## SOLUTION MANUAL DEVELOPMENTAL MATH 3RD EDITION LIAL

CHAPTER 8 STATISTICS

8.1 Circle Graphs

8.1 Margin Exercises

1. (a) The circle graph shows that the greatest

number of hours is spent sleeping.

(b)

hours working

hours studying

hours

Two more hours are spent working than studying.

hours studying

hours working

hours attending class

hours

(c)

Thirteen hours are spent studying, working, and

attending classes.

2. (a) Hours spent driving to whole day:

(driving)

(whole day)

hours

hours

(b) Hours spent sleeping to whole day:

(sleeping)

(whole day)

hours

hours

(c) Hours spent attending class and studying to

whole day:

hours attending class

hours studying

hours

hours

hours

(d) Hours spent driving and working to whole

day:

hours driving

hours working

hours

hours

hours

3. (a) Hours spent in class to hours spent studying:

(class)

(studying)

hours

hours

(b) Hours spent working to hours spent sleeping:

( )

( )

hours

hours

working

sleeping

(c) Hours spent driving to hours spent working:

( )

( )

hours

hours

driving

working

(d) Hours spent in class to hours spent for

“Other:”

( )

(o )

hours

hours

class

ther

4. Use the percent equation:

part percent • whole

(a) whole billion; percent % ;

find the part.

billion billion

The amount spent on corn chips is $ billion

or $ , , , .

(b) whole billion;

percent % ; find the part.

billion billion

The amount spent on miscellaneous is $

billion or $ , , , .

(c) whole billion; percent % ;

find the part.

billion billion

The amount spent on cakes/pies is $ billion

or $ , , , .

(d) whole billion;

percent % ; find the part.

billion billion

The amount spent on cookies/crackers is $

billion or $ , , , .

5. (a) Working poor:

° °% °

(b) Ex-offenders:

° ° ° %

(c) At-risk youth:

° ° °%

(d) Unemployed:

° ° °%

304 Chapter 8 Statistics

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8.1 Section Exercises

1. A circle graph shows how a total amount is divided

into parts.

2. When making a circle graph, a tool called a

protractor is used to measure degrees in the circle.

3. Start with “Fish” and add in a clockwise direction.

in millions

The number of pets owned in the United States is

million or , ,

4. The type of pet that is owned by the greatest

number of people in the United States is fish.

million or , , fish are owned.

5. From Exercise 3, the total number of pets is

million.

number of cats million

number of pets million

6. From Exercise 3, the total number of pets is

million.

number of small animals million

number of pets million

7.

number of cats million

number of dogs million

8.

number of fish million

number of cats million

9. The largest sector represents “Sleeping.”

Americans spend hours minutes per day on

this activity.

10. The second largest sector represents “Leisure, TV,

and sports.” Americans spend hours minutes

per day on this activity.

11. Total minutes per day

( hours)( minutes per hour)

minutes

Total minutes sleeping per day

( hours)( minutes per hour)

minutes

“Sleeping” to total:

minutes

minutes

12. From Exercise 11, the total number of minutes in a

day is .

“Personal care” to total:

13. “Educational/civic/religious activities” to

“Eating and drinking”:

minutes minutes

hour minutes minutes

14. “Personal care” to “Sleeping”:

minutes minutes

hours minutes minutes

15. “Working” to “Household duties/caring for

others”:

hours minutes minutes

hours minutes minutes

16. “Leisure, TV, and sports” to “Working”:

hours minutes minutes

hours minutes minutes

17. To determine how many people prefer onions for

their hot dog topping, use the percent equation.

part percent

people

• whole

18. Ketchup % of

people

19. Sauerkraut % of

people

20. Relish % of

people

21. Mustard % of

people

8.1 Circle Graphs 305

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22. Chili % of

people

23. Need the car to go miles or more:

% of

people (rounded)

24. Need the car to go miles:

% of

people (rounded)

25. Need the car to go miles or fewer:

% of

people (rounded)

26. Need the car to go miles:

% of

people (rounded)

27. Need the car to go miles:

% of

people (rounded)

28. To find the number of people that “Need the car to

go miles or more,” add the answers from

Exercise 23 ( miles or more) and Exercise 26

( miles).

people (rounded)

Note: We could also use

% % % of to get . Either

answer is acceptable.

