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Media and Culture Mass Communication in a Digital Age 10th Edition by Richard Campbell – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1457668742
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1457668746

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Media and Culture Mass Communication in a Digital Age 10th Edition by Richard Campbell – Test Bank

1. The first newspaper produced in North America was Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick.
A) True
B) False

2. By the late 1820s, the average newspaper cost eighteen cents per copy.
A) True
B) False

3. Yellow journalism in the 1890s was the origin of objective journalism in the twentieth century.
A) True
B) False

4. The term yellow journalism originated from a New York newspaper in the late nineteenth century that was printed on yellow-toned paper stock.
A) True
B) False

5. President Theodore Roosevelt coined the term yellow journalism.
A) True
B) False

6. Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World sent star reporter Nellie Bly around the world in seventy-two days to beat the fictional record set in the popular Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days.
A) True
B) False

7. The New York Journal used the motto “It does not soil the breakfast cloth.”
A) True
B) False

8. Journalism is a scientific and objective method of communication.
A) True
B) False

9. The inverted-pyramid news story form is most commonly used with longer feature stories.
A) True
B) False

10. History suggests that objective reporting grew out of an opportunity to mass-market news that would not offend particular groups.
A) True
B) False

11. Literary journalism uses the devices of fiction to construct a portrait of the real world using nonfictional material.
A) True
B) False

12. Online news has helped speed up the news cycle.
A) True
B) False

13. According to the textbook, most small nondaily papers in the United States are consensus oriented rather than conflict oriented.
A) True
B) False

14. Frederick Douglass’s North Star was an antislavery paper published by a former slave.
A) True
B) False

15. Starting around 2005, large newspaper chains responded to the decline in newspaper circulation by buying up more newspapers and increasing newsroom staff.
A) True
B) False

16. Larger newspaper operations overall seem to be more financially stable than small-town newspapers.
A) True
B) False

17. Online newspaper stories have to be briefer and more streamlined than the print version.
A) True
B) False

18. Of all our mass media institutions, newspapers have played the leading role in sustaining democracy.
A) True
B) False

19. Compared with World War II and Vietnam, the war in Iraq has been a safe haven for reporters and other media workers.
A) True
B) False

20. Penny press newspapers, such as the New York Sun, ______.
A) favored human-interest stories
B) relied on subsidies from political parties
C) catered to upper-class readers
D) were sold exclusively by subscription
E) kept newspapers mostly focused on upper-class sections of society

21. Which of the following eras of journalism best represents the historical arrival of newspapers as a mass medium?
A) Penny press
B) Partisan press
C) Literary journalism
D) Interpretive reporting
E) None of the above options is correct.

22. Yellow journalism is ______.
A) a journalism term from the 1950s for small-town papers and reporting styles
B) a journalism term for federally funded newspaper archives in the 1960s and 1970s
C) a journalism trend that began in the late 1800s stressing profit and featuring human-interest stories, crime news, and large headlines
D) a 1980s industry term for PR-generated stories
E) journalism written by journalists afraid to challenge public or political leaders

23. The modern legacy of the style of journalism practiced by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst includes ______.
A) investigative journalism or otherwise investigating stories in depth to expose corruption
B) striving for objectivity in reporting
C) supermarket tabloid headlines that include clearly fictional accounts as well as sensational and largely made up stories about celebrities
D) Both A (“investigative journalism”) and B (“striving for objectivity”) are correct.
E) Both A (“investigative journalism”) and C (“supermarket tabloid headlines”) are correct.

24. The two significant features of yellow journalism were an emphasis on crime and disasters and ______.
A) an emphasis on objectivity
B) an emphasis on cooking tips
C) crusading for the common people
D) an emphasis on color photos
E) None of the above options is correct.

25. By the end of the nineteenth century, crusading newspapers like the New York World had what kind of approach to women’s rights?
A) They were against them.
B) They championed conservative values and the status quo.
C) They hired women as reporters and crusaded for better conditions for women.
D) They hired mostly women for management positions.
E) None of the above options is correct.

