Page contents

Sociology in Our Times 6th Canadian Edition by Murray – Test Bank

Instant delivery only

In Stock

$28.00

Add to Wishlist
Add to Wishlist
Compare
SKU:tb1001429

Sociology in Our Times 6th Canadian Edition by Murray – Test Bank

Chapter 6–Groups and Organizations

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Which statement best describes Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815?

a.

It was an example of how organizational structures must adapt to new conditions.

b.

Napoleon was a skilled sociologist of organization structures

c.

It was an example of how warfare requires unique sociological insights in order to be successful.

d.

It was an example of how sociology is of little value in the context of military and warfare.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Remember

  1. According to sociologists, what is a social group?

a.

any collection of people

b.

a collection of people gathered in the same place at the same time

c.

a collection of people who share a common feature

d.

a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Remember

  1. What is a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence?

a.

a social group

b.

an aggregate

c.

a category

d.

a secondary group

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Remember

  1. What is a collection of people gathered in a city park on a Sunday afternoon in July?

a.

an informal organization

b.

an aggregate

c.

a category

d.

a secondary group

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What kind of group are patrons in a restaurant and passengers on a train examples of?

a.

an aggregate

b.

a category

c.

an informal organization

d.

a primary group

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What term do sociologists use to refer to a number of people who may never have met one another but are all the same age (e.g., 22 years old)?

a.

a social group

b.

a category

c.

an aggregate

d.

a secondary group

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Which term applies to people who are the same age, race, and gender, and who share the same educational level?

a.

a social group

b.

an aggregate

c.

a formal organization

d.

a category

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 144 BLM: Remember

  1. What term best describes the Canadian federal government?

a.

a primary group

b.

an outgroup

c.

a formal organization

d.

a reference group

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 145 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What term did sociologist Charles H. Cooley use to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time?

a.

a secondary group

b.

a significant others

c.

a secondary group

d.

a primary group

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 145 BLM: Remember

  1. Annie and her older brother Jack form primary relationships. According to Cooley, what role do they occupy for each other within this primary group?

a.

personal others

b.

significant others

c.

siblings

d.

fictive kin

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 145 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What kind of group is a larger, more specialized grouping in which the members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time?

a.

a secondary group

b.

a primary group

c.

a kinship group

d.

a social group

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 145 BLM: Remember

  1. You are asked by your professor in sociology to write a short paragraph about the relationship between primary and secondary groups. Which of the following statements is most likely to appear in your short essay?

a.

Formal organizations are secondary groups and have no primary groups within them.

b.

All secondary groups are approximately the same size.

c.

There are no significant others in primary groups, but secondary groups have significant others.

d.

A secondary group may eventually form a primary group.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 145 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Who coined the terms ingroup and outgroup to describe people’s feelings toward members of their own and other groups?

a.

Emile Durkheim

b.

Max Weber

c.

William Graham Sumner

d.

Charles H. Cooley

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Remember

  1. Kurt feels a part of his high school football team and has a reputation as a star quarterback. What kind of group is the football team for Kurt?

a.

an ingroup

b.

an outgroup

c.

a secondary group

d.

a reference group

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Suppose a person does not belong and perhaps even feels a sense of competitiveness or hostility toward others. What kind of group is this person likely a part of?

a.

an ingroup

b.

an outgroup

c.

a secondary group

d.

a reference group

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Remember

  1. The “jocks” and the members of the chess club at a local high school seldom speak to one another. Which of the following terms best reflects this situation?

a.

“I” and “me”

b.

“us” and “them”

c.

“you” and “them”

d.

primary groups and secondary groups

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Laurie struggles to fit in with the popular girls at her school. What kind of group is Laurie in?

a.

an ingroup

b.

an outgroup

c.

a secondary group

d.

a reference group

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What is a reference group?

a.

a group or individual that someone pays for advice or counselling on important matters

b.

a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity

c.

a group that strongly influences a person’s behaviour and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member

d.

a group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Remember

  1. What name do sociologists give to webs of social relationships that link one person with other people and through them with more people those people know?

a.

secondary groups

b.

reference groups

c.

networks

d.

small worlds

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Remember

  1. What is a potential consequence of Phyllis belonging to a monthly book club, the parent–teacher association at her son’s school, and the bridge club at her work?

a.

She will keep all the group attachments she makes over her life.

b.

She may receive conflicting messages about how she should view herself.

c.

She will accept the values of only one group.

d.

She may refuse to acknowledge reference groups as a source of anticipatory socialization.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 146 BLM: Higher Order

  1. If Alex is friends with Ben, and Ben is dating Carrie, what kind of network may be formed?

a.

a friendship between Alex and Ben

b.

a friendship between Alex and Carrie

c.

a friendship between Alex, Ben, and Carrie

d.

no networks beyond the existing relationships

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 146–147

BLM: Higher Order

  1. What is social science analysis on networks also referred to as?

a.

network analysis

b.

small world research

c.

group association studies

d.

networks research

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 147 BLM: Remember

  1. What is a collectivity in which all members can be acquainted with one another and interact simultaneously?

a.

a reference group

b.

a secondary group

c.

a small group

d.

a large group

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Remember

  1. Who suggested that small groups have distinctive interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups?

a.