29. First find the percent of the total that is to be

represented by each item. Next, multiply the

percent by ° to find the size of each sector.

Finally, use a protractor to draw each sector.

30. A protractor is used to measure the number of

degrees in a sector. First, you must draw a line

from the center of the circle to the left edge. Next,

place the hole of the protractor at the center of the

circle, making sure that the on the protractor is

on the line. Finally, make a mark at the desired

number of degrees. This gives you the size of the

sector.

31. % of the total is Adult sports.

Degrees of a circle % of

°

°

32. Percent for Children’s sports

%

°

°

33. From the text, $ is the total amount spent

during one month.

Percent for Day camp $

$

%

Degrees of a circle % of

°

°

°

34. % of the total is Senior fitness.

Degrees of a circle % of

°

°

°

35. % of the total is Annual egg hunt.

Degrees of a circle % of

°

°

°

36. Percent for Arts and crafts $

$

%

Degrees of a circle % of

°

°

°

37. Percent for Mommy and baby exercise

%

°

°

38.

306 Chapter 8 Statistics

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39. (a) Total sales $ , $ ,

$ , $ , $ , $ ,

(b) Adventure classes $ ,

percent of total % ,

,

number of degrees

° °

Grocery and provision sales $ ,

percent of total % ,

,

number of degrees

° °

Equipment rentals $ ,

percent of total % ,

,

number of degrees

° °

Rafting tours $ ,

percent of total % ,

,

number of degrees

° °

Equipment sales $ ,

percent of total % ,

,

number of degrees

° °

(c)

40. (a) Travel % of

°

°

°

Apparel, accessories, and footwear

% of

°

°

°

Computer hardware and software

% of

°

°

°

Autos and auto parts % of

°

°

°

Home furnishings % of

°

°

°

(b)

41. The total number of adults surveyed is

%

Percent for

Work/school

for

Work/school

(a)

° °

Degrees

%

Percent for

for

Place of Worship

Place of Worship

Degrees ° °

%

Percent for

for

Online dating site

Online dating site

Degrees ° °

%

Percent for

for

Friend/family member

Friend/family member

Degrees ° °

%

Percent for

for

Bar/club/social event

Bar/club/social event

Degrees ° °

%

Percent for

for

Other

Other

Degrees ° °

Work/school

Place of Worship

Online dating site

Friend/family member

Bar/club/social eve

How They Met Survey

Number in

nt

Other

8.2 Bar Graphs and Line Graphs 307

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How They Met of Total Degrees

Percent Number of

Work/school % ( ) ( )

Place of Worship % ( ) ( )

Online dating site % ( )

°

°

° ( )

Friend/family member % ( ) ( )

Bar/club/social event % ( ) ( )

Other % ( ) ( )

°

°

°

(b) Total percent

% % % % % % %

No. The total is % due to rounding.

(c) Total degrees

° ° ° ° ° ° °

No. The total is ° due to rounding.

8.2 Bar Graphs and Line Graphs

8.2 Margin Exercises

1. (a) The bar for 2010 rises to , showing that the

number of members was

,.

(b) 2009: , members

(c) 2013: , members

(d) 2012: , members

2. (a) 1st quarter, 2012:

, subscribers

1st quarter, 2013:

, subscribers

(b) 3rd quarter, 2012:

, subscribers

3rd quarter, 2013:

, subscribers

(c) 4th quarter, 2012:

, subscribers

4th quarter, 2013:

, subscribers

(d) The tallest bar rose to , showing ,

subscribers for the 4th quarter of 2013.

3. (a) June

The dot is at on the vertical axis.

