lab is called
A. genetic engineering.
B. biotechnology.
C. recombinant DNA.
D. gel electrophoresis.
E. gene probes.

3. The deliberate removal of genetic material from one organism and combining it with the genetic material of another organism is a specific technique called
A. genetic engineering.
B. biotechnology.
C. recombinant DNA.
D. gel electrophoresis.
E. gene probes.

4. Labeled, known, short stretches of DNA used to detect a specific sequence of nucleotides in a mixture are
A. genetic engineering.
B. biotechnology.
C. recombinant DNA.
D. gel electrophoresis.
E. gene probes.

5. A technique that separates a readable pattern of DNA fragments is
A. genetic engineering.
B. biotechnology.
C. recombinant DNA.
D. gel electrophoresis.
E. gene probes.

6. DNA strands can be clipped crosswise at selected positions by using enzymes called
A. palindromes.
B. reverse transcriptase.
C. restriction endonucleases.
D. ligases.
E. DNA polymerases.

7. Geneticists can make complimentary DNA copies of messenger, transfer, and ribosomal RNA by using
A. palindromes.
B. reverse transcriptase.
C. restriction endonucleases.
D. ligases.
E. DNA polymerases.

8. EcoRI and HindIII are
A. palindromes.
B. reverse transcriptase.
C. restriction endonucleases.
D. ligases.
E. DNA polymerases.

9. Sequences of DNA that are identical when read from the 5′ to 3′ direction on one strand and the 3′ to 5′ direction on the other strand are
A. palindromes.
B. reverse transcriptase.
C. restriction endonucleases.
D. ligases.
E. DNA polymerases.

10. Analysis of DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis involves
A. larger fragments move slowly and remain closer to the wells.
B. DNA has an overall negative charge and moves to the positive pole.
C. DNA fragments are stained to see them.
D. an electric current through the gel causes DNA fragments to migrate.
E. All of the choices are correct.

11. Gene probes can be labeled for detection with
A. enzymes.
B. fluorescent dyes.
C. radioisotopes.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct.

12. Amplification of DNA is accomplished by
A. polymerase chain reaction.
B. DNA sequencing.
C. gene probes.
D. Southern blot.
E. All of the choices are correct.

13. DNA polymerases used in PCR
A. use an RNA template to make complementary DNA.
B. must remain active at very cold temperatures.
C. include Taq polymerases and Vent polymerase.
D. are labeled with fluorescent dyes.
E. All of the choices are correct.

14. Which PCR step causes the denaturation of double-stranded DNA?
A. add DNA polymerase and nucleotides at 72 C
B. cool DNA to between 50 C and 65 C
C. add primers
D. heat target DNA to 94 C
E. repeat the cycle of heating and cooling

15. Which PCR step synthesizes complimentary DNA strands?
A. add DNA polymerase and nucleotides at 72 C
B. cool DNA to between 50 C and 65 C
C. add primers
D. heat target DNA to 94 C
E. repeat the cycle of heating and cooling

16. The function of the dideoxy (dd) nucleotides that are used in the Sanger method of DNA sequencing is to
A. denature DNA into single strands.
B. serve as primers.
C. be a fluorescent tag.
D. incorporate into newly replicated DNA strands and stop elongation.
E. None of the choices are correct.

17. The Western Blot technique detects
A. DNA.
B. RNA.
C. proteins.
D. recombinant DNA.
E. specific genetic marker sequence on genes.

18. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes are applied to intact cells and observed microscopically for the presence and location of
A. DNA.
B. RNA.
C. proteins.
D. recombinant DNA.
E. specific genetic marker sequence on genes.

19. Thermococcus litoralis and Thermus aquaticus are thermophilic bacteria that are
A. used as cloning vectors.
B. sources of heat stable DNA polymerases.
C. genetically engineered bacteria.
D. principal sources of restriction endonucleases.
E. None of the choices are correct.

20. The primers in PCR are
A. synthetic DNA oligonucleotides.
B. bacterial enzymes.
C. short RNA strands.
D. DNA polymerases.
E. reverse transcriptases.

21. In order to ensure compatibility between the target DNA and the plasmid DNA
A. target DNA is removed from cells and isolated.
B. cloning host is treated with calcium chloride and receives plasmid.
C. target DNA and plasmid are treated with the same restriction endonuclease.
D. desired protein is produced by cloning host.
E. gene is amplified by multiplication of cloning host.

22. Which step involves transformation?
A. target DNA removed from cells and isolated
B. cloning host receives plasmid
C. target DNA and plasmid treated with the same restriction endonuclease
D. desired protein is produced by cloning host
E. gene is amplified by multiplication of cloning host

23. Which step can occur even more rapidly by PCR?
A. target DNA removed from cells and isolated
B. cloning host treated with calcium chloride and receives plasmid
C. target DNA and plasmid treated with the same restriction endonuclease
D. desired protein is produced by cloning host
E. gene is amplified by multiplication of cloning host

24. The commercial product Frostban contains a genetically engineered strain of
A. Escherichia coli.
B. Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
C. Thermus aquaticus.
D. Pseudomonas syringae.
E. Pseudomonas fluorescens.

