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Medical Sociology 13th Edition by Cockerham – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 9780205896417
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0205896417

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Medical Sociology 13th Edition by Cockerham – Test Bank

Chapter 7
Illness Behavior

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The most common response to symptoms of illness by people throughout the world is:
a. Health behavior.
b. Illness behavior.
c. Self care.
d. Doctor visits.
e. None of the above.

Answer: C Page: 163

2. Visits to physicians are higher for:
a. Males.
b. Females.
c. Adults.
d. No difference in the response options.
e. None of the above.

Answer: B Page: 164

3. The data in the Dutton (1978) study on health care utilization among the poor favored the _______________ hypothesis.
a. Systems barrier.
b. Financial coverage.
c. Culture of poverty.
d. Disparities.
e. None of the above.

Answer: A Page: 174

4. Which group has the highest percentage of persons without health insurance?
a. Non-Hispanic white.
b. Non-Hispanic black.
c. Hispanic, Mexican.
d. Asians.
e. European migrants.

Answer: C Page: 169

5. Which social class visits doctors the least?
a. Upper classes.
b. Upper and middle classes.
c. Middle classes.
d. Lower classes.
e. All of the above.

Answer: A Page: 172

6. The process of seeking medical help involving a group of potential consultants, beginning in the family and extending outward to more select individuals until professionals are consulted, is known as the:
a. Medical referral system.
b. Lay-referral system.
c. Professional referral system.
d. Health networking process.
e. None of the above.

Answer: B Page: 176

7. Persons with a low sense of locus-of-control tend to have:
a. More self-initiated preventive care.
b. Less self-initiated preventive care.
c. More optimism about the effectiveness of care.
d. Less pessimissim about the effectiveness of care.
e. None of the above.

Answer: B Page: 177
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8. According to Suchman, persons in a cosmopolitan group were found to:
a. Demonstrate high ethnic exclusivity.
b. Distrust health professionals.
c. Be very dependent on others while sick.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.

Answer: E Page: 165

9. ________________ interpretations of feeling states are medically significant, because sometimes physical changes are not obvious.
a. Objective.
b. Subjective.
c. Professional.
d. Thoughtful.
e. None of the above.

Answer: B Page: 163

10. Which is a component of self-care?
a. Taking preventive measures.
b. Self-treatment of symptoms.
c. Managing chronic conditions.
d. Consultation with health care providers.
e. All of the above are components of self-care.

Answer: E Page: 163-164

11. A number of factors have promoted self-care on the part of laypersons. Which is a factor?
a. The shift in disease patterns from acute to chronic illnesses.
b. Dissatisfaction with professional medical care that is depersonalized.
c. Recognition of the limits of modern medicine.
d. The increasing awareness of alternative healing practices.
e. All of the above are factors promoting self-care.

Answer: E Page: 164

12. People have been doing self-care for ______________ and it is made easier today by access to the Internet with its abundance of medical information.
a. A couple years.
b. Decades.
c. Centuries.
d. Self-care is relatively new, and we don’t know how long it has been occurring.
e. None of the above.

Answer: C Page: 164

13. People engage in self-care in a manner ____________ with medical norms, values, and information.
a. Consistent.
b. Inconsistent.
c. At odds with.
d. In tandem.
e. None of the above.

Answer: A Page: 164

Page: 144

14. Which point in the life course is NOT a peak period for when women visit doctors the most?
a. Childhood.
b. Childbearing years.
c. After 35.
d. After 45.
e. All of these are peaks in the visitation pattern for females.

Answer: C Page: 165

15. Woman’s reproductive role accounts for less than _________ of all doctor visits.
a. 10%.
b. 20%.
c. 30%.
d. 40%.
e. 50%.

Answer: B Page: 165

16. Who is NOT part of the lay-referral system?
a. Family.
b. Friends.
c. Neighbors.
d. All are part of the lay-referral system.
e. None are part of the lay-referral system.

Answer: D Page: 165

17. The process by which a family provides a child with a specific social identity is:
a. Classification.
b. Socialization.
c. Enculturation.
d. Brain washing.
e. None of the above.

Answer: B Page: 167

18. Which refers to the social relationships a person has during day-to-day interaction, which serves to suggest, advise, influence, or coerce an individual into taking or not taking particular courses of action.
a. Intrapersonal affect.
b. Lay-referral system.
c. Family.
d. Social network.
e. None of the above.

Answer: D Page: 167

19. Which is an example of an alternative medical practitioner?
a. Clergy..
b. teachers..
c. Social worker.
d. Family members.
e. None of the above..

Answer: E Page: 168

20. The higher an individual’s socioeconomic position, the __________ ethnic the person often becomes.
a. Less.
b. More.
c. Balanced.
d. Really.
e. None of the above.

