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Nutrition Now 7th Edition by Judith E. Brown – Test Bank

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Nutrition Now 7th Edition by Judith E. Brown – Test Bank

Test Bank for Unit 7 – How the Body Uses Food:
Digestion and Absorption


  1. _____ Water, sodium, and chloride are mostly absorbed in the small intestine.
  2. _____ Most dietary fat is absorbed into the circulatory system.
  3. _____ Enzymes are degraded in the process of aiding the breakdown of food.
  4. _____ High-fiber diets slow down the passage of food through the digestive tract.
  5. _____ Before absorption of vitamins and minerals can occur, they must be released from food.
  6. _____ Digestive disorders are the most common cause of hospitalization among adults in the U.S. aged 45-64 years.
  7. _____ About 5% of a person’s body weight is replaced by new tissue each day.
  8. _____ A diet high in fiber and fluids will always prevent, treat, or cure constipation problems.
  9. _____ Stools contain toxins that can be absorbed and can cause harm to the body. Therefore, periodically cleansing the colon is essential for good health.
  10. _____ A large majority of carbohydrates, protein, and fat consumed in the diet leave the body as undigested waste.
  11. _____ Diarrhea that persists for more than two weeks can potentially deplete the body of nutrients, produce malnutrition, and cause heart or kidney problems and even death.
  12. _____ Bacteria in the large intestine can digest some fiber from the diet as well as produce vitamin K and biotin.


Matching A: Match the organ to its function in digestion.

1. _____ esophagus

2. _____ gallbladder

3. _____ large intestine

4. _____ liver

5. _____ pancreas

6. _____ salivary glands

7. _____ small intestine

8. _____ stomach

9. _____ tongue

a. produce enzymes that start to break down starch and fats

b. masticates and mixes food with saliva

c. transfers food to the stomach

d. mixes and liquefies food; secretes enzymes that break down proteins and fats

e. produces bile that aids fat digestion

f. stores and secretes bile

g. secretes enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

h. site of most nutrient absorption

i. site of most intestinal bacteria and organ where most water is absorbed

Matching B: Match the term with its definition.

10. _____ absorption

11. _____ bile

12. _____ circulatory system

13. _____ diarrhea

14. _____ digestion

15. _____ disaccharides

16. _____ duodenal/ stomach ulcers

17. _____ enzymes

18. _____ flatulence

19. _____ heartburn

20. _____ hemorrhoids

21. _____ irritable bowel syndrome

22. _____ inflammation

23. _____ umami

24. _____ microbes

25. _____ lymphatic system

26. _____ monosaccharides

27. _____ probiotics

28. _____ starch

a. the mechanical and chemical processes whereby ingested food is converted into substances that can be utilized by the body

b. the process by which nutrients and other substances are transferred from the digestive system into body fluids for transport

c. simple sugars consisting of one sugar molecule, such as fructose

d. protein substances that speed up chemical reactions

e. complex carbohydrates made up of complex chains of glucose molecules

f. simple sugars consisting of two sugar molecules, such as sucrose

g. a yellowish-brown or green fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; emulsifies fats in the small intestine

h. a network of vessels that absorb some of the products of digestion and transport them to the heart, where they are mixed with the substances contained in blood

i. the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins responsible for circulating blood

j. a condition that results when acidic stomach contents are released into the esophagus

k. swelling of veins in the anus or rectum

l. a disorder of bowel function characterized by chronic or episodic gas, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation

m. the taste that is described as meaty or savory

n. non-harmful bacteria and yeasts that help colonize the intestinal tract with beneficial microorganisms

o. the presence of three or more liquid stools in a 24-hour period

p. presence of excess gas in the stomach and intestines

q. microscopic organisms including bacteria and fungi

r. open sores in the lining of the duodenum or stomach

s. reaction of the body to the presence of infection, irritants, or toxins

Multiple Choice: Choose the one best answer.

