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Social Psychology and Human Nature Brief 3rd Edition by Roy F. Baumeister – Test Bank

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Social Psychology and Human Nature Brief 3rd Edition by Roy F. Baumeister – Test Bank

CHAPTER 9—Prosocial Behavior: Doing What’s Best for Others

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Based on the text’s account of Oskar Schindler, which of the following conclusions would be correct to draw regarding Schindler’s heroic altruism toward the Jews?

a.

Schindler was somewhat of a saint in all aspects of his life (he abstained from alcohol, was loyal to his wife, was highly religious, etc.); his altruism seems to have come from his basic personality.

b.

Schindler was not necessarily a saint in other aspects of his life, but was extraordinarily driven to help the Jews; unlike other Nazis, he saw them as fellow humans and had an enormous empathy for their plight.

c.

On the surface, Schindler behaved very altruistically, but it appears that he was actually motivated by a desire to “look good” to his peers.

d.

On the surface, Schindler behaved very altruistically, but in reality, he did not have much of a choice. Anyone who was in his situation would have behaved just as altruistically.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Introduction TYPE: Conceptual

  1. The text defines prosocial behavior as ____.

a.

any helping behavior

b.

any behavior that is good for other people or for society as a whole

c.

conformity

d.

behavior that does not benefit oneself

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. According to the textbook, the opposite of prosocial behavior is ____.

a.

conformity

b.

antisocial behavior

c.

altruistic helping

d.

egomaniacal behavior

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Which of the following is NOT a good example of prosocial behavior?

a.

Taking your best friend to the hospital when she is sick

b.

Stopping at red lights when driving

c.

Patiently listening to your boss’s feedback on a report that you wrote

d.

Wearing a jacket when it is cold

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. A society in which people respect and follow the rules is said to have an effective ____.

a.

balance of equity

b.

prosocial prism

c.

rule of law

d.

reciprocity effect

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Even though there are certain codes of behavior (both legal and moral) that people are supposed to follow during wartime, it is often the case that these codes are horrifically ignored or broken (e.g., there are lootings, mass rapes, killings of babies and children, etc.). In other words, it seems as though once certain rules and laws are broken (once people are even in war), ____ can become completely unraveled very easily.

a.

belief in a just world

b.

kin selection

c.

reciprocity

d.

rule of law

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. Research indicates that in societies where there is an intact rule of law, people are ____.

a.

happier

b.

less creative

c.

more aggressive

d.

less likely to help one another in times of hardship

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. The management at Nargis’s company tends to be fair. They treat people with respect, they do not make unrealistic demands on their employees, and they reward people appropriately. As a result, Nargis and her co-workers tend to be good “company citizens”; they help one another out and they speak respectfully of their jobs. The pattern of behavior exhibited by Nargis and her co-workers exemplifies the ____.

a.

prisoner’s dilemma

b.

“good soldier” syndrome

c.

“company massage”

d.

audience inhibition effect

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. According to research, when will your employees be MOST likely to help one another out and speak well of their jobs?

a.

When they think that the rules at work are fair and respectful

b.

When they think that they are being paid more than other people (regardless of how much they are actually making)

c.

When they think that they are being paid a lot (regardless of what other people are making)

d.

When they think that they are less skilled/capable than their fellow employees

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Research indicates that reciprocity norms are found in ____ human cultures; and that reciprocity norms are found in ____ non-human animals.

a.

all; some (but not all)

b.

all; no

c.

some (but not all); some (but not all)

d.

some (but not all); no

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Suppose that two cats take turns grooming one another (cleaning one another’s fur). This would be an example of the cats demonstrating ____.

a.

altruistic codes

b.

diffusion of responsibility

c.

reciprocity norms

d.

rule of law

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. As discussed in the text, the sociologist Phil Kunz once performed a study in which he sent 578 Christmas cards to a sample of complete strangers living in Chicago, Illinois. What happened?

a.

Almost none of them sent him a card in return, since they didn’t know who he was. However, a small but significant minority (8%) were apparently very upset with the researcher.

b.

The vast majority of them (95%) actually sent him a card in return or telephoned him to try to find out who he was.

c.

A significant minority of them (20%) actually acted as though they knew who he was and sent him a card in return.

d.

