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Sadava 10th edition Life The Science of Biology

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1464141266
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1464141263

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SKU:tb1002045

Sadava 10th edition Life The Science of Biology

Test Bank
to accompany
Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition
Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

Chapter 6: Cell Membranes

TEST FILE QUESTIONS
(By Penny Molyneux)

Multiple Choice

1. Biological membranes are composed of
a. nucleotides and nucleosides.
b. enzymes, electron acceptors, and electron donors.
c. fatty acids.
d. monosaccharides.
e. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

2. The compounds in a biological membrane that form a barrier to the movement of hydrophilic materials across the membrane are
a. integral membrane proteins.
b. carbohydrates.
c. lipids.
d. nucleic acids.
e. peripheral membrane proteins.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

3. In a biological membrane, the phospholipids are arranged in a _______, with the _______.
a. bilayer; fatty acids pointing toward each other
b. bilayer; fatty acids facing outward
c. single layer; fatty acids facing the interior of the cell
d. single layer; phosphorus-containing region facing the interior of the cell
e. bilayer; phosphorus groups in the interior of the membrane
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

4. Which of the following statements about the proteins of the plasma membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane is true?
a. Both membranes have only peripheral proteins.
b. Only the mitochondrial membrane has integral proteins.
c. Only the mitochondrial membrane has peripheral proteins.
d. All of the proteins from both membranes are hydrophilic.
e. The function of each membrane determines which proteins are present.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

5. Membrane proteins are asymmetrically distributed according to the function of the membrane and its lipid composition. Which of the following statements about peripheral membrane proteins is true?
a. They do not contain any hydrophilic regions.
b. They are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
c. They are able to move freely within the plasma membrane.
d. Their charged regions interact with other proteins or with phospholipids.
e. Their hydrophobic side chains interact with the lipid bilayer.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

6. The plasma membrane of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold. The bacterium most likely accomplishes this by
a. increasing the number of cholesterol molecules present.
b. closing protein channels.
c. decreasing the number of hydrophobic proteins present.
d. replacing saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids.
e. using fatty acids with longer tails.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

7. How do the cell membranes of a hibernating animal change in colder temperatures?
a. Cholesterol content is increased.
b. Saturated fatty acids are more tightly packed.
c. Integral membrane proteins increase in number.
d. Unsaturated fatty acids make up more of the lipid composition.
e. Fatty acids with longer tails increase in number.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

8. Which type of membrane protein would likely be removed most easily from a cell membrane in a laboratory experiment?
a. Integral proteins
b. Channel proteins
c. Peripheral proteins
d. Transmembrane proteins
e. Gated channels
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

9. If the hydrophilic side chains of a transmembrane protein were removed, the protein would most likely
a. remain within the phospholipid bilayer.
b. extend farther into the cytoplasm.
c. protrude into the extracellular space.
d. remain anchored to the cytoskeleton.
e. become a peripheral protein.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

10. Which of the following is not one of the functional roles of membrane proteins?
a. Allowing movement of molecules that otherwise would be excluded by the lipid components of the membrane
b. Transferring signals from outside the cell to inside the cell
c. Maintaining the shape of the cell
d. Facilitating the transport of macromolecules across the membrane
e. Stabilizing the lipid bilayer
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

11. The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein would most likely be found
a. only in plasma membranes.
b. associated with the fatty acid region of the lipids.
c. in the interior of the membrane.
d. exposed on the surface of the membrane.
e. either on the surface or inserted into the interior of the membrane.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

12. The LDL receptor is an integral membrane protein that extends both outside and into the interior of the cell. The amino acid side chains (R groups) in the region of the protein that crosses the membrane are most likely
a. polar.
b. hydrophilic.
c. hydrophobic.
d. carbohydrates.
e. lipids.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

13. If a cell membrane lacking integral proteins is prepared by freeze fracture and examined under the electron microscope, the exposed interior of the membrane bilayer will
a. reveal a bumpy surface.
b. show hydrophobic side chains.
c. show an asymmetric distribution of proteins.
d. show cytoskeletal anchors.
e. look smooth.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

14. Ion channels are formed by a particular kind of membrane protein that allows the passage of a specific ion under certain conditions. This type of protein is most likely a(n)
a. peripheral protein with additional hydrophobic domains.
b. integral protein with a transmembrane domain.
c. phospholipid with hydrophilic domains.
d. enzyme with an asymmetrical arrangement on either side of the plasma membrane.
e. membrane protein that is able to move freely within the phospholipid bilayer.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