26. The two publishers most associated with yellow journalism in the late 1800s were ______.
A) Penn and Teller
B) Pulitzer and Hearst
C) Ochs and Pulitzer
D) Hearst and Zukor
E) Rowan and Martin

27. Who reportedly said, “The modern editor of the popular journal does not care for facts. The editor wants novelty”?
A) Frederick Douglass
B) Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes
C) Joseph Pulitzer
D) Justice Hugo Black
E) None of the above options is correct.

28. Modern journalism started to develop in the nineteenth century mainly because newspapers ______.
A) felt a social responsibility to tell the truth
B) realized there were two sides to every issue
C) discovered a scientific method for covering events
D) wanted to attract as many readers and advertisers as possible
E) All of the options are correct.

29. Select the correct historical order among the following major eras in journalism history.
A) Partisan journalism, penny press, yellow journalism, objective news
B) Penny press, partisan journalism, objective news, yellow press
C) Partisan journalism, objective news, penny press, yellow press
D) Yellow press, penny press, partisan journalism, objective news
E) Objective news, penny press, partisan journalism, yellow press

30. Which of the following is the publication most closely associated with the rise of modern journalism?
A) Time
B) USA Today
C) The Village Voice
D) The New York World
E) The New York Times

31. Objective journalism as championed by Adolph Ochs and the New York Times was particularly good at ______.
A) helping readers understand the complexities of the modern age by offering insightful analysis and context
B) moving the practice of journalism out of the realm of sensationalism
C) exploring journalism’s ties to storytelling by adopting a more literary model
D) appealing to working-class readers
E) All of the options are correct.

32. Which newspaper used the motto “It does not soil the breakfast cloth”?
A) The New York Journal
B) The New York World
C) The Village Voice
D) The Amsterdam News
E) None of the above options is correct.

33. What point was the newspaper motto “It does not soil the breakfast cloth” trying to make?
A) The paper had developed special ink that wouldn’t smudge.
B) Paper carriers were instructed to avoid throwing the morning paper in mud puddles.
C) It was going to focus on sensational and even manufactured stories.
D) It would be an evening edition paper, and so would be read after supper.
E) Its news stories would be less sensational and more matter-of-fact.

34. Which of the following statements about the inverted pyramid style is true?
A) A story using this style typically begins with answering “who, what, when, and where.”
B) It serves as a quick and efficient way to organize a news story.
C) It strives for a form of “objectivity” that is more likely to be accepted by people with different backgrounds and beliefs.
D) It can lead to formulaic stories.
E) All of the options are correct.

35. What spawned the rise of interpretive journalism in the 1930s and 1940s?
A) The success of the New York Times
B) Journalists’ desire to do more creative reporting
C) The world’s increasing complexity
D) The expensive nature of objective reporting
E) None of the above options is correct.

36. The practice of interpretive journalism in the twentieth century got its first significant boost from ______.
A) print journalism, which then passed the practice along to radio
B) radio broadcasters who started developing commentary as part of their news in the 1930s
C) the introduction of television
D) a push for probing analysis in print journalism in the 1920s and 1930s
E) None of the above options is correct.

37. What makes literary journalism different from early-twentieth-century models of “objective” journalism?
A) Literary journalism focused on a “just the facts” approach, cutting out the extra descriptive details found in objective journalism.
B) Literary journalism applied fiction writing techniques to nonfiction material, instead of being purely informational as in objective journalism.
C) Literary journalism focused only on gossip while objective journalism focused only on news.
D) Literary journalism believed in reporting on both sides of an argument, whereas objective journalism focused only on one opinion.
E) None of the above options is correct.

38. According to the textbook, which of the following has been a critique of the idea of journalistic objectivity?
A) Journalists use too much flair in their stories, obscuring the important details.
B) Objective journalism fuels unhealthy competition between journalists to see who can get the story first.
C) It isn’t possible to have genuine journalistic impartiality, and many reporters have become too uncritical of people with power.
D) It’s too difficult to tell the journalist’s thoughts apart from the thoughts of the subject of the story.
E) None of the above options is correct.

39. Which of the following is not a way in which convergence with the Internet (online journalism) is redefining how newspapers operate?
A) More and more readers go online for news rather than subscribing to a traditional paper.
B) Online news is speeding up the news cycle, with constant publishing pressure rather than a daily deadline.
C) Bloggers can have great influence on the news that is covered by traditional newspaper operations.
D) Newspapers are developing Web sites and other online services.
E) Traditional newspaper reporters and editors are fully embracing their online responsibilities.