Essentially, nothing—although he did receive a handful of cards (three or four) from people who probably mistakenly thought they knew who he was.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. As discussed in the text, the sociologist Phil Kunz once performed a study in which he sent 578 Christmas cards to a sample of complete strangers living in Chicago, Illinois. He received a total of 117 cards in return, as well as several phone calls—despite the fact that he did not know any of these people. Kunz’s findings provide good evidence of ____.

a.

reciprocity

b.

rule of law

c.

audience inhibition

d.

cooperation

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Standards that are established by society regarding what types of behavior are typical or expected are known as ____.

a.

rules of law

b.

norms

c.

equities

d.

normatives

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Jude’s dad helped him buy a car when he graduated from college. When Jude’s son graduated from college, Jude felt he should help his son in the same way. Social scientists would call this ____.

a.

upstream reciprocity

b.

reciprocity

c.

downstream reciprocity

d.

generational reciprocity

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

NOTE: New

  1. The positive emotion that results from the knowledge that one has benefited from the costly, intentional, voluntary action of another is known as ____.

a.

gratitude

b.

joy

c.

well-being

d.

reciprocity

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

  1. Equity and equality are two types of ____.

a.

reciprocities

b.

rules of law

c.

norms

d.

kin selection

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Jose sometimes feels that he is a “taker” rather than a “giver”—that he is not contributing his fair share at work or in relationships. Research suggests that, as a result, Jose is likely to

a.

feel depressed and underperform

b.

feel guilty and underperform

c.

convince himself that he is, in fact, a giver and look for opportunities to give back more

d.

feel depressed, feel guilty, and look for opportunities to give back more

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. The term “sensitivity about being the target of threatening upward comparison” refers to ____.

a.

the tendency to compare oneself to unrealistically high standards and thus set oneself up for disappointment

b.

a generalized tendency to worry excessively about what other people think of you

c.

concern about not living up to others’ expectations of you and therefore disappointing them

d.

concern about outperforming others and having others resent you for it

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Alicia and her friends are singing karaoke. Alicia is an extremely talented singer—much better than her friends. She feels awkward about being so good, however, so she sort of “fakes bad”; she doesn’t want her friends to be envious of her singing talent. Social psychologists would say that Alicia is experiencing ____.

a.

sensitivity about being the target of threatening downward comparison

b.

sensitivity about being the target of threatening upward comparison

c.

the commons dilemma

d.

audience inhibition

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. If you are concerned that you are getting less than you deserve, then social psychologists would say that you are worried about ____, if you are concerned that you are getting more than you deserve then social psychologists would say that you are worried about ____.

a.

normative influences; social influences

b.

being underbenefited; being overbenefited

c.

zero-sum issues; non-zero-sum issues

d.

equality; equity

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Suppose that you are working with a group of monkeys, and you give some monkeys a small reward (a cucumber) for performing a given task, while you give other monkeys a bigger and better reward (a banana) for performing the exact same task. Research suggests that the monkeys ____ compare their rewards, and that, as a result, ____.

a.

will not; neither group will become distressed

b.

will; those receiving cucumbers will become distressed

c.

will; those receiving bananas will become distressed

d.

will; both those receiving cucumbers and those receiving bananas will become distressed

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. Research with humans and monkeys on fairness—and the concepts of being overbenefited versus underbenefited—indicates that ____.

a.

humans worry primarily about the former, while monkeys worry primarily about the latter

b.

humans worry primarily about the latter, while monkeys worry primarily about the former

c.

humans worry about both, while monkeys worry primarily about the latter

d.

humans worry about both, while monkeys worry primarily worry about the former

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Factual

  1. Feeling underbenefited tends to provoke feelings of ____, while feeling overbenefited tends to provoke feelings of ____.

a.

guilt and depression; satisfaction and pride

b.

satisfaction and pride; anger and resentment

c.

anger and resentment; guilt and depression

d.

satisfaction and pride; guilt and depression

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Conceptual

  1. A number of people at Emma’s company were recently laid off due to the economy. Even though Emma did not lose her job, she nonetheless feels uncomfortable with the situation. She thinks it is unfair that she still has her job while so many other people were laid off. Social psychologists would say that Emma is experiencing a contemporary version of ____.

a.

diffusion of responsibility

b.

belief in a just world

c.

catharsis

d.

survivor guilt

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. During the 1980s, when many gay men contracted HIV and died from AIDS, it was not uncommon for gay men who had been spared the disease to feel guilty about it (thinking that they, too, should have gotten sick if so many of their friends had gotten sick). That is, many gay men experienced ____.

a.

diffusion of responsibility

b.

belief in a just world

c.

catharsis

d.

survivor guilt

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Applied

  1. The fact that people experience survivor guilt suggests that ____.

a.

the norm of equality is learned rather than innate

b.

the human psyche has a deep sensitivity to unfairness

c.

people are much more sensitive to instances in which they were underbenefited as opposed to instances in which they were overbenefited

d.

people are highly sensitive to what others think they deserve

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: What Is Prosocial Behavior? TYPE: Conceptual

