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Special Education Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals 5Th edition by Marilyn Friend

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Special Education Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals 5Th edition by Marilyn Friend

Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives, 5e (Friend)

Chapter 9 Students with Speech and Language Disorders

9.1 Multiple Choice Questions

1) The emphasis on speech-language therapy gradually shifted from exclusive attention to the correct production of speech sounds to the broader domain of children’s:

  1. A) Overall ability to use language to communicate.
  2. B) Ability to produce complete sentences using the correct tense.
  3. C) Ability to express themselves clearly.
  4. D) Efforts at expressing themselves to a variety of people.

Answer: A

2) In IDEA, which term is used to describe individuals with communication disorders?

  1. A) Speech and language disorders
  2. B) Speech or language impairment
  3. C) Speech and language dysfunction
  4. D) Communication disorders

Answer: B

3) Communication requires each of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) A message.
  2. B) A sender.
  3. C) A receiver.
  4. D) A sound.

Answer: D

4) The exchange of information and knowledge among participants is:

  1. A) Collaboration.
  2. B) Expressive language.
  3. C) Communication.
  4. D) Receptive language.

Answer: C

5) The system of symbols, governed by complex rules, that individuals use for communication is:

  1. A) Speech.
  2. B) Language
  3. C) Communication.
  4. D) Receptive language.

Answer: B

6) A student who says “I overslept because I was late” rather than “I was late because I overslept” may have a problem with which type of language impairment?

  1. A) Challenges in forming sentences
  2. B) Discriminating among similar sounds
  3. C) Errors in forming words
  4. D) Difficulty understanding nuances

Answer: A

7) When students have language disorders that cannot be explained by physical disabilities, intellectual disabilities, hearing loss, or other disabilities, they are referred to as having:

  1. A) CAPD.
  2. B) Learning disabilities.
  3. C) Specific language impairments (SLIs).
  4. D) Language disabilities.

Answer: C

8) Students who do NOT have hearing loss, but for some reason their brains do not effectively interpret the auditory information that comes from their ears have:

  1. A) Chronic Autism Personality Disorder.
  2. B) Chronic Auditory Processing Disorder.
  3. C) Central Autism Personality Disorder.
  4. D) Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

Answer: D

9) Speech has each of the following dimensions EXCEPT:

  1. A) Voice.
  2. B) Resonance.
  3. C) Volume.
  4. D) Fluency.

Answer: C

10) Each of the following is a component of voice EXCEPT:

  1. A) Tone.
  2. B) Pitch.
  3. C) Intensity.
  4. D) Quality.

Answer: A

11) The movement of tongue, teeth, lips, and palate all affect:

  1. A) Speech.
  2. B) Articulation.
  3. C) Fluency.
  4. D) Phonology.

Answer: B

12) Researchers estimate what percent of children in first grade have a speech disorder?

  1. A) 10 percent
  2. B) 7 percent
  3. C) 5 percent
  4. D) 3 percent

Answer: C

13) When speech and language disorders are the result of problems related to the central nervous system or other systems within the body, the cause is:

  1. A) Congenital.
  2. B) Hereditary.
  3. C) Environmental.
  4. D) Biological.

Answer: D

14) Children who have significant speech or language delays are at higher risk for experiencing:

  1. A) Reading difficulties.
  2. B) Math difficulties.
  3. C) Science difficulties.
  4. D) Writing difficulties.

Answer: A

15) Students with speech and language disorders struggle socially and emotionally because:

  1. A) They are academically gifted.
  2. B) They may be the target of peer teasing.
  3. C) They are developmentally delayed.
  4. D) They are not in the general classroom.

Answer: B

16) An example of a spontaneous language sample is:

  1. A) Reading a teacher-selected passage.
  2. B) Engaging students in a conversation.
  3. C) Reciting a poem.
  4. D) Singing a song.

Answer: B

17) A speech/language pathologist’s assessment methods include:

  1. A) Gathering a spontaneous language sample.
  2. B) Administering standardized test.
  3. C) Examining a student’s physical structure for producing speech.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

18) Speech/language pathologists examine the student’s physical structures for producing speech, including each of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) Teeth are aligned.
  2. B) Hard palate shape and size.
  3. C) Shape and size of nose/nasal passages.
  4. D) Breathing patterns.

Answer: C

19) An example of informal measures used in identifying students with language impairments is:

  1. A) Test of Adolescent and Adult Language 3.
  2. B) Criterion reference tests.
  3. C) Parent and teacher interviews.
  4. D) IQ tests.

Answer: C

20) Which approach to providing speech-language services has the benefit of eliminating distractions for the young children?

  1. A) In class
  2. B) In home
  3. C) Pullout
  4. D) Indirect services

Answer: C

21) The way in which speech-language services are implemented depends on:

  1. A) The nature of the disability.
  2. B) The age of the individual receiving services.
  3. C) The parents’ preference.
  4. D) The individual’s preference.

