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Psychology Around Us 2nd Canadian Edition By Ronald – Test Bank

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ISBN-13 978-1118870723

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Psychology Around Us 2nd Canadian Edition By Ronald – Test Bank




1. Briefly explain each of the five major theories of motivation.
• Several theories offer explanations for our motivation, but no single theory can explain all our behaviour.
• Instinct theory, which suggests that environmental cues stimulate inborn behavioural instincts, best explains motivation that serves basic biological drives, such as eating, drinking, and sex.
• Drive-reduction theory suggests that internal homeostatic mechanisms produce balance within the body by reducing arousal stemming from unmet basic biological needs.
• Arousal theory explains why we sometimes seek to increase arousal levels. The Yerkes-Dodson law proposes that task performance is best if our arousal level matches that needed for a task.
• Incentive learning produces extrinsic motivation to engage in experiences that do not fulfill basic biological drives. Primary and secondary incentives may both be involved. Different incentives motivate different people. Incentive motivation involves brain systems associated with pleasure, incentive learning, and the neurochemical opiate dopamine.
• Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, in which basic survival needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs for belonging, achievement, and self-actualization.

2. Summarize the factors that affect our levels of hunger and our eating behaviour.
• Hunger, our motivation to eat, is created by the interaction of signals from our stomachs, levels of food-related chemicals in our blood, and brain activity, particularly in the hypothalamus.
• Culture and individual differences interact with our basic biological need for food to determine what foods we will eat, when and with whom we like to eat, and how much we eat.
• Obesity is a major public-health problem in North America. It is usually caused by overeating, which can result from an interaction between genes and the environment.
• Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which individuals believe they are fat and eat too little. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in which people binge on food, then purge themselves of the food before it can add weight to their bodies.

3. Describe factors that affect our sexual motivation and behaviour.
• Sexual practices driven by sexual motivation vary widely as a result of cultural influences.
• Research consistently shows much variety in normal sexual behaviour throughout healthy adulthood.
• Testosterone and other hormones affect our motivation toward sexual behaviour. Many parts of our brains become active during sexual arousal and behaviour.

4. Describe factors that influence our psychological motivations for affiliation and achievement.
• Affiliation represents our need to interact with others, not only for survival, but also for self-worth.
• Isolation puts people at risk of psychological impairments.
• Self-determination theory suggests that we need competence, relatedness, and autonomy to realize our potential.
• Achievement through intrinsic motivation does not involve incentives.
• Individuals who are able to delay gratification can focus on goals and ignore distractions.

5. Define emotion and discuss the components, measurement, and functions of emotion.
• An emotion is an intrapersonal state that occurs in response to an external or internal event and includes three components: a physiological component, a cognitive component, and a behavioural component.
• Researchers typically use three kinds of information to measure emotion: behavioural displays of emotion, self-reports of emotion, and physiological reactions.
• Emotions serve many functions. They add colour to our lives, give us information about important events in the environment, stir us to action when necessary, and help us to coordinate relationships with others.



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