Answer: A Page: 168

21. In 2010, _________ of Americans under 65 have private health insurance.
a. 55.3%.
b. 58.3%.
c. 61.7%.
d. 64.9%.
e. 78.1%.

Answer: C Page: 169

22. Which group has a higher rate of those covered by private insurance than the national average?
a. Blacks.
b. Hispanics.
c. Asians.
d. Native Americans.
e. None of the above.

Answer: C Page: 169

23. Koos’s study helped establish the premise that _______________ persons are less likely than others to recognize various symptoms as requiring medical treatment and that these beliefs contribute to differences in the actual use of services.
a. Lower-class.
b. Middle-class.
c. Upper-class.
d. Middle- and upper-class.
e. Lower- and middle-class.

Answer: A Page: 171-172

24. Dutton tested different explanations concerning why the poor would show lower use rates in relation to actual need than the non-poor. Which was NOT a tested explanation?
a. Financial coverage.
b. Level of education.
c. Culture of poverty.
d. Systems barrier.
e. All of these were tested.

Answer: B Page: 173

25. Consumerism in medicine means that people:
a. Make informed choices about the services available to them.
b. Spend money on health care.
c. Buy and sell health services to one another.
d. Sell their personal advice within the lay referral system.
e. All of the above.

Answer: A Pages: 176

26. Consumerism is more likely a feature characteristic of the:
a. Lower class.
b. Middle class.
c. Upper class.
d. Middle and upper class.
e. Lower and middle class.

Answer: D Page: 176

27. _______________ does not promote equality among laypersons when direct physician–patient interaction is required, nor does it provide a context within which such an orientation can grow within the medical environment.
a. Health care philosophy.
b. The lay-referral system.
c. The culture of medicine.
d. Consumerism.
e. None of the above.

Answer: C Page: 178

True False Questions

1. Christakis and Fowler found that obese persons were highly likely to have social networks of family and friends who were similarly obese people with shared outlooks.

Answer: TRUE Page: 167

2. Puerto Rican Americans are among those most likely to report that they could not afford health insurance as the main reason they did not have coverage.

Answer: FALSE Page: 171

3. Given that the poor are visiting doctors in greater numbers, it is generally accepted that they use the same sources of medical treatment as those of higher income groups.

Answer: FALSE Page: 172

4. On average, females tend to visit physicians more often than males in the U.S.

Answer: TRUE Page: 165

5. Patients as consumers are making decisions on their own about which steps are most appropriate for them in dealing with doctors and maintaining their health.

Answer: TRUE Page: 178

6. Self-care consists of both health and illness behavior.

Answer: TRUE Page: 164

7. About 12 percent of the American population does not have health insurance.

Answer: FALSE Page: 169

8. Self-care is an action that is independent of the medical profession.

Answer: FALSE Page: 164

9. It appears that men generally know more about health matters than women, but women take better care of themselves.

Answer: FALSE Page: 165

10. The family represents a social experience that influences how a particular person perceives his or her health situation.

Answer: TRUE Page: 166

11. The strategies that people employ for seeking health care are socially organized around the opportunities they have for interacting with people in a position to help.

Answer: TRUE Page: 168

12. Ethnicity’s influence on physician utilization appears wide-sweeping and goes beyond its role in providing a cultural context for decision making within social networks.

Answer: FALSE Page: 168

13. Surprisingly, socioeconomic status does not confound the effects of ethnicity on help seeking.

Answer: FALSE Page: 168

14. The culture of poverty includes traits of dependence, fatalism, inability to delay gratification, and a lower value placed on health.

Answer: TRUE Page: 171

15. Only some 10 percent of all American physicians are of Hispanic origin.

Answer: FALSE Page: 171

16. When actual need for health services is taken into account, low-income persons appear to use fewer services relative to their needs.

Answer: TRUE Page: 171-172

17. Dutton found the culture of poverty explanation to have little to no validity when combined with measures of income.

Answer: FALSE Page: 173

18. Beliefs can have an impact on the use of physician services that is independent of financial constraints and the structural organization of services.

Answer: TRUE Page: 175

19. Blacks and less educated individuals have gained less equitable access to the health care system with the advent of Medicare and Medicaid.

Answer: FALSE Page: 176

20. There is more of a consumer orientation toward health among socially advantaged persons.

Answer: TRUE Page: 176

Essay Questions

1. Describe the relationship between socioeconomic status and illness behavior. Explain the basis for your answer.

2. Define and discuss Mechanic’s ten determinants. How does it relate to illness?

3. Compare and contrast the systems barrier and culture of poverty theories. How are they similar? How are they different?

4. Define Medicare and Medicaid. How have Medicare and Medicaid affected health care access and utilization across various groups?

5. What are some patterns and trends we see amongst various racial/ethnic groups in illness behavior? Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asians?

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