Emile Durkheim

b.

Max Weber

c.

Herbert Spencer

d.

Georg Simmel

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Remember

  1. Jordan and Steve have been dating for three years. How would Simmel describe them?

a.

a triad

b.

a dynamic duo

c.

a dyad

d.

a secondary group

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Which term did Simmel use to refer to a group such as a couple with a newborn child?

a.

an extended family

b.

a productive dyad

c.

a triad

d.

a trio

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What term did Simmel use to refer to a group that may form an alliance, such as the castaways in the popular reality series Survivor?

a.

a trio

b.

a coalition

c.

a dyad

d.

a reference group

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Higher Order

  1. How many contacts on average did it take for the letters to reach the intended recipient in Milgram’s study?

a.

2

b.

3

c.

5

d.

8

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 147 BLM: Remember

  1. What process involves maintaining or changing behaviour to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group?

a.

leadership

b.

conformity

c.

compliance

d.

obedience

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 150 BLM: Remember

  1. According to several research studies, what may lead group members to say they see something that is contradictory to what they are actually seeing or to do something they would otherwise be unwilling to do?

a.

leadership

b.

conformity

c.

compliance

d.

goal displacement

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 150 BLM: Remember

  1. What might a postmodern analysis of fast-food restaurants lead you as a researcher to conclude?

a.

Along with fragmentation comes much more emotive responses from employees and customers.

b.

Deeper social relationships are possible today.

c.

An increased intensity of causal relationships accompanies groups and organizations.

d.

Fragmented and superficial interactions with scripted conversations are common.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 148–149

BLM: Higher Order

  1. When a group has four group members, how many social interactions are possible?

a.

2

b.

4

c.

6

d.

12

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Remember

  1. How many social interactions are possible in a group of six?

a.

6

b.

10

c.

15

d.

21

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 149 BLM: Remember

  1. You have decided to repeat Solomon Asch’s research on conformity. What conclusion will you reach if your research reaches similar findings to his?

a.

Our willingness to follow explicit orders may be more common than many people would like to believe.

b.

People will bow to social pressure in small-group settings.

c.

Men were much more likely to conform to pressures than women.

d.

Groups wield very little power over members with respect to compliance.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 150–151

BLM: Higher Order

  1. In Asch’s conformity experiments, what happened as more people were added to the incorrect majority?

a.

The subject’s tendency to conform by giving wrong answers stayed the same.

b.

The subjects’ tendency to conform by giving wrong answers decreased.

c.

The subjects’ tendency to conform by giving wrong answers decreased, up to a point.

d.

The subjects’ tendency to conform by giving wrong answers increased indefinitely.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 150 BLM: Remember

  1. What were participants led to believe in Asch’s conformity experiments?

a.

The other group members all selected an incorrect line length during one of the trials.

b.

They were administering potentially harmful electric shocks to another participant in a learner condition.

c.

They would be training undergraduate women to use a computer.

d.

They were joining a normative organization in order to pursue some common interest.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 150–151

BLM: Remember

  1. What was the main independent variable in Asch’s conformity experiments?

a.

line length

b.

tendency to conform

c.

type of response given by group members

d.

level of shock administered to the learner

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 150–151

BLM: Higher Order

  1. Who demonstrated the power that groups have to produce conformity among members?

a.

Stanley Milgram

b.

Georg Simmel

c.

Korte and Milgram

d.

Solomon Asch

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 150 BLM: Remember

  1. Who conducted a series of experiments to examine people’s obedience to an authority?

a.

Solomon Asch

b.

Stanley Milgram

c.

Irving Janis

d.

John Pryor

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 151 BLM: Remember

  1. What is the main ethical concern of Stanley Milgram’s research on obedience?

a.

undue harm to participants

b.

breach of confidentiality

c.

deception

d.

lack of informed consent

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 151–152

BLM: Remember

  1. In Stanley Milgram’s experiment, what role did the real participants end up in?

a.

teacher

b.

learner

c.

victim

d.

experimenter

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 151–152

BLM: Remember

  1. Why have critics raised caution about the significance of Stanley Milgram’s findings?

a.

ethics

b.

artificiality

c.

reliability

d.

lack of control group

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 152 BLM: Remember

  1. The experimenter in Stanley Milgram’s experiment indicated that the teacher should give increasingly painful shocks. What percentage of the teachers administered shocks all the way to the maximum of 450 volts?

a.

between 10 and 20 percent

b.

between 21 and 40 percent

c.

between 41 and 60 percent

d.

over 60 percent

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 152 BLM: Remember

  1. If we accept Stanley Milgram’s research findings, then what would we conclude about obedience to authority?

a.

It is actually quite rare.

b.

