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Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology 12Th ed By Bidlack

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Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology 12Th ed By Bidlack

Chapter 09

Water in Plants

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Pressure that develops within a living cell as a result of water entering the cell is called
    B. osmosis.
    C. plasmolysis.
    D. transpiration.
    E. water potential.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #2

  1. Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion in which water molecules
    A.move across a selectively permeable membrane.
    B. move from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
    C. exhibit random kinetic motion.
    D. move through suberin.
    E. both [move across a selectively permeable membrane and move from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration] are correct

Stern – 009 Chapter… #7

  1. If the concentration of solutes outside the plant cell is greater than the concentration on the inside, water will
    A.move into the cell.
    B. move in both directions equally.
    C. move against a concentration gradient.
    D. move out of the cell.
    E. none of these answers are correct

Stern – 009 Chapter… #8

  1. Pressure sufficient to prevent the rise of fluid in an osmometer tube, when applied to the top of the tube, is called
    A.pressure diffusion.
    B. turgor pressure.
    C. osmotic pressure.
    D. pressure potential.
    E. water potential.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #16

  1. The pressure required to prevent osmosis from taking place is referred to as:
    A.water potential
    B. osmotic potential
    C. pressure potential
    D. turgor pressure
    E. none of these answers are correct

Stern – 009 Chapter… #30

  1. Water potential is calculated by _____________________.
    A. subtracting turgor pressure from osmotic potential
    B. calculating the rate of diffusion of water molecules in dry soil
    C. combining osmotic potential and pressure potential of a plant cell
    D. determing the rate of plasmolysis
    E. none of these
  1. The movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration is
    A. osmosis
    B. movement against the concentration gradient
    C. Brownian motion
    D. diffusion
    E. only common in gases such as oxygen
  1. Molecules that, due to their symmetry, have slightly different electric charges at each end are said to be
    B. colloidal.
    C. unbalanced.
    D. electrocharged.
    E. covalent.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #17

  1. Which of the following plays a role in plasmolysis?
    A.water potential
    B. vacuole
    C. plasma membrane
    D. protoplasm
    E. all of these answers are correct

Stern – 009 Chapter… #27

  1. When an entire plant wilts, it is due to _____________.
    A. the lack of mineral nutrients
    B. the decrease in salt concentration
    C. the plasmolysis of leaf and stem cells
    D. excessive turgor pressure
    E. a decrease in cellulose and lignin strengthening cell walls
  1. When starch and cellulose molecules are exposed to water, they develop electrical charges and form ____________.
    A. ionic bonds with water
    B. an electric current
    C. covalent bonds with water
    D. static electricity charges
    E. hydrogen bonds with water
  1. _______________ occurs when water forms hydrogen bonds with large organic molecules such as cellulose in living or dead tissues.
    A. Imbibition
    B. Turgor pressure
    C. Plasmolysis
    D. Active transport
    E. Guttation
  1. Imbibition is responsible for _______________________.
    A. plants wilting on sunny days
    B. breaking open the seed coat of germinating seeds
    C. osmosis
    D. turgor pressure in cells
    E. expansion of the vacuole inside the living cell
  1. Active transport in plants apparently involves an enzyme complex that forms a/an __________.
    A. channel through the cell membrane
    B. passive transport system
    C. energy-free transport system
    D. proton pump
    E. sodium/potassium pump
  1. Substances are absorbed and retained against a concentration gradient, through the expenditure of energy, by _____________________.
    A. active transport
    B. passive transport
    C. imbibition
    D. osmosis
    E. none of these answers are correct

Stern – 009 Chapter… #26

  1. Most of the water that enters a plant via the roots leaves the same plant by the process of
    B. plasmolysis.
    C. osmosis.
    D. root pressure.
    E. transpiration.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #3

  1. In which of the following are guard cells (that form stomata) not directly involved?
    B. active transport
    C. transpiration regulation
    D. imbibition
    E. accumulation of potassium ions

Stern – 009 Chapter… #4

  1. Liquid water is forced out of the leaf when leaf pores are closed at night in a process called
    B. translocation.
    C. evaporation.
    D. guttation.
    E. diffusion.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #5

  1. The cohesion of water molecules and their adhesion to the walls of narrow tubes that results in water rising in the tubes is called
    B. capillarity.
    C. active transport.
    D. guttation.
    E. transpiration pull.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #10

