## MR2, 2nd Edition by Tom J. Brown – Test Bank

**Chapter 9—Developing the Sampling Plan**

**MULTIPLE CHOICE**

- Which of the following conclusions to the sentence is INCORRECT? “It is often preferable to sample rather than canvass a population because…”

a.

complete counts of populations of even moderate size are very costly and time consuming.

b.

the information will be obsolete by the time the census is complete.

c.

in some cases a census is impossible.

d.

a sample has less potential for nonsampling error.

e.

statistical procedures cannot be used on population data.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A complete canvass of a population is called a:

a.

sample.

b.

census.

c.

sampling frame.

d.

population.

e.

directory.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Samples are often used to infer something about a population rather than canvassing the population itself because they are typically:

a.

cheaper than complete counts.

b.

faster than complete counts.

**c.**

more accurate than complete counts.

**d.**

Both a and b.

**e.**

a, b, and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Ten volunteers are requested from your class to test a new bicycle. Of these ten, two are selected at random for the actual tests. The sampling frame consists of:

a.

the students who were selected for the actual tests.

b.

the students who volunteered.

c.

all the students in the class.

d.

the students who were not selected.

e.

all the students in the school.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

- Sample size depends upon the:

**a.**

type of sample.

**b.**

statistic in question.

**c.**

homogeneity of the population.

**d.**

Both a and c.

**e.**

a, b, and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A sampling frame:

a.

is a list of population elements from which the sample will be drawn.

b.

is the list of population elements actually included in the sample.

c.

usually provides biased statistics.

d.

is a form of probability sampling.

e.

is a form of nonprobability sampling.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Which of the following is NOT a problem with using a phone book for a sampling frame?

a.

Unlisted phone numbers.

b.

Not all homes have phones.

c.

Double counting homes with multiple phone numbers.

d.

The phone book is always outdated.

**e.**

All of the above are problems when sampling from phone books.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- In order to define a population, the researcher needs to specify:

a.

the geographic boundaries of the population.

b.

which elements are not of interest.

**c.**

the time period for the study.

**d.**

Both a and b.

**e.**

a, b, and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- The distinguishing feature of nonprobability sampling plans is that:

a.

they allow an assessment of sampling error.

b.

they are not as representative of the population as probability samples.

c.

they involve personal judgment somewhere in the selection of sample elements.

d.

there is only one basic type of nonprobability sample while there are several types of probability samples.

e.

they tend to be more expensive than probability samples.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- In probability samples, the probabilities of each element being included must be:

a.

known.

b.

nonzero.

c.

equal.

d.

known and equal.

e.

known and nonzero.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Which of the following is a probability sample?

a.

Quota sample

b.

Convenience sample

c.

Cluster sample

d.

Judgment sample

e.

Snowball sample

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- All of the following are probability sampling plans EXCEPT:

a.

quota.

b.

area.

c.

cluster.

d.

disproportionate stratified.

e.

systematic.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- One of the major problems with mail surveys is nonresponse bias. In an effort to minimize this, a researcher decides to limit the sample to his personal friends from whom he is sure to get replies. This is an example of a:

a.

probability sample.

b.

nonprobability sample.

c.

random sample.

d.

sequential sample.

e.

quota sample.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- While giving guidelines to her field interviewing staff, a researcher states, “I want you to interview every tenth customer entering a K-Mart store at the following key sites.” This is an example of ____ sampling.

a.

judgment

b.

quota

c.

sequential

d.

systematic

e.

convenience

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Communication | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

- Convenience samples:

a.

take place at 7-11, Stop & Go or other convenience stores.

b.

are nonprobability samples.

**c.**

are typically not representative of the entire population.

**d.**

Both a and b.

