## PRACTITIONER’S GUIDE TO USING RESEARCH FOR EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE 2ND EDITION By RUBIN – Test Bank

**Test Bank Questions for Chapter 7**

**Multiple-Choice Questions**

- The key feature of time-series designs is:
- The use of multiple pretests.
- The use of multiple posttests.
- The use of multiple data points before as well as after an intervention, program, or policy is introduced.
- None of the above.

- A well-designed simple time-series design will:
- eliminate history as a possible alternative explanation.
- control for passage of time and regression to the mean.
- control for selectivity biases.
- None of the above.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a simple time-series design study evaluating the effects of a new school program that aims to decrease the number of school dropouts?

**Year**: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 X 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

**Number of** 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12

**Dropouts:**

- The intervention was effective.
- The results appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.
- The results appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- The results appear to be attributed to history.
- All but a are correct.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a simple time-series design study evaluating the effects of a new school program that aims to decrease the number of school dropouts?

**Year:** 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 X 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

**Number of ** 20 21 19 20 32 20 21 19 20 20

**Dropouts:**

- The intervention was effective.
- The results appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.
- The results appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- The results appear to be attributed to history.
- All but a are correct.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a simple time-series design study evaluating the effects of a new school program that aims to decrease the number of school dropouts?

**Year:** 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 X 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

**Number of** 20 21 19 20 21 17 15 14 14 12

**Dropouts:**

- The intervention was effective.
- The results appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.
- The results appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- Both b and c are correct.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a multiple time-series design evaluating the effects of a new program in School A that aims to decrease the number of school dropouts?

**Year**: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

**School A**: 20 21 19 20 21 X 17 15 14 14 12

**School B** : 22 22 21 23 22 18 16 15 14 13

- The intervention in School A was effective.
- The results for School A appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.
- The results for School A appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- The results for School A appear to be attributed to history.
- All but a are correct.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a multiple time-series design evaluating the effects of a new program in School A that aims to decrease the number of school dropouts?

**Year:** 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

**School A:** 20 21 19 20 21 X 17 15 14 14 12

**School B:** 22 22 21 23 22 22 23 22 21 23

- The intervention in School A was effective.
- The results for School A appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.
- The results for School A appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- The results for School A appear to be attributed to history.
- All but a are correct.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of an ABAB design evaluating the effects of an intervention that aims to improve scores on a scale measuring child rearing knowledge?

First baseline phase: 30 30 31 29 30 31 29 29

First intervention phase: 35 40 43 46 50 60 65 70

Second baseline phase: 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

Second intervention phase: 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

- The intervention clearly was effective.
- The results clearly appear to be attributed to history.
- The results could be attributed to history or could mean that the intervention had irreversible effects.
- The results appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- The results appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a multiple-baseline design evaluating the effects of an intervention that aims to increase the number of hours spent studying each week by three boys in the same cabin in a residential treatment center?

Moe: 0 0 0 X 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5

Larry: 0 0 0 1 2 3 X 4 5 5 5 5 5

Curly: 0 0 0 1 2 3 5 5 X 5 5 5

- The intervention clearly was effective.
- The results clearly appear to be attributed to history.
- The results could be attributed to history or to generalization of effects.
- The results appear to be attributed to regression to the mean.
- The results appear to be attributed to an ongoing trend that was improving with the passage of time.

- Which is the best interpretation for the following results of a multiple-component design evaluating the effects of an intervention containing two components that aims to reduce trauma symptoms?

First Baseline: 20 20 20 20 20 20

Component A Phase: 10 10 10 10 10 10

Second Baseline: 10 10 10 10 10 10

Component B Phase: 10 10 10 10 10 10

- Component A was effective, and component B added nothing to the treatment effects.
- Only component B was effective.
- Neither component was effective.
- Both components were effective.

**True–False Questions**

- A key limitation in all single-case designs, no matter how well they control for threats to internal validity, is their extremely restricted external validity.
- The key feature of time-series designs is their use of multiple data points before as well as after a new intervention, program, or policy is introduced.
- Multiple time-series designs combine time-series logic with the logic of the nonequivalent comparison groups design.
- The AB design has the strongest internal validity of all single-case designs.
- Visual significance means that you can rule out the plausibility of rival explanations (threats to internal validity) merely by eyeballing a graph.
- The results of an ABAB design are deemed visually significant when the graph shows that improvement occurs in every phase after the first A phase, including improvement in the second baseline phase.
- In a multiple baseline design, if improvement consistently coincides with the introduction of the B phase, then history becomes far-fetched as an alternative explanation.
- The main purpose of a multiple component design is to ascertain whether any part of an intervention is unnecessary and whether any part is most responsible for the intervention’s effects.

**Essay Questions**

- Explain how time-series designs can provide a reasonable degree of internal validity.
- Discuss the difference between simple and multiple time-series designs and why the latter provides more internal validity than the former.
- Discuss the advantages of ABAB designs and multiple baseline designs.
- Draw graphs illustrating results of ABAB designs and multiple baseline designs that indicate that both history and intervention effectiveness can be plausible interpretations of the same graph.

**Answer Key—Chapter 7**

**Multiple-Choice Questions**

- c
- b
- b
- c
- a
- d
- a
- c
- c
- a

**True–False Questions**

- T
- T
- T
- F
- T
- F
- T
- T

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