  1. When each person in a group does his or her part, and together they work toward a common goal, the group is said to be ____.

a.

collaborating

b.

engaging

c.

norming

d.

cooperating

ANS: D DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Social psychologists often make use of a game called the ____ to study people’s tendencies to cooperate versus compete.

a.

commons dilemma

b.

prisoner’s dilemma

c.

matching game

d.

naïve bystander circle

ANS: B DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. The so-called prisoner’s dilemma is a paradigm that is used by social psychologists to study people’s tendency to ____.

a.

compete with others versus cooperate with others

b.

hoard resources versus share resources

c.

engage in altruistic behavior, when such behavior comes at a cost to themselves

d.

experience empathy versus try to avoid situations that provoke empathy

ANS: A DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. The political scientist Robert Axelrod once held a computer tournament designed to determine the most successful prisoner’s dilemma strategy (the strategy that would win most often for the longest period of time). That strategy was dubbed ____.

a.

always-play-nice

b.

tit-for-tat

c.

low-ball

d.

survival-of-the-stealthiest

ANS: B DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. The political scientist Robert Axelrod once held a computer tournament designed to determine the most successful strategy for approaching the prisoner’s dilemma (the strategy that would win out most often on a sustained basis). What he found was that the most successful strategy was loosely based on a pattern of ____.

a.

cooperating first and then shifting into competing

b.

constant cooperation

c.

reciprocity

d.

competing first and then shifting into cooperating

ANS: C DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. The prisoner’s dilemma is best described as a(n) ____.

a.

zero-sum game

b.

non-zero-sum game

c.

commons dilemma

d.

equity game

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Business deals are often win-win propositions; both parties to the deal can end up benefiting. Social psychologists would describe such deals as ____.

a.

zero-sum games

b.

non-zero-sum games

c.

commons dilemmas

d.

equity games

ANS: B DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. Many people who hold prejudiced attitudes towards ethnic minority groups attempt to justify their prejudices by suggesting that group competition for jobs, housing, healthcare, and other social resources is a(n) ____. For example, they claim: “The more jobs that other groups get, the fewer good jobs there will be left for people from my group.”

a.

zero-sum game

b.

non-zero-sum game

c.

commons dilemma

d.

equity game

ANS: A DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. Which of the following is an example of a zero-sum game?

a.

A game in which everyone must earn a certain number of points in order for the group as a whole to win

b.

A game in which one person must lose in order for another person to win

c.

A two-player game in which it is possible for both people to lose

d.

A two-player game in which it is possible for both people to win

ANS: B DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. When two people play the prisoner’s dilemma game against one another, they tend to end up competing ____.

a.

almost always—even if both players begin by cooperating

b.

when one or both of the players begin by competing

c.

only when both of the players begin by competing

d.

almost never—even if both of the players begin by competing

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. According to the textbook, the outcome of a prisoner’s dilemma game (whether people end up cooperating of competing) depends most on how the players initially approach the game and on ____.

a.

how old they are

b.

whether they are male or female

c.

whether they communicate with one another during the game

d.

whether others are observing them as they play the game

ANS: C DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Which dyad is most likely to experience mutual cooperation in a prisoner’s dilemma game?

a.

Shara and Carl, who cannot see or hear each other as they play the game

b.

Phil and Joann, who can see but not hear each other as they play the game

c.

Brian and Roberta, who can hear but not see each other as they play the game

d.

Russ and Clare, who can see and hear each other as they play the game

ANS: D DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. When communication is difficult in a prisoner’s dilemma game, cooperation ____.

a.

increases dramatically

b.

increases a small amount

c.

decreases a small amount

d.

decreases dramatically

ANS: D DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. How does money impact self-sufficiency?

a.

More money decreases one’s sense of self-sufficiency

b.

More money tends to increase one’s sense of self-sufficiency

c.

Money has not been shown to be related to self-sufficiency

d.

Less money tends to increase one’s sense of self-sufficiency

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. In Vohs et al.’s (2006) experiments, people who had been primed with a screensaver of dollar bills tended to ____ than people who had a blank screen or a fish screensaver image as a prime.

a.

be more likely to help others

b.

be less likely to help others

c.

be equally likely to help others

d.

need more help

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Based on Vohs et al.’s (2006) findings, wealthy people are ____.

a.

less likely to ask for help when they need it

b.

more likely to ask for help when they need it

c.

as likely to ask for help when needed as anyone else

d.

more likely to give help to a neighbor in need

ANS: A DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. ____ can be defined as ceasing to feel angry toward, and ceasing to seek retribution against, someone who has wronged you.

a.

Empathy-altruism

b.

