## Statistics A Tool for Social Research , 10th Edition by Joseph F. Healey – Test Bank

- The central problem in the case of two-sample hypothesis test is to determine
- if the samples are
- if sample statistics are the same as those of the sampling
- if the parameters are representative of the
- if two populations differ significantly on the trait in

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 217

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.02 – Explain the logic of hypothesis testing as applied to the two- sample case.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two samples, which is the proper assumption for step 1?
- Random sampling
- Ordinal level of measurement
- Degrees of freedom are zero
- Samples are independent as well as random

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 217

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.03 – Explain what an independent random sample is.

- When random samples are drawn so that the selection of a case for one sample has no effect on the selection of cases for another sample, the samples are

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 217

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.03 – Explain what an independent random sample is.

- To satisfy the requirement of independent random sampling, the researcher
- must use only cluster
- may randomly select cases from one list of the population, then subdivide that sample according to the trait of
- may randomly select an entire neighborhood, then select any member of each family in that
- must select only very small

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.03 – Explain what an independent random sample is.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means, the null hypothesis is that
- the sample standard deviations are
- the sample means are
- the populations from which the sample was drawn are
- the populations from which the sample was drawn are the

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- In the two sample case, the null hypothesis is always about the difference in the
- standard
- all of the

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two samples, the null hypothesis states that the

____________ are the same.

- sample means
- population means
- sampling distributions
- population standard deviations

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- Rejection of the null hypothesis in the two-sample case implies that the
- samples are different on the trait of
- populations from which the samples are drawn are different on the trait of
- samples are not different on the trait of
- populations from which the samples are drawn are not different on the trait of

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- Samples of Republicans and Democrats have been tested for their level of support for welfare reform and the null hypothesis has been What may we conclude?
- The difference is significant, there are differences between the parties on this issue
- The difference is significant, the parties are the same on this issue
- The difference is not significant
- A Type I error has occurred

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- Samples of Republicans and Democrats have been tested for their level of support for a new immigration The

test statistic is 0.54 and the critical region begins at ± 1.96. What may we conclude?

- The difference is significant, there are differences between the parties on this
- The difference is significant, the parties are the same on this
- The difference is not
- The difference is not significant and a Type I error has

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When conducting hypothesis tests for two sample means, the test statistic is
- the difference in sample
- the degrees of
- the difference in the population

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When conducting hypothesis tests for two sample means, the term
*μ*1-*μ*2 in the numerator of the formula reduces to zero because- the standard deviations are calculated
- the tests are conducted at very low alpha
- the samples are independent as well as
- the null hypothesis is assumed to be

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 218

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- Random samples of men and women have been given a scale that measures their support for gun Men average 10.2 with a standard deviation of 5.3. Women also average 10.2 but their standard deviation is 1.8. How could these results be dealt with appropriately?
- Test the difference in the sample means for statistical
- Since the sample means are the same value, there is no need to conduct any tests; these results cannot be
- A one-tailed test of significance is called
- A test of significance with a very high alpha level (α > 10) is called for.

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 218-221

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- A pooled estimate
- compares two different
- combines two different
- combines information from two
- is the mean of two standard

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 219

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.02 – Explain the logic of hypothesis testing as applied to the two- sample case.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution is estimated using
- population standard
- the standard error of the
- degrees of
- sample standard deviations corrected for

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 219

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means, which of the following is almost always unknown?
- The population standard deviations
- The sample standard deviations
- Degrees of freedom
- The sample means

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 219

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- For testing the difference between two sample means, the level of measurement is assumed to be
- interval-ratio.
- Any of the above

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 219

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means, which parameters must be estimated with sample values?
- The population standard deviations
- The population means
- The standard deviation of the sampling distribution
- The alpha value

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 220

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means, we must first estimate

before we can compute the test statistic.

- the standard deviation of the sampling distribution
- the standard deviations of the samples
- the population means
- the critical region

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 220

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means, the null hypothesis can be stated as a. =
*μ*> 0*μ**1*=*μ**2**σ**1*=*σ**2*

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 220

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- A researcher conducted a survey to determine if older people have different feelings about abortion than younger He used an alpha level of 0.05 (
*Z*critical = ±1.96) to test for significance and found that his computed test statistic was 2.76. He may conclude that- the difference occurred by random
- the difference did not occur by random
- the samples are not
- the alpha level was too

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 221

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- A researcher conducted a survey to determine if older people have different feelings about abortion than younger He used an alpha level of 0.05 (
*Z*critical = ±1.96) to test for significance and found that his computed test statistic was 2.76. Which of the following conclusions is justified?- Feelings about abortion do not vary by
- Older and younger people have significantly different feelings about
- A one-tailed test should have been
- A Type II error has