, , trout

(b) May: , , trout

(c) April: , , trout

(d) July: , , trout

4. (a) The number of desktop computers sold:

2009: ,

2011: ,

2012: ,

2013: ,

(b) The number of laptop computers sold:

2009: ,

2010: ,

2011: ,

2012: ,

(c) The number of laptop computers sold was

greater than the number of desktop computers sold

when the red line was above the blue line. The

first full year in which this happened was 2012.

8.2 Section Exercises

1. A double-bar graph can be used to compare two

sets of data, so the statement is . false

2. A line graph is often useful for showing a trend, so

the statement is true.

3. The country which had the highest percent of

income spent on food was India, which spent

% of household income.

4. The country which had the lowest percent of

income spent on food was the USA, which spent

% of household income.

5. The countries in which less than % of household

income is spent, on average, for food are the USA,

Britain, and Australia.

6. The countries in which more than % of

household income is spent, on average, for food

are Israel, Mexico, and India.

308 Chapter 8 Statistics

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

7. What is % of days?

days

days (rounded)

8. What is % of days?

days

days (rounded)

9. The month of May in 2013 had the greatest

number of plants shipped. The total was ,

plants shipped.

10. In January of 2012, plants were shipped.

11. Plants shipped in February of 2013

Plants shipped in February of 2012

There were more plants shipped in February

of 2013.

12. In March of 2012, plants were shipped.

In March of 2013, plants were shipped.

There were fewer plants

shipped in March of 2012 than in March of 2013.

13. The number of plants shipped increased from

in February of 2012 to in April of 2013 The

increase was plants shipped.

14. In January of 2013, plants were shipped.

In June of 2013, plants were shipped.

The increase from January to June, 2013 was

plants shipped.

15. , gallons of supreme unleaded gasoline

were sold in 2009.

16. In 2012, , gallons of super •

unleaded gasoline were sold.

17. The greatest difference occurred in 2009.

The difference was

, , , gallons.

18. In 2013, the sales of supreme unleaded gasoline

surpassed the sales of super unleaded gasoline.

19. , gallons of supreme unleaded gasoline

were sold in 2013. , gallons of supreme

unleaded gasoline were sold in 2009.

, , ,

There was an increase of , gallons of

supreme unleaded gasoline sales.

20. In 2009, the sales were • ,

gallons.

In 2013, the sales were , •

gallons.

Increase , ,

, gallons

21. The number of PCs sold in 1990 was million

or , , .

22. The number of PCs sold in 1995 was million

or , , .

23. The increase in the estimated number of PCs to be

sold in 2015 from the number sold in 2005 is

million or , , .

24. The increase in the number of PCs sold in 2000

from the number sold in 1990 was

million or , , .

25. Answers will vary. Some possibilities are:

greater demand as a result of lower price; more

uses and applications for the owner; improved

technology; multiple computers in each location;

more laptop computers sold.

26. Answers will vary. Some possibilities are:

Fewer people will want a computer because they

already own one; new technology will replace the

computer with something better.

27. Store A sold , MP3 players in •

2013.

28. Store A sold , MP3 players in •

2012 .

29. In 2011, the annual sales for Store A were

• , MP3 players.

30. Store B sold , MP3 players in •

2013.

31. Store B sold , MP3 players in •

2012.

32. Store B sold , MP3 players in •

2011.

33. Probably Store B with greater sales. Predicted

sales might be , MP3 players to ,

MP3 players in 2014.

34. Some possible answers are that Store B may have

started to: do more advertising; keep longer store

hours; give better training to its staff; employ more

help; give better service than Store A.

35. A single bar or a single line must be used for each

set of data. To show multiple sets of data, multiple

sets of bars or lines must be used.

8.3 Frequency Distributions and Histograms 309

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36. You would use a set of bars or a set of lines for

each set of data. Examples will vary.

37. The total sales in 2013 were

• $ $ , .

38. The total sales in 2012 were

• $ $ , .

39. The total sales in 2011 were

• $ $ , .

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