40. Besides providing community calendars and meeting notices, ______ newspapers mostly carry articles on local schools, social events, town government, property crimes, and zoning issues.
A) underground
B) alternative
C) conflict-oriented
D) postmodern
E) consensus-oriented

41. Which of the following are specific groups of readers targeted by specialized newspapers?
A) African Americans
B) Asian Americans
C) Native Americans
D) Hispanics
E) All of the options are correct.

42. The newshole ______.
A) is news content that takes up about 35 to 50 percent of the space in a typical metropolitan daily newspaper
B) refers to those parts of the public agenda that are ignored by news media
C) refers to a story that is somewhat incomplete but printed anyway
D) is a form of yellow journalism
E) refers to the space for advertising left over after the news content goes into the paper

43. General assignment reporters ______.
A) are assigned to particular beats or topics
B) are sometimes referred to as specialty reporters
C) are sometimes referred to as bureau reporters
D) handle all sorts of stories that might “break” in a day
E) All of the options are correct.

44. Bureau reporters ______.
A) manage the columnists who deal with particular aspects of culture
B) typically file reports from major cities other than where their paper is located
C) work mainly on online stories
D) manage a newspaper’s daily operations
E) None of the above options is correct.

45. The textbook suggests that closing newspaper bureau offices ______.
A) means a better, more detailed, and more diverse view of news events for consumers
B) means fewer stories and fewer versions of stories about important issues and events
C) means newspapers are hiring more reporters to staff their central news offices
D) means newspapers are cutting their arts or culture sections
E) None of the above options is correct.

46. Which of the following is not true about large newspaper chains today?
A) They are adding more people to their newsroom staffs.
B) They are often suffering financially because of huge debt and falling income.
C) They are selling off individual papers.
D) They are losing talented, award-winning journalists and editors.
E) All of the options are true.

47. The business arrangement in the newspaper industry in which two separately owned papers in the same city are permitted to combine their business and production operations is called a ______.
A) consensus operation (CO)
B) multiple-system operation (MSO)
C) duopoly
D) joint operating agreement (JOA)
E) oligopoly

48. Which of the following is generally considered the biggest threat to the future of newspapers?
A) Yellow journalism
B) Competition from radio and TV
C) Declining readership, especially among younger people
D) The rising cost of paper
E) Public concern over corporate ownership

49. Daily newspaper circulation numbers ______.
A) have declined but these declines show some signs of being offset by increases in online readership
B) continue to grow in terms of actual paper subscriptions in the United States
C) continue to decline in places like Asia, Africa, and South America
D) continue to grow, but newspapers are still operating in the red
E) All of the options are correct.

50. Which of the following developments has contributed to the overall decline in newspaper readership over most of the last century?
A) Increase in the number of working women
B) The availability of newspapers on the Internet
C) Competition from television
D) Greater competition from suburban weeklies
E) All of the options are correct.

51. According to the textbook, some print journalism observers think one piece of good news for the industry is ______.
A) small papers that focus on local news and ads retain a loyal reader base
B) large corporate chains have numerous divisions to spread costs across
C) college graduates entering the print journalism field are looking for job openings
D) newspaper sales are increasing in North America and Europe
E) None of the above options is correct.

52. Advertising revenue, the lifeblood of newspaper operations, ______.
A) grew rapidly once the Internet boom took off in the late 1990s
B) is holding steady even as the number of newspaper subscriptions increases
C) has fallen dramatically in the last few years, with Internet ad sales unable to fill the gap
D) cycles through periods of increase and decrease every few years
E) None of the above options is correct.

53. Which of the following statements about paywalls is not true?
A) The Wall Street Journal pioneered one of the few successful paywalls.
B) Readers who are used to free online content are shunning the idea of paywalls.
C) A 2011 study found that smaller newspapers were more likely to have a paywall than larger papers.
D) Newspapers don’t see any reason for paywalls—ad revenue is more than enough to cover costs.
E) The New York Times added a metered paywall in 2011.