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 221

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- According to the text, reading tests conducted on representative samples of American 4thgraders show
- no significant improvement between 2007 and
- a significant decrease in scores since
- a significant increase in scores since
- an increase in average scores for boys since 2005, but not for

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 223

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- When testing hypotheses using two small samples, the
*t*distribution may be used only after the additional assumption that- the population means are
- the population variances are
- the population variances are not
- the population means are

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 223

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- In testing for the significance of the difference between two sample means when the sample size is small, we may assume equal population variances if
- sample sizes are exactly the
- sample sizes are
- sample sizes are approximately
- none of the above, we cannot assume equal population

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 223

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- Samples from two high schools are being tested for the difference in their average levels of One sample contains 39 respondents and the other sample contains 47 respondents. The appropriate sampling distribution is the
*t**Z**F*- Any of the above

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 223

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- Since critical values of
*t*vary by sample size, before using the*t*table we must first calculate- the
*Z* - degrees of
- the population standard
- the alpha

- the

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 223

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When is the
*t*distribution used instead of the Z distribution to test the significance of the difference between two sample means?- Never
- When sample size is very large
- When one sample is much larger than the other
- When N is small

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 224

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- When testing for the significance of the difference between sample means with small samples, the proper sampling distribution is
- the alpha
- the beta
- the
*Z* - the
*t*

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 224

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- From a University population, random samples of 45 seniors and 37 freshmen have been given a scale that measures sexual The freshmen report an average of 1.6 sexual partners over their lifetimes while seniors report an average of 2.5 partners. The
*t*(obtained) for this difference was -3.56 while the*t*(critical) was ± 2.34. What can be concluded?- There is no significant difference between the
- Seniors and freshman are significantly different in their sexual
- Freshmen are more sexually
- Sexual mores are

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 225

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- When solving the formula for finding Z(obtained) with sample proportions in the two-sample case, we must first estimate
- the standard deviation of the
- the population
- the ratio of the sample
- the critical

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 228

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- For tests of significance involving two sample proportions, the value of the population proportion is estimated from
- the value of the sample
- the value of
*Z*(obtained). - the sample
- the sample standard

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 228

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- From a University population, random samples of 145 men and 237 women have been asked if they have ever cheated in a college 8% of the men and 6% of the women said that they have. What is the appropriate test to assess the significance of this difference?
- Test for the significance of the difference between two sample proportions, large
- Test for the significance of the difference between two sample proportions, small
- Test for the significance of the difference between two sample proportions, matched
- Test for the significance of the difference between two sample means, large

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 228

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- When testing the significance of the difference between two sample proportions, the null hypothesis is
- Ps1= Ps2
- Ps1= Ps21
- Pu= (1 – Pu)
- Pu1 = Pu2

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 229

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- According to the text, on the issue of abortion,
- Democratic and Republican opinion has grown increasingly alike over the
- Democratic and Republican opinion has grown increasingly apart over the
- Democratic women have become increasingly like Republican
- Young Democrats and young Republicans have become increasingly

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 232

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- According to the example in your text, what is the difference in perspectives regarding premarital sex?
- there were no significant
- men were significantly less supportive of
- women were significantly more supportive of
- women were significantly less supportive of

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 232

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- For all tests of hypothesis, the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis is a function of
- the size of the observed
- the alpha level and the use of one- or two-tailed
- sample
- All of the above

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- The higher the alpha level,
- the lower the probability of rejecting the null
- the larger the sample size has to be to reject the null
- the greater the probability of rejecting the null
- the more desirable the two-tailed

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- The lower the alpha level,
- the lower the probability of rejecting the null
- the larger the sample size has to be to reject the null
- the greater the probability of rejecting the null
- the more desirable the two-tailed

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- Four tests of significance were conducted on the same set of results: For test 1: alpha = 05, two-tailed test.

For test 2: alpha = 0.10, one-tailed test. For test 3: alpha = 0.01, two-tailed test. For test 4: alpha = 0.01, one-tailed test.

Which test is most likely to result in a rejection of the null hypothesis?

- Test 1
- Test 2
- Test 3
- Test 4

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- The value of all test statistics increases as
- the sampling distribution
- the alpha level
- the size of the critical region
- sample size

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- The larger the sample size, the
- more important the observed
- more likely we are to reject the null
- less likely we are to reject the null
- lower the Z

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- Random samples of 1546 men and 1678 women have been given a scale that measures support of legal Men average 12.45 and women average 12.46, and the difference is significant at the 0.05 level. What can we conclude?
- There is an important difference between men and women on this
- Because of the large sample sizes, these results may be statistically significant but
- The difference should be re-tested with a one-tailed
- The difference should be re-tested at a higher alpha

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- A onetailed testthe probability of rejecting the null
- has no effect
- none of these choices are

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- A difference between samples that is shown to be statistically significant is always
- theoretically
- practically
- sociologically
- None of the above