25. Recombinant strains of this organism are released to colonize plant roots to produce an insecticide to destroy invading insects:
A. Escherichia coli
B. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
C. Thermus aquaticus
D. Pseudomonas syringae
E. Pseudomonas fluorescens

26. Transgenic animals
A. can be engineered to become factories for manufacturing proteins.
B. are often obtained from germ line engineering.
C. will pass the genes on to their offspring.
D. commonly include mice.
E. All of the choices are correct.

27. When patient tissues are transfected with viruses carrying a needed, normal human gene, the technique is called
A. cloning.
B. gene therapy.
C. antisense therapeutic.
D. DNA fingerprinting.
E. None of the choices are correct.

28. Both DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reactions require special __________ to initiate synthesis of a new DNA molecule.
A. RNA promoters.
B. fluorescent nucleotides.
C. primers.
D. thermophilic polymerases.
E. endonucleases.

29. This is often used in forensic science to distinguish one sequence of DNA from another by comparing the sequence of the strands at specific loci:
A. cloning
B. gene therapy
C. antisense therapeutic
D. DNA fingerprinting
E. None of the choices are correct.

30. All of the following are desirable features in a microbial cloning host except it
A. can be grown in large quantities.
B. has a slow growth rate.
C. capable of accepting plasmid vectors.
D. will secrete a high yield of proteins from expressed foreign genes.
E. has a genome that is well delineated.

31. Which of the following drugs is produced by genetic engineering and approved for human use?
A. human growth hormone
B. Factor VIII
C. insulin
D. tissue plasminogen activator
E. All of the choices are correct.

32. Which of the following is less subject to degradation than is chromosomal DNA and is used as an evolutionary time clock?
A. mitochondrial DNA
B. chloroplast DNA
C. rRNA
D. mRNA

33. Which technique will hopefully be used to identify and devise treatments for diseases based on the genetic profile of the disease?
A. PCR
B. genetic engineering
C. antisense technology
D. microarray analysis
E. DNA sequencing

34. Which of the following methods determines which genes are actively transcribed in a cell under a variety of conditions?
A. DNA fingerprinting
B. microarray analysis
C. gene mapping
D. Western blot
E. antisense therapy

35. The Southern Blot technique detects
A. DNA.
B. RNA.
C. proteins.
D. recombinant DNA.
E. specific genetic marker sequence on genes.

36. All of the following are characteristics that make plasmids good cloning vectors except
A. they are small.
B. they are well characterized.
C. they can be transferred into appropriate host cells.
D. they can carry genetic markers, such as antibiotic resistance genes.
E. they can accept a relatively large amount of foreign DNA.

37. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used in all of the following fields except
A. forensics.
B. evolutionary studies.
C. gene mapping.
D. medicine.
E. None of the choices; it is useful for all these fields.

38. When DNA is heated to just below boiling (90oC – 95oC),
A. the sugar phosphate backbone of the DNA strands breaks.
B. the sugar, phosphate and base come apart in each nucleotide.
C. the helix unwinds but hydrogen bonds between the bases remain intact.
D. the two DNA strands separate completely.
E. Nothing happens until the boiling point is reached (100 oC).

39. All of the following are correct about DNA fingerprinting except
A. it displays the unique pattern of an individual’s DNA fragments.
B. it can be used to analyze evidence when only minute amounts of DNA are found.
C. it cannot be used on specimens older than 5 years.
D. it is routine to use it as trial evidence in the U.S.
E. it can be used on hair and nails.

40. Restriction endonucleases are obtained from various species of bacteria.
True False

41. Viruses are often used as cloning hosts in recombinant DNA methods.
True False

42. When DNA is heated, the two strands will separate.
True False

43. After 3 replication cycles in PCR, there will be a total of 4 double-stranded DNA molecules.
True False

44. An example of gene therapy is the insertion of the gene for human growth hormone into E. coli cells.
True False

45. Reverse transcriptase is used to make cDNA from an RNA template.
True False

46. Transformation and transfection are methods used to introduce DNA into host cells.
True False

47. Polyacrylamide gel is used for electrophoresis in the Sanger method of DNA sequencing.
True False

48. The process of introducing a needed, normal gene, into human cells is called DNA mapping.
True False

49. Vectors often contain a gene conferring drug resistance to their cloning host, in order to detect cells harboring the plasmid.
True False

50. VNTR’s and microsatellite polymorphisms are genetic markers seen in DNA fingerprinting.
True False

51. The _____ blot method analyzes DNA, while the _____ method analyzes RNA.
________________________________________

52. The size of DNA is often given in the number of _____ that it contains.
________________________________________

53. Restriction endonucleases recognize and clip at DNA base sequences called _____.
________________________________________

54. The two common vectors used to transfer a piece of DNA into a cloning host are _____ and _____.
________________________________________

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