  1. Changes in solute ion concentrations that are involved in the opening and closing of stomata pertain primarily to which of the following?
    B. calcium
    C. magnesium
    D. potassium
    E. iron

Stern – 009 Chapter… #12

  1. Hydathodes are involved directly in which of the following?
    B. imbibition
    C. plasmolysis
    D. respiration
    E. guttation

Stern – 009 Chapter… #13

  1. The early scientist who suggested that cells surrounding xylem vessels perform a pumping action that propels water through a plant was
    A.Nehemiah Grew.
    B. J. B. van Helmont.
    C. Frits Went.
    D. Joshua Doolittle.
    E. Hans Krebs.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #15

  1. The rise of water in plants is presently most satisfactorily explained by
    A.the pressure-flow hypothesis.
    B. active transport.
    C. imbibition.
    D. bulk flow.
    E. the cohesion-tension theory.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #19

  1. When humidity is high
    A.transpiration rates increase.
    B. transpiration rates decrease.
    C. transpiration ceases altogether.
    D. leaves absorb moisture from the air.
    E. stomata open wider.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #21

  1. Plants that have their stomata elevated above the surface include
    A.a few tropical plants.
    B. pines.
    C. cacti.
    D. water lilies.
    E. most grasses.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #22

  1. Which particular ions are believed to be primarily involved in regulation of transpiration by the guard cells?
    B. calcium
    C. potassium
    D. magnesium
    E. iron

Stern – 009 Chapter… #25

  1. Approximately how much water typically leaves the plant by transpiration?
    A.90% or more
    B. 25% or less
    C. 75%
    D. 65%
    E. 50%

Stern – 009 Chapter… #28

  1. At present the most widely accepted theory for movement of sugars in the phloem is called the
    A.pressure-flow hypothesis.
    B. cohesion-tension-transpiration theory.
    C. translocation theory.
    D. water-potential theory.
    E. imbibition-guttation hypothesis.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #11

  1. An area within a leaf where food is utilized is called a region.
    B. translocation region.
    C. sink.
    D. sub-stomatal chamber.
    E. tension column.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #14

  1. Many studies leading to our present knowledge of translocation of food in plants utilized radioactive tracers and
    A.cane sugar (sucrose).
    B. aphids.
    C. osmometers.
    D. fungi.
    E. algae.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #20

  1. Organic molecules produced in photosynthesis are mainly transported in the form of _______.
    A. glucose
    B. starch
    C. carbon dioxide
    D. cellulose
    E. sucrose
  1. The direction of movement of food molecules in plants is ______________.
    A. from the top of the plant to the root system
    B. from the roots to the shoot system
    C. from sink to source
    D. from source to sink
    E. none of these are correct answers
  1. The process of transport of food through phloem tissue involves which of the following factors?
    A. osmosis
    B. active transport
    C. mass flow
    D. osmotic pressure
    E. all of these are involved in phloem transport
  1. Plants obtain most of their mineral nutrients ______________.
    A. from minerals dissolved in water entering the root system
    B. from dust in the air
    C. when they enter the plant through the stomata in the leaves
    D. from fertilizer
    E. as a solid
  1. Which is an essential trace element in plants?
    B. phosphorus
    C. copper
    D. sulfur
    E. nitrogen

Stern – 009 Chapter… #6

  1. All essential macro- and microelements exist as part of organic molecules in the plant except
    B. phosphorus.
    C. nitrogen.
    D. hydrogen.
    E. carbon.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #9

  1. Which of the following is a micronutrient in terms of a plant’s mineral requirements for growth?
    B. sulphur
    C. calcium
    D. phosphorus
    E. manganese

Stern – 009 Chapter… #23

  1. Relatively uniform loss of color in leaves, occurring first on the older ones, is usually a sign of deficiency of which of the following?
    B. iron
    C. nitrogen
    D. magnesium
    E. boron

Stern – 009 Chapter… #24

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the nutrients that constitute about 99% of the nutrient total used by plants?
    B. potassium
    C. phosphorus
    D. sodium
    E. calcium

Stern – 009 Chapter… #29

True / False Questions

  1. Active transport is the reverse of transpiration.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #31

  1. A state of equilibrium exists when molecules have become evenly distributed, through their random movement, in the space available to them.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #32

  1. Osmotic potential is the amount of pressure needed to make water rise in a narrow tube.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #33