Negative state relief

c.

Forgiveness

d.

Shame

ANS: C DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Research on forgiveness in relationships indicates that ____.

a.

better relationships ultimately lead to more forgiveness

b.

more forgiveness ultimately leads to better relationships

c.

worse relationships ultimately lead to more forgiveness

d.

more forgiveness ultimately leads to worse relationships

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Research on forgiveness in romantic relationships indicates that ____.

a.

forgiveness is not strongly related to relationship satisfaction

b.

forgiveness is related to relationship satisfaction differently for men than it is for women

c.

people who are relatively forgiving of their partners’ transgressions have relatively high relationship satisfaction (regardless of gender)

d.

even people who are relatively unforgiving of their partners’ transgressions have relatively high relationship satisfaction (regardless of gender)

ANS: C DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Una has done a number of things to annoy her boyfriend recently—she crashed his car, is repeatedly late for dates, and was rude to his mother—and she feels a bit bad. However, Una’s boyfriend has forgiven her for each of her offenses. As a result, Una is likely to ____.

a.

feel less guilty and possibly behave better in the future

b.

feel less guilty but behave even more mischievously in the future (now that she knows, at some level, that she can “get away with it”)

c.

feel more guilty (now that she sees how kind and forgiving her boyfriend is) but possibly behave better in the future

d.

feel more guilty (now that she sees how kind and forgiving her boyfriend is) but behave even more mischievously in the future (now that she knows, at some level, that she can “get away with it”)

ANS: A DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. People who forgive others tend to have ____.

a.

better physical and mental health than people who hold grudges

b.

better mental health, but about the same physical health, compared to grudge holders

c.

better physical health, but about the same mental health, compared to grudge holders

d.

better mental health, but worse physical health, compared to grudge holders

ANS: A DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Brenda has never forgiven Brad for having an affair he had a few years ago. Even though she has agreed to stay in the marriage, every time they have a new problem, what is Brenda likely to do (based on research cited in your text)?

a.

Stay focused only on the problem at hand.

b.

Stay focused only on the previous infidelity.

c.

Remember the infidelity and bring it back up in the context of the new problem.

d.

Try to forgive him for the issues related to the current problem.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. Which couple is most likely to survive an isolated incident of sexual infidelity in which one partner cheats but the other partner remains faithful?

a.

Linda and Richard, who are good at seeing other people’s points of view

b.

Laura, who focuses on internal consequences and Jake, who focuses on external factors explaining the infidelity

c.

Meredith, who focuses on external factors explaining the infidelity and Jim, who focuses on internal consequences

d.

Nicole and Pete, who both focus on the external factors explaining the infidelity

ANS: A DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. Research suggests that some people are more forgiving than others. In particular, _____ tend to be especially forgiving.

a.

religious people

b.

young children

c.

highly educated people

d.

people with high self-esteem

ANS: A DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. As described in the text, social psychologists have tended to think about obedience as ____, but obedience ____.

a.

almost always antisocial; can have prosocial or antisocial consequences

b.

almost always antisocial; is always prosocial

c.

almost always prosocial; can have prosocial or antisocial consequences

d.

almost always prosocial; is always prosocial

ANS: A DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. The term ____ refers to following orders from an authority figure.

a.

coercion

b.

obedience

c.

cooperation

d.

conformity

ANS: B DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. The classic studies on obedience to an authority figure were conducted in 1963 by the psychologist ____.

a.

Phillip Zimbardo

b.

Stanley Milgram

c.

B. F. Skinner

d.

Solomon Asch

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Stanley Milgram’s classic research on obedience to authority was spurred on by – and conducted in the wake of – ____.

a.

a series of catastrophic decisions by NASA scientists

b.

the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba

c.

the internment of Japanese-Americans in the U.S.

d.

WWII and the Holocaust

ANS: D DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Many have argued that Milgram’s classic research on obedience to authority was unethical. Indeed, Milgram’s research provided much of the impetus for the implementation of ethics committees and research review boards in universities. Why? What was the chief complaint?

a.

None of the participants were ever fully debriefed.

b.

The so-called “learner” could have been seriously physically injured.

c.

The so-called “learner” had a heart condition, and more precautions should have been taken to prevent possible permanent damage to his heart.

d.

Participants could have experienced intense, long-term emotional, or psychological trauma.

ANS: D DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. In Milgram’s classic research on obedience to authority, which of the following things was true?

a.

The participants did not meet the “learner” until after the study was over.

b.

The participants could not see or hear the “learner” during the course of the study.

c.

When participants hesitated during the study, an experimenter would repeatedly prompt them to continue.

d.

Participants could not tell what level of shock they were administering to the “learner.”