**e.**

Both b and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Judgment samples are distinguished by the fact that:

a.

those entering the sample happen to be where the study is being done when it is being done.

b.

the proportion of those possessing a given characteristic is balanced against the proportion of the population possessing the characteristic.

c.

each field worker is allowed to judge whether any given respondent would be a good representative of the population.

d.

the sample elements are hand picked by the investigator because it is expected they can offer the contributions sought.

e.

they are superior to other forms of sampling for descriptive studies.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Snowball samples are an example of:

a.

convenience sampling.

b.

judgment sampling.

c.

quota sampling.

d.

simple random sampling.

e.

stratified sampling.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A sample where the respondent provides the names of other potential respondents is called a(n):

a.

judgment sample.

b.

snowball sample.

c.

quota sample.

d.

accidental sample.

e.

probability sample.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Convenience samples are best used for:

a.

causal research.

b.

exploratory research.

c.

hypothesis testing.

d.

descriptive research.

e.

experimental designs.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A researcher wants to interview members of the junior class in a local high school that are interested in attending the local university in order to investigate their attitudes concerning the university’s admissions policy. Although the researcher suspects that many of the juniors are interested in attending, the researcher cannot get a list of juniors but only has the names of the three students that have expressed their interest by writing to the admissions office. What sampling procedure should the researcher use to assemble a sample of adequate size?

a.

Simple random sampling

b.

Referred sampling

c.

Snowball sampling

d.

Convenience sampling

e.

Quota sampling

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

- Which of the following statements is INCORRECT with respect to a quota sample?

**a.**

It is relatively easy to verify whether the sample is representative.

**b.**

Field workers’ personal judgments govern the choice of sample members.

**c.**

The quotas per field worker usually mirror the distribution of characteristics in the population.

**d.**

Quota samples are an example of nonprobability sampling.

**e.**

Both a and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Quota samples are typically selected so that the distribution of a characteristic in the sample matches the distribution of that same characteristic in the population. With respect to the representativeness of quota samples, it can thus be said that

a.

a quota sample may be very far off the mark with respect to other important characteristics likely to influence the result but which were not used as controls when selecting the sample.

b.

the fact that the distribution of the characteristic in the sample parallels the distribution in the population does not guarantee that the sample is representative.

**c.**

the quota assigned each field worker should exactly mirror the distribution of the control characteristic in the population.

**d.**

Both a and b.

**e.**

a, b, and c.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

- A researcher wants to study the effects of social class on consumption behavior. He establishes three different categories of social class in terms of amount of income. He then assigns each field worker a specified number of interviews with people in each income category although the interviewers are allowed to select who they interview. This is an example of:

a.

probability sampling.

b.

stratified sampling.

c.

systematic sampling.

d.

quota sampling.

e.

random sampling.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

- The distinguishing feature of probability samples is that:

a.

they involve personal judgment somewhere in the selection of sample elements.

b.

each population element has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

c.

each population element has an equal chance of being included in the sample and every combination of n population elements is a sample possibility.

d.

each population element has a known chance of being included in the sample.

e.

they will always be more representative of the population than nonprobability samples.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Which of the following is NOT a probability sample?

a.

Simple random sample

b.

Stratified sample

c.

Cluster sample

d.

Judgment sample

**e.**

All of the above are probability samples.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A problem with nonprobability samples is:

a.

they are always more representative than nonprobability samples.

b.

one cannot assess the amount of sampling error likely to occur.

**c.**

there is no problem with using nonprobability samples

**d.**

Both a and b.

**e.**

None of the above.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A researcher wants to be able to assess the amount of “sampling error” associated with an estimate. Which of the following sampling methods would you recommend he use?

a.

Convenience

b.

Quota

c.

Nonprobability

d.

Probability

e.

Judgment

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Analysis

- Which of the following regarding probability samples is FALSE?

a.

Evaluation of the precision of a sample result is important to most researchers and therefore they seek to use probability samples whenever possible.

b.

In general, probability sampling requires personnel who are more skilled and experienced than nonprobability sampling.

c.

Probability samples will usually cost substantially more than a nonprobability sample of the same size on a per observation basis.

d.

