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Mastering The World Of Psychology 5th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0205968082
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0205968084

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Mastering The World Of Psychology 5th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

Test Bank for Wood 5e
Chapter 11: Personality Theory and Assessment

Multiple Choice

1. _____ consists of a person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
a) Emotion
b) Personality
c) An external locus of control
d) Motivation
Answer: b
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Easy
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Psychoanalytic Theories

2. _____ is Freud’s theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders.
a) Behaviorism
b) The locus of control
c) Psychoanalysis
d) Reciprocal determinism
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Easy
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Psychoanalytic Theories

3. The central idea of psychoanalytic theory is that _____
a) because all behavior is learned, it can be unlearned.
b) the environment affects behavior, which affects the cognitive factors in an individual.
c) one’s perceived competence affects behavior and performance.
d) unconscious forces shape human thought and behavior.
Answer: d
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Psychoanalytic Theories

4. Which of the following theorists argued that unconscious forces were the main focus of personality?
a) Abraham Maslow
b) Raymond Cattell
c) Sigmund Freud
d) B. F. Skinner
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Easy
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Psychoanalytic Theories

5. According to Freud, the three levels of awareness are _____
a) id, ego, superego.
b) environment, behavior, thoughts.
c) preconscious, conscious, unconscious.
d) pleasure principle, libido, reality principle.
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

6. According to Freud, the thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment define the _____
a) id.
b) unconscious.
c) conscious.
d) preconscious.
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

7. According to the psychoanalytic theory, being aware of how you feel taking this exam right now would be located in your _____ awareness.
a) id
b) unconscious
c) preconscious
d) conscious
Answer: d You are currently aware of how you feel about this exam. Thus, the thoughts are coming from your conscious.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality
8. According to Freud, the thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment, but that may be easily brought to consciousness, defines the _____
a) ego ideal.
b) conscious.
c) preconscious.
d) unconscious.
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

9. Imagine you were engaged in a conversation about politics. Information to answer the question “What color is your vehicle?” would be located in the _____ according to the psychoanalytic theory.
a) preconscious
b) conscious
c) unconscious
d) superego
Answer: a If you were not currently thinking of the color of your vehicle, but could easily access that information, it would be coming from your preconscious.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

10. For Freud, the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires of which you have never been consciously aware, is the _____
a) ego ideal.
b) unconscious.
c) conscious.
d) super ego.
Answer: b
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

11. When Nancy was 5 years old, she found her sister floating face down in the family swimming pool. She was highly traumatized by the event. As a young adult, however, she does not seem aware that she was the one to actually find her sister. According to the psychoanalytic theory, this information would likely be located in her _____
a) unconscious.
b) ego.
c) superego.
d) preconscious.
Answer: a The memory of finding her sister is repressed (Nancy is not aware) due to the traumatic nature of the event. Repressed memories are stored in the unconscious.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

12. According to the psychoanalytic theory, the _____ is where traumatizing, repressed events are located, whereas the _____ holds information an individual may not necessarily be thinking about but can easily access.
a) unconscious; conscious
b) ego; unconscious
c) unconscious; preconscious
d) id; conscious
Answer: c Freud said that repressed, traumatic events are stored in the unconscious. Information you are not currently thinking about but can access if necessary is coming from the preconscious.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

13. According to the psychoanalytic theory, being aware about how you feel taking this exam right now would be located in your _____ awareness, whereas information to answer the question “What color is your vehicle?” would be available in your _____
a) unconscious; id.
b) ego; unconscious.
c) conscious; preconscious.
d) unconscious; preconscious.
Answer: c You are currently aware of how you feel about this exam. Thus, the thoughts are coming from your conscious. If you were not currently thinking of the color of your vehicle but could easily access that information, it would be coming from your preconscious.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 364
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

14. The unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle, defines the _____
a) superego.
b) conscious awareness.
c) ego ideal.
d) id.
Answer: d
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

15. According to the psychoanalytic theory, the structure of personality that operates on the pleasure principle is the _____
a) ego.
b) superego.
c) conscience.
d) id.
Answer: d The id wants pleasure and immediate gratification at all times.
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

16. Which of the following statements is FALSE, according to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?
a) The id forms the basis for the moral part of the personality.
b) The id tries to seek pleasure, avoid pain, and gain immediate gratification.
c) The id is the source of the libido.
d) The id is the only part of the personality present at birth.
Answer: a
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

17. According to Freud, the _____ is the psychic energy that fuels the entire personality.
a) preconscious
b) id ideal
c) libido
d) ego ideal
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

18. According to Freud, the _____ accounts for unconscious aggressive and destructive impulses.
a) superego
b) life instinct
c) libido
d) death instinct
Answer: d
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

19. Tarrin is a teenager who is struggling with feelings of hostility and angst. Because she was arrested for vandalism, she was court-ordered to therapy. Her treatment goal is to understand these feelings or at least to learn how to keep them in check. If Freud were her psychoanalyst, he would speculate that her _____ was to blame for her hostility and angst.
a) superego
b) death instinct
c) libido
d) life instinct
Answer: b Tarrin’s death instinct is fueling her aggressive (hostility) and destructive (vandalism) impulses.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

20. Which of the following, according to Freud’s theory, would likely be the cause of suicidal feelings?
a) the ego ideal
b) an unsuccessful resolution of the latency stage
c) the death instinct
d) the superego
Answer: c This part of the id houses aggressive and destructive impulses.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

21. Which of the following, according to Freud’s theory, would likely be the cause of starting harmful rumors about someone at work?
a) the ego ideal
b) an unsuccessful resolution of the latency stage
c) the death instinct
d) the superego
Answer: c This part of the id houses aggressive and destructive impulses. Rumor starting is aggressive in a social sense.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

