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Psychology Themes And Variations 5th Edition by Wayne Weiten- Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0534367143
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0534367145

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Psychology Themes And Variations 5th Edition by Wayne Weiten- Test Bank

Chapter 08

Chapter 07 Testbank
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Psychologists define ____________ as the general process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behaviour or capabilities.

A. habituation

B. adaptive significance

C. learning

D. extinction

2. Within the field of psychology, _______________ focus on how organisms learn and assume that there are general laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms.

A. ethologists

B. behaviourists

C. neurobiologists

D. Freudian psychologists

3. The term ‘personal adaptation’ is concerned with how:

A. the laws of learning and the environment shape the behaviour of organisms.

B. learning directly modifies the genes of a species.

C. adaptive significance affects species’ adaptation.

D. evolutionary factors operate through the environment to shape the biology of a species.

4. After becoming familiar with her local environment, a wombat learns to go to a specific waterhole when she is thirsty. She also goes to a shady area when it’s hot. These behaviours are best considered examples of:

A. stimulus generalisation.

B. personal adaptation.

C. variable interval reinforcement.

D. avoidance conditioning.

5. _______________ is defined specifically as a decreasing response to a repeated stimulus.

A. Extinction

B. Latent learning

C. Habituation

D. Shaping

6. You swim in a mountain lake after a long hike. At first, the water feels extremely cold but within a few minutes, the water merely feels refreshing and no longer feels like an ice bath. This example best illustrates the process of:

A. response cost punishment.

B. negative reinforcement.

C. habituation.

D. extinction.

7. Habituation has __________________ because it allows organisms to learn NOT to respond to _____________ stimuli.

1. What does the term “cognition” refer to?
a. focusing awareness of a narrow range of stimuli or events
b. mental processes involved in acquiring and using knowledge
c. widely shared beliefs that are transmitted socially across generations
d. use of language in a social context
ANSWER: b

2. Why was the study of cognition discouraged during the first half of the 20th century?
a. Cognition was not considered to be a psychological function.
b. Earlier studies using the method of introspection had yielded unreliable results.
c. Psychodynamic theories were too dominant in the field.
d. Language acquisition was viewed as an innate process that could not be studied empirically.
ANSWER: b

3. Which of the following is NOT a cognitive activity?
a. solving a problem
b. remembering something
c. blinking at something
d. making a decision
ANSWER: c

4. What led to the “cognitive revolution” in the 1950s?
a. renewed interest in the method of introspection
b. improved technology for addressing the questions associated with cognition
c. dissatisfaction with the limitations of behaviourism
d. rejection of psychoanalytic methods of analysis
ANSWER: d

5. What are the adjectives that describe the four essential characteristics of language?
a. symbolic, generative, phonemic, and structured
b. syntactic, symbolic, generative, and semantic
c. semantic, symbolic, structured, and generative
d. generative, rule-governed, phonemic, and syntactic
ANSWER: c

6. If you draw an arrow to indicate where someone should go, what function of language does the arrow serve?
a. generative
b. structural
c. symbolic
d. phonemic
ANSWER: c

7. There are different sounds across languages that all represent the same thing. Which quality of language does this reflect?
a. semantic
b. generative
c. cross-cultural
d. structural
ANSWER: a

8. What do we mean when we say that language is generative?
a. The symbols used in the language are arbitrary.
b. Language is both written and oral.
c. A limited number of symbols can be combined to produce an infinite variety of messages.
d. Sentences must be structured in a limited number of ways.
ANSWER: c

A. extinction value; changing

B. strong adaptive significance; uneventful and familiar

C. a low response cost; novel

D. high secondary reinforcement value; discriminative

8. In ____________________, the organism learns to associate two stimuli so that a previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke a reflexive response that was previously evoked by a different stimulus.

A. operant conditioning

B. modelling

C. classical conditioning

D. shaping

 

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