One real advantage that probability samples have over nonprobability samples is their greater economic efficiency.

e.

Elements of the sample are selected objectively.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- The distinguishing features of a simple random sample are:

a.

each population element has a known chance of being selected.

b.

each population element has an equal chance of being selected.

**c.**

every combination of n population elements is a sample possibility.

**d.**

Both a and b.

**e.**

a, b, and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A parameter represents:

a.

the geographical boundary of a population.

b.

certain characteristics of a random sample.

c.

fixed characteristics of a population.

d.

fixed characteristics of a nonprobability sample.

e.

an unbiased estimator of the population mean.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Which of the following is NOT TRUE for simple random sampling?

a.

Each element has a known chance of being selected.

b.

Each element has a nonzero chance of being selected.

c.

Each element has an equal chance of being selected.

d.

Each combination of n population elements has an equal chance of being selected.

**e.**

All of the above are true statements.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- The sampling distribution of a statistic refers to the:

a.

distribution of all possible sample values of the statistic that could be drawn from the parent population under the specified sampling plan.

b.

distribution of the variable in the parent population.

c.

distribution of the variable in a particular sample.

d.

spread of the variable in the parent population.

e.

unbiased nature of most sample statistics.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- For simple random sampling, the mean of all possible sample means is equal to the population mean when which of the following conditions is true. Choose the best possible answer.

a.

Sampling is with replacement.

b.

Sampling is without replacement.

c.

Sampling is from an infinite population.

d.

Sampling is from a finite population.

e.

Sampling is with or without replacement and from an infinite or finite population.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Analysis

- Which of the following is needed before a confidence interval can be established for a population mean?

a.

A confidence level

b.

A point estimate of the population mean

**c.**

An estimate of the sampling error associated with the sample mean

**d.**

All of the above.

**e.**

Both a and b.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- Which of the following is FALSE with regard to stratified sampling?

a.

A stratified random sample is drawn by dividing the parent population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets and by then taking a random sample of these subsets.

b.

The basic rule by which we stratify suggests the resulting strata should be as homogeneous as possible.

c.

When sampling from a population that is highly skewed, a stratified sample generally provides the most representative sample.

d.

A market researcher needs information about parts of the population, as well as the total population. He should therefore plan on using a stratified random sample.

e.

Stratified samples are more statistically efficient than simple random samples.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A researcher divides the population of the purchasers of Brand X into heavy and light users. He then chooses a random sample independently from each group. This is an example of ____ sampling.

a.

nonprobability

b.

random

c.

judgmental

d.

stratified

e.

quota

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

- The advantages of stratified over simple random sampling include stratified sampling:

**a.**

ensures adequate representation from each stratum of interest.

**b.**

can produce more precise sample statistics.

**c.**

allows for the comparison of variables between strata.

**d.**

Both b and c.

**e.**

All of the above.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

- A researcher wishes to sample from a population in which two important segments make up less than 2% of the population, but wishes to develop confidence intervals describing their behaviors. Which type of sampling is most appropriate?

a.

Stratified sampling

b.

Convenience sampling

c.

Systematic sampling

d.

Simple random sampling

e.

Judgment sampling

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Analysis

- Which of the following is TRUE?

a.

When sampling from a population that is highly skewed, a cluster sample generally provides the most representative sample.

b.

Stratified sampling is a very useful sampling technique. It allows closer examination of the characteristics of particular subgroups. It also lowers the chance of error by ensuring that subgroups are adequately represented in the sample. However, this method generally produces less precise estimates of population values than simple random samples.

c.

In calculating the standard error of the mean when using a stratified sample, one finds that differences among strata means do not enter the estimate.

d.

When using proportional allocation in stratified random sampling, one samples from each of the strata in proportion to their respective variabilities.

e.

The sampling distribution of means for stratified sampling is generally less concentrated than that obtained from simple random sampling.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

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