  1. The primary force that enables water to move to the top of very tall trees is root pressure.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #34

  1. Guttation involves loss of water in liquid form from a leaf.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #35

  1. A hydathode is normally located at the top of a leaf vein.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #36

  1. More than 90% of the water entering most plants passes on through the plant.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #37

  1. Most plants have their stomata closed during the day and open at night.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #38

  1. Dew is water that has been transpired at night.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #39

  1. During plasmolysis water leaves a cell’s central vacuole.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #40

  1. A differentially permeable membrane is one that permits anything up to the size of large molecules to pass through.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #41

  1. If plasmolyzed cells are placed in fresh water before permanent damage is done, they can become turgid once more.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #42

  1. Some sort of physiological pump is believed to be involved in active transport.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #43

  1. All water that passes through a plant leaves the plant via stomata.

Stern – 009 Chapter… #44

  1. The force created by imbibition of water by wooden structures can be used to split stones.
    TRUEChapter 10

    Plant Metabolism

    Multiple Choice Questions

    1. Oxidation is the
      A.gaining of electrons.
      B. sharing of electrons.
      C. loss of protons.
      D. loss of electrons.
      E. loss of water.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #6

    1. Most energy transfers in cells involve a linked set of oxidation and reduction reactions. This means that ______________.
      A. one molecule gains an electron while retaining its original set of electrons
      B. one of the reacting molecule loses an electron while the second molecule picks it up and passes it to a third molecule
      C. one molecule is oxidized and one is reduced in a set of coupled reactions
      D. the reduced molecule loses an electron and becomes smaller
      E. all of the above are correct
    1. Metabolism refers to __________________________.
      A. how rapidly your body converts food calories to kinetic energy
      B. all the metabolic activities that take place in cells and entire organisms as a whole
      C. the rate of a chemical reaction
      D. enzyme catalysts
      E. processing genetic information
    1. Photosynthesis is an example of a/an _____________ set of chemical reactions in plants.
      A. catabolic
      B. energy releasing reactions in plant cells
      C. anabolic
      D. light-releasing
      E. mitochondrial-based
    1. The energy “currency” of the cell is
      B. water.
      C. FADH2.
      D. ATP.
      E. glucose.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #12

    1. The oxygen liberated by green plants during photosynthesis comes from
      A.water molecules.
      B. the breakdown of food in living cells.
      C. ATP.
      D. the glucose formed during the dark reactions.
      E. carbon dioxide.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #4

    1. A pigment that makes it possible for photosynthesis to take place over a broader spectrum of light than would otherwise be possible is called a/an
      A.photosynthetic unit.
      B. photorespiration pigment.
      C. accessory pigment.
      D. photon.
      E. photosystem.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #5

    1. Several accessory pigments function in photosynthesis. Which is found in flowering (higher) plants?
      A. carotenoids
      B. phycobilins
      C. chlorophyll a
      D. fucoxanthin
      E. both [carotenoids and chlorophyll a] are correct

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #8

    1. The longest wavelengths of light useful in photosynthesis are those of
      B. red light.
      C. blue light.
      D. infrared.
      E. green light.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #19

    1. Which of the following has been used effectively to “fertilize” plants?
      B. pure nitrogen
      C. oxygen
      D. sulphur dioxide
      E. carbon monoxide

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #20

    1. The most abundant chlorophyll pigment usually present in plants is
      A.chlorophyll a.
      B. chlorophyll b.
      C. chlorophyll c.
      D. chlorophyll d.
      E. chlorophyll e.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #22

    1. Which of the following is a summary of photosynthesis?
      A. C6H12O6 + O2 –> CO2 + H2O + ATP
      B. C6H12O6 + ATP –> CO2 + H2O + O2
      C. CO2 + H2O + light –> C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O
      D. C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O –> CO2 + H2O + O2
      E. CO2 + O + light –> C6H12O6 + ATP
    1. During the light reactions of photosynthesis
      A.carbon dioxide is combined with certain organic compounds to produce glucose.
      B. the hydrogen removed from water molecules is combined with carbon dioxide, forming glucose.
      C. water is split through photon energy into hydrogen and water.
      D. water is split by ATP into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen.
      E. carbon dioxide is split into oxygen and carbon atoms.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #1

    1. Which of the following is synthesized during the light reactions?
      B. CO2
      C. RuBP
      D. NADPH
      E. PGAL