Answer: A

22) The most appropriate setting in which nearly all students can learn speech and language skills and practice them is in:

  1. A) Therapy with a speech-language pathologist.
  2. B) Resource setting.
  3. C) General education classroom.
  4. D) The home.

Answer: C

23) How many times greater than in the rest of the population do experts estimate that the prevalence of language disorders among female juvenile delinquents is?

  1. A) 10 times
  2. B) 3 times
  3. C) 6 times
  4. D) 15 times

Answer: B

24) Which of the following is specialized intervention that students with speech and language disorders may need?

  1. A) Articulation therapy
  2. B) Study buddy
  3. C) Fewer math problems
  4. D) A scribe

Answer: A

25) Speech/language pathologists typically do each of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) Reinforce relationships between spoken language and preliteracy skills.
  2. B) Provide interventions related to phonemic awareness and memory.
  3. C) Analyze the language demands found in textbooks and other school materials.
  4. D) Provide primary academic instruction to students with SLIs.

Answer: D

26) Which device uses pictures, symbols, or printed words to facilitate student communication, and which can be low tech or high tech?

  1. A) Communication board
  2. B) Word prediction software
  3. C) Sound field amplification system
  4. D) Unaided AAC

Answer: A

27) Professionals can assist parents in effectively interacting with their children with speech and language disorders by:

  1. A) Providing parents with literature on strategies to use.
  2. B) Advising parents to attend to their children’s speech.
  3. C) Providing parents the names of family counselors.
  4. D) Increasing parent awareness and understanding of speech and language development.

Answer: D

28) A variation in the surface characteristics of language is a/an:

  1. A) Dialect.
  2. B) Accent.
  3. C) Variation.
  4. D) Disorder.

Answer: B

29) Besides accent and dialect, examples of cultural factors that may affect language are:

  1. A) Beliefs and attitudes.
  2. B) Turn-taking and humor.
  3. C) Religion and socioeconomic status.
  4. D) Attitudes and education level.

Answer: B

30) Code switching occurs when:

  1. A) Bilingual students switch back and forth from English to their native language when talking to parents.
  2. B) The student is taught that Standard English is the only acceptable way to communicate.
  3. C) Students use Standard English when it’s appropriate and dialect with family and community.
  4. D) Students use Standard English with their peers, even in the community.

Answer: C

9.2 Praxis Style Questions

1) Misha is a 3-year-old who has just begun talking. She has a vocabulary of approximately twenty words. She has language but has acquired it at a much slower rate than children her age. This is called:

  1. A) Aphasia.
  2. B) Central auditory processing.
  3. C) Language delay.
  4. D) Articulation disorder.

Answer: C

2) Benjamin is a high school student who is unable to communicate verbally. Benjamin was diagnosed with apraxia after suffering brain damage during birth. To communicate his needs Benjamin uses a communication board. This is an example of:

  1. A) Aided AAC.
  2. B) Unaided AAC.
  3. C) Personal digital assistant.
  4. D) Facilitated communication.

Answer: A

3) Tommy is an African-American student who has recently moved from Boston to a small town in North Carolina. He is at-risk for being incorrectly identified as having a speech or language impairment because of his dialect and accent. What can his parents and teachers help him learn to do to avoid this?

  1. A) Code switch
  2. B) Practice a Southern accent
  3. C) Change his dialect
  4. D) Avoid calling attention to himself

Answer: A

9.3 Fill in the Blank Questions

1) ________ refers to the ability to produce language.

Answer: Expressive language

2) ________ refers to loss of language after it has developed.

Answer: Aphasia

3) No generalizations can be made concerning the ________ characteristics of students with speech and language disorders.

Answer: cognitive

4) Approximately ________ percent of students with this disability are educated in general education classrooms more than 80 percent of the school day

Answer: 87%

5) Speech and language professionals are careful to distinguish between ________—variations from standard speech and language that are considered normal—and ________.

Answer: language differences, language disorders

9.4 Short Answer Questions

1) What is the difference between expressive and receptive language?

Answer: Expressive language refers to individuals’ ability to produce language while receptive language refers to the ability to comprehend language.

2) What is central auditory processing and what makes it a rather controversial topic among professionals?

Answer: Students who have central auditory processing disorders do not have hearing loss, but for some reason their brains do not effectively interpret the auditory information that comes from their ears. They may have difficulty in several related areas, including listening and speaking using the rules of the language. It should be noted, though, that considerable confusion and misinformation exists regarding this disorder; some view it instead as related to attention deficit—hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, or specific language impairment.

3) What are three types of articulation disorders (give an example of each)?

Answer: Articulation involves the movement of the tongue, teeth, lips, and palate to produce the sounds of a language. Answers will include 3 of the following: Articulation disorders include omissions (bo for boat), substitutions (wan for ran), or additions (ammaminal for animal). Distortions are another articulation disorder. They occur when a sound not found in the child’s language is used for another sound. For example, if soup was said with air escaping from the side of the mouth, a distortion would have occurred.

