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Learning And Memory From Brain To Behavior 2nd Edition by Mark A. Gluc -Test Bank

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Learning And Memory From Brain To Behavior 2nd Edition by Mark A. Gluc -Test Ban

Chapter 08

1. Explain the difference between perceptual-motor skills and cognitive skills. Give an example of a task that involves both perceptual-motor skills and cognitive skills, making sure to explain the involvement of each type of skill.

2. Explain the difference between open skills and closed skills. Give an example of each type of skill, explaining why it would be considered open or closed.

3. What is the difference between having talent and being an expert?

4. Suppose one is practicing a speech for a class. Based on what one learned about the impact of knowledge of results on practice, what should one do to maximize the effectiveness of practice?

5. Suppose one has an exam in 3 weeks, and one plans to spend 9 hours studying for the exam. Describe how one would study for the exam if one is using massed practice. Describe how one would study for the exam if one is using spaced practice.

6. Give an example of how one might use constant practice to learn to hit a tennis ball. How would this differ from using variable practice?

7. Describe an example of something that one has learned implicitly. Justify why one considers the example to be implicit learning.

8. Suppose a child learns to ride his bike on the smooth, flat road by his home. According to the identical elements theory, under what physical conditions will the child’s bike-riding abilities transfer the most? Under what conditions will they transfer the least?

9. Provide an example of a motor program.

10. Describe an example of the cognitive stage, the associative stage, and the autonomous stage during learning the task of operating one’s new video camera.

11. Paul Fitts developed a three-stage model of skill learning that is still used today. First, define and explain each of the stages in the three-stage model of skill learning, and provide an example for each. Second, explain why this model is still used today.

12. Describe the procedure and results of any one study that tested the impact of basal ganglia lesions on skill learning.

13. Lesion and neuroimaging studies have suggested that the basal ganglia play a role in skill learning. Explain why it is difficult to determine exactly what this role is.


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