  1. The amount of salivary amylase _____.
  2. is the same in all people
  3. is decreased in the presence of food
  4. varies depending on genetic traits
  5. determines the type of foods that will be digested in the mouth
  1. Which of the following statements about ulcers is false?
  2. Ulcers occur most often in the duodenum, or upper part of the small intestine.
  3. Ulcers have been found to be associated with spicy foods and high levels of stress.
  4. Ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria or overuse of pain medications.
  5. Ulcers are treated with antibiotics and medication to reduce stomach acid.
  1. Dried beans, broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, onions, and corn are related to _____ in the _____.
  2. lactose intolerance, large intestine
  3. bacterial gas production, large intestine
  4. stomach acid production, stomach
  5. acid reflux, esophagus
  1. Enzymes produced in the salivary glands help to break down:
  2. fiber.
  3. protein.
  4. fat.
  5. starch.
  6. c and d
  7. a and b
  1. How often are cells lining the intestinal tract replaced?
  2. Every 1 to 3 days
  3. Every 7 days
  4. Every month
  5. Every 120 days
  1. Which of the following foods is likely to stay in the stomach the longest?
  2. A cup of hot cocoa
  3. A cup of creamy tomato soup
  4. A cup of pasta with meat sauce
  5. A cup of diet soda
  1. The process of _____ encompasses the journey of broken-down food particles from the digestive tract to all body cells.
  2. metabolism
  3. absorption
  4. digestion
  5. excretion
  1. What is the fate of certain vitamins and minerals—such as vitamin C, thiamin, and sodium—when they are consumed in excess?
  2. They will be excreted in the urine.
  3. They will be excreted in perspiration.
  4. They will be excreted in the feces.
  5. They will be stored in the liver and muscle cells.
  1. Meals high in dietary fiber:
  2. do not provide calories but decrease muscle activity in the small intestine.
  3. stimulate higher levels of intestinal muscle activity than low-fiber meals.
  4. are digested completely by human enzymes and absorbed as glucose.
  5. pass through the digestive system more slowly than low-fiber meals.
  1. Which of the following is not true of constipation?
  2. The consumption of 25 to 30 grams of fiber daily can help relieve or prevent constipation.
  3. Hemorrhoids cause both inflammation in the large intestine and constipation.
  4. The habitual use of laxatives or the use of medications may cause constipation problems.
  5. The periodic cleansing of the colon is not helpful for reducing constipation.
  1. Digested carbohydrates are absorbed into the _____ and most digested fats are absorbed into the _____.
  2. nervous system, circulatory system
  3. circulatory system, lymphatic system
  4. lymphatic system, circulatory system
  5. lymphatic system, nervous system
  1. Which of the following is not one of the five basic tastes of food?
  2. Umami
  3. Crispy
  4. Sour
  5. Sweet
  1. Which of the following is not a common cause of diarrhea?
  2. The lack of immunization against infectious diseases
  3. Bacterial contamination of water or food
  4. Consuming five or more servings of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains each day
  5. Virus-contaminated water or food
  1. Which of the following statements about heartburn is true?
  2. Overeating, obesity, and medications are related to the development of heartburn.
  3. Coffee, mint-flavored foods, and moderate amounts of alcohol intake may reduce the development of heartburn.
  4. Heartburn is related to the presence of some heart conditions.
  5. Chronic heartburn is not a serious health problem.
  1. Approximately what percentage of carbohydrates are digested and absorbed?
  2. 75%
  3. 80%
  4. 90%
  5. 99%
  1. Digestion and absorption are greatly enhanced by the structure of the _____ and its fingerlike projections called _____.
  2. stomach, branches
  3. small intestine, villi
  4. pancreas, villi
  5. mouth, villi
  1. Bile is produced by the _____ and stored in the _____ until it is released into the small intestine.