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- To maximize the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, use
- low alphas and two-tailed
- low alphas and high Z
- high alphas but low degrees of
- high alphas, large samples, and one- tailed

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 233

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- If a difference between random samples is not statistically significant, it is probably. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference is not necessarily.
- important, due to random chance
- unimportant, large
- important, unimportant
- unimportant, important

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 234

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- Very large random samples of Catholics and Protestants have been questioned about their opinions on Forty-six percent of the Protestant and 47% of the Catholics approve of males and females living together without being married. The difference has been tested and found to be statistically significant. What is the most reasonable conclusion?
- This is a statistically significant and important
- This difference may be statistically significant but it seems
- This difference is due to random
- The researcher should have used sample means rather than proportions in this

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 234

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- Regarding importance versus statistics:
- there are ways to analyze importance as well as
- researchers cannot formally assess
- there is no difference between importance and
- the distinction is entirely dependent upon

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 234

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.05 – List and explain each of the factors that affect the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. Explain the difference between statistical significance and importance.

- The text reports the results of a test for the significance of the difference in average income for random samples of males and Males earned an average of about $17,000 more per year and the
*Z*score computed in step 4 was 6.53. Given these results, which of the following is a reasonable conclusion?- The difference is statistically significant, large, and
- The difference is not statistically significant and was probably caused by random
- There is no gender gap in income in the United
- This difference is statistically significant but quite

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 234

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- Which of the following was true for the test for differences in average income by gender reported in the text?
- The information on income came from the S. Bureau of the Census.
- The income of males, on the average, was almost twice that of
- The test compared only people who worked full
- The test compared only people who had a least a high school

*ANSWER: *c

*REFERENCES:* 236

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- The text reports the results of a test for the significance of the difference in average education for random samples of males and Males averaged 13.76 years of schooling and females averaged 14.04 years. The
*Z*score computed in step 4 for this difference was – 1.49. Given these results, which of the following is a reasonable conclusion?- The difference is statistically significant, large, and
- The difference is not statistically significant and was probably caused by random
- There is an important gender gap in education in the United
- This difference is statistically significant but quite

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 236

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- What causes the gender gap in income documented in the text? One factor is that
- men and women hold different kinds of careers and
- women are much less educated than
- women have much higher rates of unemployment than
- All of the above

*ANSWER: *a

*REFERENCES:* 236

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- Which of the following was true for the test for differences in average education by gender reported in the text?
- The information on education came from the S. Bureau of the Census.
- The average sum of years of education for males was almost twice that of
- The test was based on very small samples of less than 100 females and
- The information on education came from the 2008 General Social

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 236

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- According to information supplied by the S. Bureau of the Census, between 1955 and 2007, the gender gap in income closed from
- 90% to 99%
- 40% to 50%
- 25% to 28%
- 64% to 78%

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 236

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- According to information supplied by the S. Bureau of the Census, about 10.5% of men earn more than $100,000 a year vs. about% of women.
- 1 3.5
- 6.75
- 12

*ANSWER: *b

*REFERENCES:* 236

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.01 – Identify and cite examples of situations in which the two- sample test of hypothesis is appropriate.

- When researchers present their findings using a two-sample hypothesis test, they usually include all but which of the

following:

- the sample
- the test
- the degrees of
- the critical

*ANSWER: *d

*REFERENCES:* 237

*LEARNING OBJECTIVES: *STAT.HEAL.15.09.04 – Perform a test of hypothesis for two sample means or two sample proportions following the five-step model and correctly interpret the results.

- A sample of students attending a large university has been Is there a statistically significant difference between Liberal Arts majors and other students on average number of books (other than those required by course work) read per year? Use the five step model and write a sentence or two interpreting your results.

__Liberal Arts Other__

= 16.2 = 13.7

*s**1*= 2.3 *s**2*= 9.0

*N**1*= 236 *N**2*= 321

*ANSWER: σ *= .53

*Z *(obtained) = 4.72

- Is there a statistically significant difference between males and females in terms of newspaper readership? The proportion of each sex that says they read a newspaper daily is reported Results are from a nationally representative sample. Use the five step model and write a sentence or two interpreting your results.

__Males Females__

*P**s1 *= .56 *P**s2 *= .59

*N**1*= 786 *N**2*= 965

*ANSWER: P**u*= .58

*σ *= .0237

*Z *(obtained) = -1.27

- A scale measuring confidence in the media was administered to a Is there a statistically significant difference between Democrats and Republicans on the scale? Higher scores on the scale indicate greater confidence. Use the five step model and write a sentence or two interpreting your results.

__Democrats Republicans__

= 8.5= 7.8

*s**1*= 1.5 *s**2*= 1.1

*N**1*= 36 *N**2*= 35

*ANSWER: σ *= .32

*t *(obtained) = 2.19

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