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #16

    1. The English biochemist who discovered that a solution of chloroplasts that had been ground up and centrifuged could briefly produce oxygen in the presence of an electron acceptor was
      A.Melvin Calvin.
      B. Robin Hill.
      C. Percival Priestly.
      D. Jan Ingen-Housz.
      E. Theodore de Saussure.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #23

    1. During the light reactions of photosynthesis
      A.CO2 is combined with a 5-carbon sugar.
      B. CO2 is given off.
      C. ATP molecules are generated.
      D. 6-carbon sugars are stored.
      E. NADPH molecules are produced.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #24

    1. Which is a reduced molecule?
      B. NADPH
      C. NAD+
      D. FADH2
      E. both [NADPH and FADH2] are correct

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #7

    1. Which photosynthetic pigment is a precursor of vitamin A?
      B. phycobilin
      C. ß -carotene
      D. chlorophyll b
      E. fucoxanthin

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #9

    1. In the process of photosynthesis, which molecule becomes reduced?
      CO2 + H2O ———> CH2O + O2
      A. CO2
      B. H20
      C. CH2O
      D. O2
      E. C6H12O6

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #13

    1. Photooxidation primarily involves the
      A.conversion of oxygen to ozone by light.
      B. conversion of light to oxygen.
      C. destruction of chlorophyll by light.
      D. respiration of sugar.
      E. conduction of food from sinks to sources.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #21

    1. When a pigment absorbs light, the energy levels of some of the pigment’s electrons are raised, with the result that energy may be emitted immediately as light. This is called
      B. photoelectric effect.
      C. reaction-center phenomenon.
      D. antenna pigment emission.
      E. fluorescence.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #25

    1. Which of the following are contained in each photosynthetic unit of photosystem I? P700 molecule
      B. small amounts of chlorophyll b
      C. carotenoid pigment
      D. 200 or more molecules of chlorophyll a
      E. All of these answers are correct.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #26

    1. Photosystem pigments that function in gathering and passing light to reaction-center molecules are called
      A.reaction-center pigments.
      B. phosphorescent pigments.
      C. antenna pigments.
      D. carotene pigments.
      E. 700 pigments.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #27

    1. The splitting of water molecules on the inside of thylakoid membranes during photosynthesis is called
      B. photolysis.
      C. chemiosmosis.
      D. uncoupling.
      E. plastocyanization.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #28

    1. The Calvin cycle is also called the
      A.3-carbon pathway.
      B. 4-carbon pathway.
      C. 5-carbon pathway.
      D. 6-carbon pathway.
      E. 7-carbon pathway.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #29

    1. Plants that produce oxaloacetic acid instead of PGA during the dark reactions of photosynthesis are called
      A.ferredoxin plants.
      B. oxalis plants.
      C. CAM plants.
      D. C4 plants.
      E. C3 plants.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #30

    1. Which of the following is/are found in C4 plants?
      A.large chloroplasts with numerous starch grains
      B. high concentrations of PEP carboxylase in mesophyll cells
      C. higher optimum temperatures for photosynthesis than C3 plants
      D. small chloroplasts with well-developed grana
      E. All of these answers are correct.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #31

    1. CAM photosynthesis occurs mostly in
      A.aquatic plants.
      B. arctic plants.
      C. temperate forest plants.
      D. tropical rain forest plants.
      E. cacti and succulents.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #32

    1. Photophosphorylation refers to _______________________.
      A. removal of a photon from a phosphate group
      B. use of energy from light to add a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
      C. use of a proton gradient to add a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
      D. removal of a phosphate group from ATP to form ADP
      E. the light independent reactions of photosynthesis
    1. Photosynthetically active pigments absorb ____________.
      A. all wavelengths of visible light
      B. all wavelengths of light, including infrared and ultraviolet
      C. specific wavelengths of red and blue light
      D. reflect all wavelengths of visible light except green
      E. transfer chemical energy to light energy
    1. NADPH transports ____________ and __________ from light dependent to light independent photosynthetic reactions.
      A. water; carbon dioxide
      B. phosphate group; oxygen
      C. photons; carbon dioxide
      D. hydrogen ions; electrons
      E. iron; copper
    1. The electron transport chain contains a group of iron-containing molecules called
      B. cytochromes.
      C. xanthophylls.
      D. pyruvates.
      E. flavonoids.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #11