54. Which of the following is a way that online journalism is redefining news?
A) Newspapers can post stories online that they didn’t have room for in their print edition.
B) Newspapers are making huge profits from their online versions.
C) Spurred by online news, newspapers are once again rapidly expanding their news staffs.
D) Bloggers are taking more and more of a backseat to traditional journalism.
E) None of the above options is correct.

55. Which statement about the relationship between blogging and traditional newspaper news is true?
A) Bloggers are increasingly following the lead of traditional newspapers.
B) Traditional newspaper news remains unchanged despite the influx of Internet bloggers.
C) After expressing concern and opposition to blogging as news, many newspapers are promoting their own blog presence.
D) No blog has been able to gain credibility or garner a significant readership.
E) All of the options are true.

56. Worried about the shaky financial underpinnings of print journalism, some have suggested new business models, including ______.
A) having former print reporters start online newspapers
B) having wealthy universities buy and support newspapers
C) having wealthy Internet companies expand into the news business
D) having newspapers operate as nonprofits that run on tax-deductible contributions
E) All of the options are correct.

57. Which of the following is not a potential obstacle to print journalism’s vital role in sustaining democracy?
A) The risk of a reporter’s being injured or killed while covering important stories like wars
B) Newsroom cutbacks
C) The closing of foreign bureaus
D) The addition of online newspapers
E) Newspaper chain executives being afraid to offend investors or advertisers

58. An early dominant style of American journalism, distinguished by opinion newspapers, which generally argued the political point of view of the particular party that subsidized the paper, is called the _______________________.

59. News accounts that focus on the trials and tribulations of the human condition are called _______________________, which often feature ordinary individuals facing extraordinary challenges.

60. Yellow journalism can be seen as a predecessor of _______________________: news reports that hunt out and expose corruption, particularly in business and government.

61. William Randolph Hearst reportedly once said, “The modern editor of the popular journal does not care for _______________________. The editor wants novelty.”

62. _______________________ bought the New York Times in 1896.

63. The inverted-pyramid style is associated with _______________________ journalism.

64. _______________________ is a style of journalism that answers who, what, where, and when (and less frequently why or how) questions at the top of the story.

65. _______________________ attempts to make the news more scientifically accurate by using poll surveys and questionnaires.

66. The space left over in a newspaper for news content after all the ads are placed is called the _______________________.

67. As a grassroots movement, _______________________ refers to people who use the Internet and blogs to disseminate news and information.

Use the following to answer questions 68-75:

Selecting from the following list of names, match the item with the name best associated with it.
A. Nellie Bly
B. Adolph Ochs
C. William Randolph Hearst


68. New York World

69. New York Times

70. The style of objectivity

71. Yellow journalism publisher

72. “No frills” reporting

73. New York Journal

74. Around the world in seventy-two days

75. Citizen Kane

76. How did newspapers emerge as a mass medium during the penny press era?

77. What are the two main features of yellow journalism?

78. Explain different models of the newspaper in American society.

79. Why have African American newspapers had to struggle to maintain their circulation over the past two decades?

80. Describe the role of the underground press.

81. In what ways has the Internet resulted in changes in traditional newspaper operations?

82. If traditional forms of generating revenue for newspapers (subscriptions and advertising) are both dropping for many newspapers, what possible alternatives are there to support the vital role of print journalism?

83. What is citizen journalism? Describe the possible positive and negative effects of citizen journalism on the news media.

Answer Key

1. A
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. B
10. A
11. A
12. A
13. A
14. A
15. B
16. B
17. B
18. A
19. B
20. A
21. A
22. C
23. E
24. C
25. C
26. B
27. E
28. D
29. A
30. E
31. B
32. E
33. E
34. E
35. C
36. B
37. B
38. C
39. E
40. E
41. E
42. A
43. D
44. B
45. B
46. A
47. D
48. C
49. A
50. E
51. A
52. C
53. D
54. A
55. C
56. E
57. D
58. partisan press
59. human-interest stories
60. investigative journalism
61. facts
62. Adolph Ochs
63. objective
64. Inverted-pyramid style
65. Precision journalism
66. newshole
67. citizen journalism
68. A
69. B
70. B
71. C
72. B
73. C
74. A
75. C



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