4) What precautions must be taken when assessing a student for speech and communication disorders whose first language is NOT English?

Answer: Precautions must be taken so that the assessment is accurate and fair. For example, the test must have been developed for use with the students to whom it is being administered and the directions and other aspects of the test cannot be confusing to individuals who do not speak standard English; this may lead to incorrect responses, not because of language problems but because of the style in which the directions are given. The testing situation itself may be particularly stressful for a student who is not a native English speaker. The expectation for the student to participate in a conversation with the professional administering the assessment may violate some students’ cultural norms.

5) What are the three factors supporting early intervention for students with speech and language disorders?

Answer: First, research suggests that when a problem exists, the earlier an intervention is begun and the longer it is implemented, the more likely the problem will be addressed effectively. Second, when early intervention is undertaken, services can be intense. By involving all the important adults in the intervention process, more services can be delivered and more positive results can be expected. Finally, the progress that young children make in overcoming speech and language disorders will more likely be maintained if support is provided during these critical years across settings and across time.

9.5 Essay Questions

1) In what ways have the interventions for children with speech and language disorders changed from the beginning of the twentieth century to today? How did the passage of P.L. 94-142 influence the interventions of speech and language services currently being practiced?

Answer: During the 19th century instruction was characterized by the use of unproven treatments—for example, improving speech by placing rolls of linen under the tongue. Much early work was completed by medical specialists, but by the beginning of the twentieth century a new group of professionals called speech clinicians was emerging to address speech and language disorders. Most of the interventions these professionals provided for children with speech or language disorders took place in public schools, and the emphasis on speech-language therapy gradually shifted from the correct production of speech sounds to the broader overall ability to use language to communicate. P.L. 94-142 has influenced speech and language services to stress the role of communication. Professionals now acknowledge that not only is it important to recognize whether students can produce complete sentences using the correct tense, but it is also essential to think about what students are trying to express and to whom.

2) What are some of the academic, social, and behavior characteristics of students with speech and language disorders?

Answer: Answers should include descriptions of the negative impact these disorders have on student’s ability to learn, including reading difficulties and inability to benefit from early literacy experiences; problems with social experiences, including their own self-concepts, teasing by peers, and difficulty in participating in conversations; and, students with speech and language disorders may be at high risk for behavior problems even for being identified as having emotional and behavior disorders.

3) Compare and contrast the traditional approach to early speech and language intervention with more inclusive practices.

Answer: Traditionally, speech/language services were offered in a pullout model, even for very young children. The speech/language pathologist would come to the home or preschool classroom to get the child to receive services; take the child to a separate room, classroom, or office; provide intervention individually or in a small group; and then return the child to the parent or classroom. This approach had the benefit of eliminating distractions for the child, but it removed the child from the natural setting in which speech and language occur and had the potential for stigmatizing the child. Some young children receive their speech/language services in the context of the early childhood center, preschool setting, or kindergarten classroom. The advantage of this approach is that the speech/language pathologist can observe the child’s ability to function in the natural environment. One additional option is an approach that combines separate service, in-class service, and indirect service. In some cases, the speech/language pathologist periodically may work directly with a child in a separate setting, often to check on progress, to address particularly complex problems, and to make decisions about subsequent steps in intervention. However, at least some of the services are offered within the classroom context. The final component of this approach is consultation. The most appropriate setting in which nearly all students can learn and practice speech and language skills is general education. One relatively emerging role for professionals working there with students with speech and language disorders is co-teaching.

4) Why is speaking with parents from diverse groups about students’ speech and language needs challenging?

Answer: Parents who do not speak English fluently may have difficulty helping their children to make sounds correctly and blend them into words. If English is not spoken in the home but school professionals are teaching it at school, students may not have enough opportunities to practice emerging skills and so may be at a disadvantage. Significant differences may exist between Western cultures and other cultures. For example, not everyone shares the view that that AAC devices should be relied on. In some families, AAC might be seen as unnecessary or even detrimental because it can be intrusive in terms of family interactions. Its benefit of providing independence may be viewed as a reason to avoid it.

5) The trend toward the use of evidence-based practices is a direct result of the accountability movement in today’s schools. Briefly describe the three implications of this trend included in the text.

Answer: Collection of data. Speech/language therapists are expected to gather systematic data that can be used to judge the effectiveness of their strategies, their diagnostic procedures, and their methods for intervening.

Use of data for decision making. Interventions should be attempted or continued based on specific data related to the students with whom they are used and large-scale studies that document their impact. Strategies that are not supported by research should be discarded.

Professional education. Speech/language therapists need to be educated about the importance of evidence-based practices and the ways in which they should guide practices in public schools. Teachers and other educators need to know why these practices should be central to speech/language therapists’ work, how teachers can participate in further developing evidence-based practices, and what these practices imply for students and their families.


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