    1. In glycolysis
      A.glucose is broken down into simpler compounds.
      B. chlorophyll helps store energy in NADPH molecules.
      C. water is split into hydrogen ions and oxygen through the energy of light.
      D. the Krebs cycle produces oxygen.
      E. ATP molecules are converted to fats.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #2

    1. The citric acid cycle _________________.
      A. may occur in cells where photosynthesis is also taking place
      B. takes place as a part of the dark reactions of photosynthesis
      C. consists of a breakdown of glucose to a simpler compound
      D. is the final step of the respiration process
      E. takes place primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum
    1. Glycolysis takes place in the
      B. chloroplast.
      C. nucleus.
      D. cytoplasm.
      E. ER.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #10

    1. The citric acid cycle takes place in the ___________________.
      A. dictyosome
      B. chloroplast
      C. nucleus
      D. cytoplasm
      E. mitochondria
    1. The first step of glycolysis involves a _____ reaction.
      B. carboxylation
      C. phosphorylation
      D. condensation
      E. light

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #15

    1. Which of the following is/are not produced during fermentation?
      A.lactic acid
      B. ethyl alcohol
      C. CO2
      D. acetylCoA
      E. ATP

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #17

    1. The complete respiration of 1 molecule of glucose produces approximately how many ATP molecules?
      B. 36
      C. 26
      D. 16
      E. 6

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #18

    1. A step in respiration during which sugar is oxidized to pyruvic acid is called
      B. sugar cleavage.
      C. glycolysis
      D. fermentation.
      E. electron transport.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #33

    1. During glycolysis
      A.a 2-carbon acetyl fragment is bonded to coenzyme A.
      B. 2 NADH molecules are produced from each glucose molecule.
      C. acetyl CoA is combined with oxaloacetic acid.
      D. 2 molecules of FADH2 are produced.
      E. 5-carbon compounds are produced.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #34

    1. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place when protons flow across the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. This is called
      B. assimilation.
      C. fluorescence.
      D. phosphorescence.
      E. degradation.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #35

    1. During digestion links of chains of simple sugars are broken by a process of
      B. phosphorylation.
      C. chemiosmosis.
      D. fermentation.
      E. carboxylation.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #36

    1. Fermentation in plants and yeast terminates with the formation of
      B. NADPH
      C. ethyl alcohol
      D. lactic acid
      E. FADH2

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #38

    1. Because it is hare to digest and is toxic to some predators, this molecule protects plants from herbivorous animals.
      B. starch
      C. cellulose
      D. salicin
      E. pectin

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #37

    True / False Questions

    1. The light most extensively used in photosynthesis consists of wavelengths in the green range.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #39

    1. ADP molecules can become ATP molecules if a phosphate “group” is added to them.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #40

    1. RuBP is a 5-carbon sugar that is continually being formed while photosynthesis is occurring.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #41

    1. Respiration occurs only in cells where no photosynthesis is taking place.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #42

    1. The energy released from a glucose molecule during fermentation is only a fraction of the energy released during aerobic respiration.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #43

    1. The carbohydrate produced through photosynthesis is converted to other substances through the process of assimilation.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #44

    1. A photosynthetic unit consists of a molecule of chlorophyll a and a molecule of chlorophyll b.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #45

    1. Light is believed to travel in individual “packets” called photons.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #46

    1. Pyruvic acid is the starting molecule in fermentation.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #47

    1. Heat inactivates most enzymes.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #48

    1. A temperature rise of 10°C can double or even triple respiration rates.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #49

    1. Cytochromes are the principal acceptor molecules in an electron transport chain.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #50

    1. Digestion nearly always involves hydrolysis.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #51

    1. Resins, gums, oils, and other substances may be manufactured during the process of assimilation.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #52

    1. CAM photosynthesis is best known in tropical plants.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #53

    1. Energy conversion in plants takes place with 100% efficiency unlike energy conversion in machines.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #54

    1. Organisms that cannot use atmospheric oxygen are called anaerobic organisms.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #55

    1. Photosynthetic light independent reactions can take place in the light.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #56

    1. The shorter the wavelength of light, the greater the energy.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #57

    1. Phaeophytin is the electron acceptor molecule in photosystem 2.

    Stern – 010 Chapter… #58

    1. Photosynthesis can be defined as the conversion of light energy to biochemical energy.
    1. Photosynthetic ‘light dependent’ reactions can take place in the dark.


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