It takes place only in the presence of charismatic leadership.

c.

It may be more common than most people would like to believe.

d.

It occurs only with a laissez-faire leader.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 152 BLM: Remember

  1. Why would it be so difficult to replicate the research by Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram today?

a.

People today are much less likely to conform to an authority.

b.

It would be unlikely that such research would obtain ethical approval.

c.

These studies work only in the United States, not in Canada.

d.

Men are less likely to conform than women.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 153 BLM: Higher Order

  1. For what have experiments by Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram been most criticized?

a.

violating principles of research ethics

b.

not demonstrating the effects that they were supposed to

c.

using too wide a range of subjects, so that the findings could mean any of a number of things

d.

generating results that could not be duplicated by anyone else

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 153 BLM: Remember

  1. In a meeting at John’s workplace, the entire management team agrees it would be best to sell the company, even though John and several other managers believe this is the wrong decision. What process does this exemplify?

a.

group conformity

b.

groupthink

c.

group decision making

d.

group compliance

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 153 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Why does groupthink occur?

a.

Group members want to avoid conformity at all costs.

b.

Group members carefully examine all available options, and then vote on the best solution.

c.

Group members constantly undermine the group’s consensus.

d.

Group members usually want to be “team players.”

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 153 BLM: Remember

  1. According to the text, what type of group dynamic was the tragic 1986 launch of the space shuttle Challenger an example of?

a.

the iron law of oligarchy

b.

authoritarian leadership

c.

groupthink

d.

instrumental leadership

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 153 BLM: Remember

  1. What is the organizational model found in the Roman Catholic Church?

a.

human relations

b.

bureaucratic

c.

democratic

d.

bottom-down

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 155 BLM: Higher Order

  1. What process involving traditional methods of social organization is characterized by informality and spontaneity, which are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures?

a.

rationality

b.

organizational reform

c.

top-down

d.

bottom-up

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 163 BLM: Remember

  1. Who was the sociologist who set forth the formal characteristics of bureaucratic organizations?

a.

Irving Janis

b.

Solomon Asch

c.

Karl Marx

d.

Max Weber

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 156 BLM: Remember

  1. What kind of division of labour does a bureaucracy have?

a.

flexible

b.

non-existent

c.

specialized

d.

vertical authority structure

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 156 BLM: Remember

  1. The organization of university faculty into assistant professor, associate professor, and full professor is an example of what?

a.

informal structure in groups and organizations

b.

the existence of a hierarchy of authority in groups and organizations

c.

rewarding team performances in groups and organizations

d.

rationality in groups and organizations

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 156–157

BLM: Higher Order

  1. Approaching the study of organizations using the ideas of Weber, what were bureaucracies intended to do for organizations?

a.

establish more red tape and less irrationality

b.

provide a loophole for “buck-passing”

c.

make organizations more productive and efficient

d.

reduce rules and paperwork

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: page 156 BLM: Higher Order

  1. Using Weberian analysis, why was a bureaucracy the most efficient means of attaining organizational goals?

a.

It contributed to coordination and control.

b.

It was irrational.

c.

It was fast paced and reduced the need for micromanagement.

d.

It reduced control.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 156–157

BLM: Remember

  1. What process gradually replaced methods of social organization characterized by informality and spontaneity with efficiently administered rules and procedures?

a.

formal organizational restructuring

b.

traditional authority

c.

rationality

d.

bureaucracy

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 156 BLM: Remember

  1. What did Weber assert could establish authority within an organization and offer clear-cut standards for determining satisfactory performance?

a.

qualification-based forms of employment

b.

rules and regulations

c.

strict management structures

d.

probationary periods

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 157 BLM: Remember

  1. As a sociologist, suppose you have been asked why bureaucracies exist. How would you respond?

a.

Traditional authority was rejected and rational-legal authority became accepted.

b.

Weber’s influential work provided a justification for them.

c.

Factories were unsuccessful and became viewed as a poor model for other organizations

d.

Ford rejected Swift’s organization model.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: page 156 BLM: Higher Order

  1. According to Weber’s ideal characteristics of bureaucracies, on what basis should hiring be done?

a.

ascribed status only

b.

specific qualifications

c.

subjective factors only

d.

random selection, in order to ensure fairness

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 157 BLM: Remember

  1. What does it mean to say that a bureaucracy is “impersonal”?

a.

It means that bureaucracies ignore the concerns of their customers.

b.

It means that personal feelings do not interfere with organizational decisions.

c.

It means that hiring is done strictly on the basis of ascribed statuses.

d.

It means that all rules and regulations are written down, no matter how trivial.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: page 157 BLM: Remember

  1. What characteristic of bureaucracy is demonstrated in the standardized test scores for admission to graduate and professional schools across North America?

a.

qualification-based employment

b.

bureaucratic rules and regulations

c.

hierarchy of authority

d.

impersonality

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: page 157 BLM: Remember

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Write a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Product has been added to your cart