15. Protein movement within a membrane may be restricted by
a. glycolipids and glycoproteins.
b. cell fusion.
c. the cytoskeleton.
d. cell adhesion.
e. peripheral membrane proteins.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

16. If the cytoskeletal proteins within a cell were prevented from attaching to other components of a cell,
a. peripheral membrane proteins would maintain the cell shape.
b. membrane proteins would be able to move freely.
c. unsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane would increase.
d. cholesterol in the cell membrane would increase.
e. lipids within the cell membrane would move more freely.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

17. Which of the following molecules can function as a recognition signal for interactions between cells?
a. RNA
b. Phospholipids
c. Cholesterol
d. Fatty acids
e. Glycolipids
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

18. Two membrane components that serve as cell recognition sites are
a. peripheral and integral membrane proteins.
b. hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains.
c. carbohydrates and proteins.
d. glycolipids and glycoproteins.
e. amino acids and lipids.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

19. When vesicles from the Golgi apparatus deliver their contents to the exterior of the cell, they add their membranes to the existing plasma membrane. This is made possible by the
a. capacity of lipids to associate with one another.
b. saturated fatty acid chains and close packing of the fatty acids in the bilayer.
c. great affinity of cholesterol molecules for fatty acid tails in the plasma membrane.
d. affinity of polar proteins for fatty acids.
e. noncovalent interactions of the anchored membrane proteins.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

20. Cell adhesion occurs through the interactions of
a. glycoproteins.
b. proteoglycans.
c. glycolipids.
d. proteins.
e. All of the above
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

21. Which of the following is not a specialized cell junction?
a. Gap junction
b. Tight junction
c. Desmosome
d. Connexin
e. All of the above are specialized cell junctions.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

22. In cell junctions, _______ seal intercellular spaces, _______ reinforce attachments, and _______ allow for communication between cells.
a. keratins; desmosomes; connexins
b. tight junctions; desmosomes; gap junctions
c. cell recognition molecules; adhesion molecules; tight junctions
d. junction proteins; adhesion molecules; connexins
e. desmosomes; gap junctions; tight junctions
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

23. Heart muscle cells beat in unison, due to the rapid spread of electrical current through
a. tight junctions.
b. desmosomes.
c. gap junctions.
d. integral membrane proteins.
e. neurons.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

24. You are working in a lab that is studying cell recognition and cell attachment in a red sponge. You need to culture individual cells in a medium that promotes cell recognition and attachment of isolated cells. Which of the following would you add to the culture medium?
a. Cellulose beads
b. Glycolipids
c. Glycoproteins from a different species of sponge
d. A species-specific polysaccharide
e. Complementary binding surfaces
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

25. You are studying the effects of different substances on frog heart muscle cells. You treat the cells with a substance that blocks gap junctions. What do you expect will occur?
a. The cells will not be able to maintain their structure.
b. The gap junctions will not be able to provide stability.
c. The electric current will not spread evenly to adjacent heart cells.
d. Nutrients will not pass between the cells.
e. Nerve impulses will not be transmitted to the cells.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

26. Sponges are multicellular organisms whose bodies allow water to circulate freely. If isolated cells from one species were added to a solution of isolated cells from another species, what would you expect in terms of binding among the cells?
a. Cells from both species would bind to one another.
b. Cells from one species would bind only to others of the same species.
c. Cell binding would occur according to which type of cell was present in greater numbers.
d. The cells would bind according to size, with no difference in species.
e. None of the above
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

27. If tight junctions were replaced by desmosomes in cells lining the bladder,
a. dissolved substances would move freely through the extracellular matrix.
b. membrane protein migration would be restricted.
c. intercellular spaces would be sealed off.
d. the number of gap junctions would increase.
e. pressure on the desmosomes would increase.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

28. If integrin could not bind to the extracellular matrix,
a. cell structure would be lost.
b. new cells would not develop.
c. endocytosis of integrin would cease.
d. cell movement would be impaired.
e. intracellular actin content would decline.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

29. A group of transmembrane proteins involved in maintaining cell structure via their interactions with the cytoskeleton are known as
a. integrins.
b. desmosomes.
c. seal tissues.
d. connexins.
e. keratins.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

30. The binding of integrin on the cell surface of white blood cells with the extracellular matrix of blood vessel walls is reversible. This reversibility allows for
a. communication between cells.
b. homotypic binding.
c. heterotypic movement.
d. cell movement.
e. passage of dissolved materials.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