ANS: C DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Before conducting his classic research on obedience to authority, Milgram conducted a survey in which he asked a number of psychiatrists to predict what percentage of people would “go all the way” and administer the highest levels of shocks. The psychiatrists in his survey predicted that ____ would do so.

a.

only .01% (1 in 1000)

b.

only about 5%

c.

about 25%

d.

about 35%

ANS: A DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. In his classic research on obedience to authority, Milgram found that roughly ____ of participants eventually “went all the way” and administered the highest levels of shocks.

a.

25%

b.

30%

c.

45%

d.

65%

ANS: D DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. In his classic research on obedience to authority, Milgram found that roughly ____ of participants eventually “went all the way” and administered the highest levels of shocks. Interestingly, a group of psychiatrists surveyed prior to the study estimated that ____ would do so.

a.

35%; less than 1%

b.

35%; more than 75%

c.

65%; less than 1%

d.

65%; more than 75%

ANS: C DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Recall Milgram’s classic research on obedience to authority. One interesting finding here was that numerous participants who went ahead and administered shocks at relatively high levels ____.

a.

started kicking, hitting, and even biting themselves while doing so

b.

showed general signs of intense distress while doing so

c.

told the experimenter that they did not want to be compensated at all for participating in the study

d.

asked the experimenter to compensate them more for doing so

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. What do the text authors say about the kind of willingness to obey authority that Milgram witnessed in his research?

a.

Milgram’s research seems to have been an anomaly; people are not usually so obedient to authority in any kind of situation.

b.

Milgram’s research seems to have been an anomaly; people usually are quite obedient when it comes to trivial or innocuous orders, but they are almost never so obedient when it comes to dangerous orders.

c.

People usually are quite obedient to authority, and Milgram’s research demonstrates just how dangerous obedience is.

d.

People usually are quite obedient to authority, but most of the time this obedience has prosocial consequences; the situation that Milgram created in his research is very unique.

ANS: D DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. In lay terms, the term “conformity” refers to ____.

a.

doing something just to please others

b.

going along with the crowd

c.

obeying orders because of some standard

d.

making yourself do something you don’t want to do

ANS: B DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. According to the textbook authors, social psychologists have long viewed conformity as ____; newer research ____.

a.

having positive consequences; indicates that it is usually antisocial

b.

having positive consequences; confirms this

c.

having negative consequences; indicates that it is usually prosocial

d.

having negative consequences; confirms this

ANS: C DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Conformity to social norms is likely to be highest when ____.

a.

you are alone

b.

when others are watching you

c.

when you are confident

d.

when you are in an unambiguous situation

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. What percent of women wash their hands after using the restroom if they believe no one else is in the restroom?

a.

10%

b.

39%

c.

54%

d.

77%

ANS: B DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. In which size group will conformity be highest?

a.

2

b.

5

c.

12

d.

25

ANS: D DIF: Easy

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Conceptual

  1. A series of studies conducted in restaurants indicates that when people dine in groups, they tend to order ____. This finding can be explained by the fact that ____.

a.

a variety of different items—more variety than expected by chance, people tend to conform to one another’s orders

b.

a variety of different items—more variety than expected by chance, people don’t like to order the same items that others are ordering

c.

a very narrow selection of items—more narrow than expected by chance, people tend to conform to one another’s orders

d.

a very narrow selection of items—more narrow than expected by chance, people don’t like to order the same items that others are ordering

ANS: B DIF: Moderate

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Factual

  1. Star and Aisha are at a restaurant, and both of them are thinking about ordering a particular risotto plate. If Star goes ahead and orders the risotto, then Aisha will probably ____.

a.

order the risotto too, and be more satisfied with it than she would have been with her second choice

b.

order the risotto too, but be less satisfied with it than she would have been with her second choice

c.

order her second choice, and be more satisfied with it than she would have been with the risotto

d.

order her second choice, but be less satisfied with it than she would have been with the risotto

ANS: D DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

  1. Suppose that Paul and Oscar are buying frozen yogurt. Both of them are inclined to order the same flavor—pistachio—but they feel unadventurous about ordering the same flavor. If Oscar goes ahead and orders the pistachio for himself, then it is likely that Paul will ____.

a.

order the pistachio as well, and be happier with the pistachio than he would have been with the vanilla

b.

order the pistachio as well, but be less happy with the pistachio than he would have been with the vanilla

c.

order the vanilla instead, and be happier with the vanilla than he would have been with the pistachio

d.

order the vanilla instead, but be less happy with the vanilla than he would have been with the pistachio

ANS: D DIF: Difficult

REF: Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and Conformity TYPE: Applied

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