22. Denny works in an office with about 50 other attorneys. The environment is fiercely competitive because many of them want to be made a partner in the firm. In an effort to gain some ground, Denny began spreading harmful rumors about two of his coworkers. Even though Denny knew that the rumors could ultimately impact their career in a negative manner, he still chose to engage in the rumor-spreading behavior. Which of the following, according to Freud’s theory, would likely be the cause of Denny’s malicious acts?
a) the death instinct
b) an unsuccessful resolution of the latency stage
c) the ego ideal
d) the superego
Answer: a This part of the id houses aggressive and destructive impulses. Rumor-spreading in an effort to derail someone’s career, or at least chance for promotion, is clearly aggressive and destructive.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

23. According to Freud, the _____ fuels the sexual instincts and biological urges such as hunger and thirst.
a) superego
b) life instinct
c) libido
d) death instinct
Answer: b
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

24. Drug use aside, which of the following, according to Freud’s theory, could have likely been the cause of the free love movement in the 1960s?
a) unsuccessful resolution of the oral stage
b) unsuccessful resolution of the latency stage
c) the death instinct
d) the life instinct
Answer: d This unconscious impulse fuels the sexual instincts. Because promiscuity was so rampant then, Freud would have speculated that the life instinct was particularly strong during that time.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

25. Shelley is currently undergoing treatment for an eating disorder. She reports to her therapist that food absolutely disgusts her. Her therapist, trained in psychoanalysis, immediately thinks of _____ as the potential cause.
a) unsuccessful resolution of the phallic stage
b) unsuccessful resolution of the latency stage
c) an ineffective preconscious
d) problems in her life instinct
Answer: d Freud said that the life instinct fueled biological urges (hunger), therefore it would make sense for her therapist to think there was a problem here.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

26. According to psychoanalysis, which of the following is the source of the libido?
a) superego
b) preconscious
c) ego ideal
d) id
Answer: d
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

27. Jolene frequently gets into fights at school. When asked about her behavior, she says that she just can’t help but fight. According to the psychoanalytic theory, Jolene likely is being influenced by _____
a) a strong id.
b) penis envy.
c) a solid ego ideal.
d) a weak preconscious.
Answer: a Freud said that the id contains the death instinct, which fuels aggressive and destructive behaviors. Fighting is an aggressive and potentially destructive behavior.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

28. The _____ is to the pleasure principle as the _____ is to the reality principle.
a) superego; conscious
b) ego ideal; conscience
c) id; ego
d) superego; ego
Answer: c The id operates on the pleasure principle (wanting all good things now), whereas the ego operates on the reality principle (think first, compromise if you must).
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

29. In Freud’s theory, the logical, rational, and largely conscious system of personality is the _____
a) superego.
b) preconscious.
c) phallic stage.
d) ego.
Answer: d
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Easy
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

30. According to the psychoanalytic theory, the structure of personality that operates on the reality principle is the _____
a) ego ideal.
b) superego.
c) ego.
d) id.
Answer: c
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

31. Because the _____ is the rational part of the personality, it sometimes plays referee between the wishes of the _____ and the _____
a) superego; id; ego.
b) id; superego; ego.
c) unconscious; id; ego ideal.
d) ego; id; superego.
Answer: d The ego has the challenge of mediating between the id and superego.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

32. According to Freud, which of the following is considered the moral system of the personality?
a) superego
b) preconscious
c) fixations
d) ego
Answer: a
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Easy
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

33. The superego is made up of the _____ and _____
a) conscious; preconscious.
b) id; ego ideal.
c) conscience; unconscious.
d) ego ideal; conscience.
Answer: d
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

34. According to Freud, individuals develop the moral component of their personality by age _____
a) 3.
b) 5 or 6.
c) 12 or 13.
d) 15 or so.
Answer: b
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

35. Sixteen-year-old Evan is referred to as a perfectionist by his friends and family. Neither his parents nor his teachers put pressure on him because they all know Evan seems to be the most critical of himself. According to Freud, Evan likely _____
a) has yet to resolve the Oedipus complex.
b) has a strong superego.
c) has a fixation that occurred during the oral stage.
d) has a strong id.
Answer: b The superego judges thoughts, feelings, wishes, and behavior. A strong superego would result in a strong need for all things to be perfect. Evan’s behaviors exemplify this need for perfection.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

36. Having a strong feeling of guilt for minor mistakes may be a reflection of a(n) _____
a) weak subconscious.
b) strong superego.
c) strong ego.
d) overextended id.
Answer: b A strong superego could result in excessive guilt.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

37. According to the psychoanalytic theory, all of Kendra’s behaviors (both ones for which she has been punished and ones for which she has been praised) reside _____
a) solely within her conscious.
b) within her id.
c) within her ego.
d) within her superego.
Answer: d What we are referring to here is the conscience (behaviors for which she’s been punished) and the ego ideal (behaviors for which she’s been rewarded). The conscience and ego ideal comprise the superego.
Skill Level: Applied
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

38. Consider this statement: We are our own worst critic. According to Freud, which of the following components of our personality may best fuel this notion?
a) superego
b) preconscious
c) ego ideal
d) ego
Answer: a Freud said that our superego was a harsher judge than anyone in our external reality. This part of our personality is the basis for self-criticism.
Skill Level: Conceptual
Difficulty: Difficult
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

39. The superego is made up of the conscience and _____
a) preconscious.
b) ego ideal.
c) death instinct.
d) life instinct.
Answer: b
Skill Level: Factual
Difficulty: Easy
Page Ref: 365
Textbook LO 11.1: What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?, APA LO 5.2c
Topic: Freud’s Theory of Personality

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