31. If endocytosis of integrin were blocked, epithelial cells would be unable to
a. communicate with other cells.
b. change location within a tissue.
c. bind heterotypically.
d. form tight junctions.
e. allow passage of molecules between cells.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

32. Cells arrange themselves into tissues through
a. cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions.
b. the stability provided by desmosomes.
c. homotypic and heterotypic binding.
d. the orientation maintained by tight junctions.
e. cell recognition and cell adhesion.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

33. Biological membranes can control the internal composition of a cell or cell compartment by controlling
a. membrane lipid composition.
b. the concentration gradient of a solute.
c. active transport.
d. movement of water by carrier proteins.
e. membrane selective permeability.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

34. Which of the following statements about the process of diffusion is true?
a. The concentration gradient of a solute depends on the size of the molecule.
b. Equilibrium in a solution is the endpoint of diffusion.
c. The net movement of particles depends on the temperature of the solution.
d. Diffusion is most efficient over long distances.
e. Diffusion can reduce selective permeability.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

35. If equal volumes of differently colored solutions are poured into opposite sides of a shallow pool of water, what will be the result at equilibrium?
a. Each solution will be uniformly distributed in the side of the pool into which it was poured.
b. The solutions will be uniformly distributed throughout the pool.
c. Each solution will have moved down its concentration gradient.
d. The concentration of each solution will be higher in one side of the pool than in the other.
e. The solutions will have sunk to the bottom of the pool and remained separate.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

36. The process of osmosis allows water molecules to pass through specialized channels in membranes. Which of the following statements about osmosis is true?
a. Water will move across a membrane to a region with less solute.
b. Water will move across a membrane to a region with more solute.
c. The direction of osmosis is temperature dependent.
d. If the membrane does not allow solutes to pass, water will be equal on both sides.
e. A higher solute concentration on one side of a membrane indicates a higher water concentration on that side.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

37. Osmosis is a specific form of
a. diffusion.
b. facilitated transport.
c. active transport.
d. secondary active transport.
e. movement of water by carrier proteins.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

38. Which of the following factors does not affect the rate of diffusion of a substance?
a. Temperature of the solution
b. Concentration gradient
c. Distance traveled
d. Presence of other solutes in the solution
e. Molecular diameter of the diffusing material
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

39. If there is a concentration gradient of glucose across a membrane,
a. there are larger molecules of glucose on one side of the membrane than on the other.
b. the glucose molecules are more numerous on one side of the membrane than on the other.
c. there is less water than glucose on both sides of the membrane.
d. the glucose molecules are more tightly bonded to each other on one side of the membrane than on the other.
e. there are more glucose molecules anchored to one side of the membrane than to the other.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

40. The difference between osmosis and diffusion is that
a. diffusion is passive transport, whereas osmosis is active transport.
b. only in diffusion do molecules move from areas of high concentrations to areas of low concentration.
c. only diffusion refers to the movement of materials across a semipermeable membrane.
d. osmosis refers specifically to the movement of water, whereas diffusion is the movement of any molecule.
e. the process of osmosis varies according to the kinds of particles present.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

41. If a hospital patient is mistakenly given an IV of pure water instead of a saline solution that is isotonic to blood, the patient’s red blood cells will
a. shrink and collapse.
b. release water to the plasma along its concentration gradient.
c. absorb water from the plasma and eventually burst.
d. allow water to move through protein channels in the cell membrane in both directions.
e. lose their function, and the water level in the plasma will be maintained by white blood cells instead.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

42. Suppose that a new drug shows promise in treating cancer because it can enter cells by simple diffusion. Which of the following statements about the drug is false?
a. It depends on a specific carrier protein to enter the cells.
b. Diffusion of the drug will continue until its concentrations across membranes are in equilibrium.
c. The drug molecules will move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
d. Diffusion of the drug molecules is a random process.
e. The rate of its diffusion is affected by temperature.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

43. In facilitated diffusion, the diffusion rate of a specific molecule across a membrane does not continue to increase as the concentration difference of the molecule across the membrane increases. The reason is that
a. facilitated diffusion requires the use of ATP.
b. as the concentration difference increases, molecules interfere with one another.
c. the carrier proteins become saturated.
d. the transport protein is a channel protein.
e. the diffusion constant depends on the concentration difference.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?
Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

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