  2. stomach, liver
  3. liver, gallbladder
  4. liver, pancreas
  5. pancreas, gallbladder
  1. How long do most solid foods stay in the stomach before passing into the small intestine?
  2. Approximately 24 hours
  3. Approximately 20 minutes
  4. Approximately 1 hour
  5. Approximately 2-4 hours
  1. Which of the following is an enzyme that breaks down starchy carbohydrates?
  2. Sucrase
  3. Lipase
  4. Amylase
  5. Trypsin
  1. Which of the following is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide sucrose?
  2. Amylase
  3. Maltase
  4. Sucrase
  5. Lactase
  1. What is the function of the enzyme lipase?
  2. Breaks down starch to disaccharides
  3. Splits short-chain amino acids
  4. Breaks down fat into fragments of fatty acids and glycerol
  5. Separates disaccharides
  1. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the _____ and ends with bacterial digestion in the _____.
  2. mouth, stomach
  3. stomach, small intestine
  4. stomach, large intestine
  5. mouth, large intestine
  1. Which enzymes help to digest protein?
  2. Amylase and lipase
  3. Sucrase and maltase
  4. Pepsin and trypsin
  5. Maltase and lactase
  1. What digestive disorder is characterized by continuous or recurrent symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and/or constipation?
  2. Heartburn
  3. Ulcers
  4. Irritable bowel syndrome
  5. Diarrhea
  6. Carbohydrates are absorbed in which form?
  7. Complex starch
  8. Fiber
  9. Disaccharides
  10. Monosaccharides
  1. What beverage should be limited to help reduce the symptoms of heartburn?
  2. Soda
  3. Alcohol
  4. Coffee
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above
  1. What food should be avoided after a bout of diarrhea?
  2. Solid foods
  3. Yogurt
  4. Sweetened beverages such as regular soda
  5. Beans
  6. All of the above
  1. All of the following can increase flatulence except:
  2. swallowing air while eating or drinking.
  3. drinking green tea or coffee.
  4. eating beans, broccoli, or corn.
  5. some medication, such as antibiotics.
  1. Where in the body is alcohol absorbed?
  2. The small intestine
  3. At a site near the brain
  4. The stomach
  5. The large intestine
  6. a and c
  7. b and c
  1. Approximately how much fiber is recommended to reduce the risk of constipation?
  2. 5-15 g/day
  3. 15-20 g/day
  4. 25-30 g/day
  5. 60-80 g/day
  1. Where in the body do enzymes begin digesting protein?
  2. The mouth
  3. The stomach
  4. The small intestine
  5. The large intestine
  1. What are microbes?
  2. Projectile tissue in the intestines
  3. Microscopic organisms including bacteria
  4. Cells that uptake toxins in the large intestine
  5. Body tissues that neutralize harmful substances

Case Study and Multiple Choice Questions: Choose the one best answer.

Sean is a college senior who has a family history of digestive disorders including heartburn and ulcers. Throughout his college career Sean has experienced symptoms related to these disorders but has not been medically treated for any digestive disorder. Today is Sean’s 22nd birthday and his friends have decided to take him out for a few drinks. At the restaurant Sean and his friends are surprised when the waitress brings them a large mint-chocolate brownie with creamy mint frosting to help them celebrate Sean’s birthday. They all enjoy the dessert and drinks, especially Sean, who ends up eating the majority of the brownie and drinks three alcoholic beverages. A few hours later Sean is feeling bloated, has abdominal cramps, and experiences diarrhea. He is also experiencing a burning sensation in his chest.

  1. During Sean’s birthday celebration his body likely absorbed what substance first?
  2. Sugar
  3. Lactose
  4. Alcohol
  5. Fat
  1. What salivary enzymes help break down the chocolate brownie in Sean’s mouth?
  2. Amylase and sucrase
  3. Sucrase and lipase

c Lipase and pepsin

  1. Amylase and lipase
  1. What most likely caused Sean to have diarrhea?
  2. Sugar
  3. Viruses or bacteria
  4. Alcohol
  5. Fat


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