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Industrial Relations in Canada 4th Edition By Fiona McQuarrie – Test Bank

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Industrial Relations in Canada 4th Edition By Fiona McQuarrie – Test Bank



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Given the amount of collective agreements negotiated in Canada, strikes or lockouts are unusual. What percent of Canadian collective agreements are settled without a strike or lockout?
  2. 60%
  3. 72%
  4. 84%
  5. 90%

Answer D Page 240 easy

  1. A slowdown in work can be considered a strike. Which of the following activities falls into this category?
  2. Union imposed overtime bans
  3. Work-to-rule campaigns
  4. Rotating strikes
  5. All of the above

Answer D Page 240-241 intermediate

  1. Strikes may occur as a result of inaccurate perceptions during bargaining. Which of the following is not a factor that might lead to such inaccurate perceptions?
  2. Lack of experience on the part of the bargainers
  3. Limited disclosures of information during bargaining
  4. An imbalance of bargaining power
  5. Changes in the parties’ expectations during bargaining

Answer C Page 242-243 difficult

  1. Which set of numbers represents the findings from an Ontario study on strikes; with the first number representing the bargaining unit size when strikes are most frequent and the second number representing the bargaining unit size when strikes are least common?
  2. 150-300; and 300-499 members
  3. More than 500; and less than 21 members
  4. 150-300; and 50-149 members
  5. 150-300; and less than 21 members

Answer D Page 244 intermediate

  1. Which of the following is not an economic factor that may influence the decision to strike or lockout?
  2. The unemployment rate
  3. The financial position of the employer
  4. The general profit picture in the industry
  5. The rate of economic growth in the country

Answer D Page 245 difficult

  1. On average, public sector strikes have represented what part of the annual percentage of strike activity in Canada?
  2. 10-20 percent
  3. 20-30 percent
  4. 30-40 percent
  5. 40-50 percent

Answer B Page 246 intermediate

  1. What is a wildcat strike?
  2. An illegal strike that takes place during the term of a collective agreement
  3. A legal strike that takes place during the term of the collective agreement
  4. A legal strike that takes place at the outset of collective bargaining
  5. An illegal strike that occurs at the expiry of the collective agreement

Answer A Page 248 easy

  1. For a strike to occur legally it must be authorized by a vote of the bargaining unit. What is the majority required in most provinces for a strike to be considered legal?
  2. 50 percent + 1 of members in the bargaining unit
  3. 60 percent of voters
  4. 50 percent + 1 of voters
  5. 60 percent of members in the bargaining unit

Answer C Page 250 intermediate

  1. In several jurisdictions the party starting a strike or lockout must give notice of their intention to strike to the other party. Which of the below is not a reason for why notice needs to be given?
  2. The employer may have cash or other valuables on the premises that must be stored elsewhere
  3. Employees may have personal belongings they wish to remove
  4. There may be perishable goods that must be removed
  5. The employer may need time to build up inventory

Answer D Page 251 easy

  1. Which of the following occupations is not deemed an essential service and therefore is able to strike?
  2. Police officers
  3. Physiotherapists
  4. Correctional officers
  5. Firefighters

Answer B Page 251 intermediate

  1. What level of government is empowered to enact back-to-work legislation ordering public sector strikers to return to their jobs?
  2. Provincial or federal legislatures
  3. Municipal governments
  4. Regional districts
  5. All of the above

Answer A Page 252 difficult

  1. Workers in some parts of the public sector, such as health care, must provide a designated minimum level of service during a strike for the strike to be designated as legal. How is this minimum level of coverage determined?
  2. By legislation, negotiation, or third-party intervention
  3. By the employer and the union
  4. By employee councils elected for this purpose
  5. By the union

Answer A Page 252 intermediate

  1. What is the term used to describe the payments issued by the union to its striking members to partially compensate for the loss of employment income?
  2. Picketing pay
  3. Supplementary unemployment pay
  4. Strike pay
  5. Employment insurance

Answer C Page 252 easy

  1. What is the term used to describe a situation where picketers appear at the “non-struck” premises of suppliers or other locations, or separate businesses operated by the employer?
  2. Primary picketing
  3. Tertiary picketing
  4. Illegal picketing
  5. Secondary picketing

Answer D Page 254 easy

  1. What is the term used to describe workers who carry out tasks usually performed by workers who are on strike?
  2. Designated employees
  3. Replacement workers
  4. Designated supervisors
  5. Management replacements

Answer B Page 255 intermediate

  1. What is the source of funding for strike pay?
  2. A bank of funds supplied jointly by the employer and the union
  3. A specific amount is deducted from members’ paycheques in addition to regular dues
  4. The union’s resources, supplemented by the employment insurance commission
  5. Designated funds banked solely by the union for this specific purpose

Answer D Page 261 difficult

  1. Which of the following is not a factor that would affect the employer’s ability to endure the economic pain of a strike or lockout?
  2. The number of employees usually on site
  3. The employer may have significant inventory available to meet customer needs
  4. There may be funds available from the parent organization to offset losses from a strike
  5. The employer may have funds set aside to offset the impact of a strike

Answer A Page 261-262 intermediate

  1. What is the term used to reflect the number of days of labour which are lost per year because of strike or lockout activity?
  2. Labour activity
  3. Strike incidence
  4. Lost person-days
  5. All of the above

Answer C Page 263 easy

  1. The Association of University Teachers’ “censure list” is an example of an ongoing boycott. Who or what is on the “censure list”?
  2. Authors whose works are objectionable for classroom curriculum
  3. Employers that the Association asserts have violated principles of academic freedom
  4. Employers that do not have affirmative action hiring policies
  5. Authors whose works create too much controversy

Answer B Page 256 intermediate

  1. Between 2011 and 2012, the rate of work stoppages in the public sector increased by approximately what percentage in contrast to an increase of 14.7% in the private sector?
  1. A) 20%
  2. B) 356%
  3. C) 10%
  4. D) There was little change to the rate of public sector work stoppages between these years

Answer B Page 246 difficult

  1. All who are involved in a strike must conduct themselves according to the law. Which of the following constitutes an example of compliance with the law?
  2. Handing out leaflets
  3. Destruction of property
  4. Physical violence
  5. Intimidation of people entering the premises

Answer A Page 254 easy

  1. A union member crossing his/her own picket line is demonstrating
  2. A sign of disrespect
  3. A sign of disloyalty
  4. They are prepared to go to jail
  5. That they do not agree with the reasoning behind the strike

Answer D Page 255 easy

  1. What was the Supreme Court of Canada’s ruling on the issue of picketing?
  2. Restrictions on picketing must not interfere with the picketers’ freedom of expression
  3. Picketing is an inherent right under the Charter.
  4. Picketing gives the union more power, which must be tempered by the courts.
  5. Non-union staff and suppliers who are affected by picketing are collateral

Answer A Page 253 easy

  1. What is not a pre-condition for a legal strike to occur?
  1. The term of a collective agreement must have expired
  2. The bargaining unit must vote for a strike.
  3. In every jurisdiction, the neutral third party’s intervention efforts must have been exhausted by the parties
  4. The party initiating the strike must give notice to the other party of when the strike will begin.

Answer C Page 253 difficult

  1. What is one ‘individual’ factor that determines the likelihood of a strike occurring?
  1. Workers willingness to undertake strike action
  2. Member ambivalence about the strike
  3. Previously good negotiating relationship between the parties
  4. Workers who are ambivalent about the union

Answer A Page 245 intermediate

  1. Engineers at CN went on strike on November 28, 2009. What caused the strike to end on December 2, 2009?
  1. Management staff had worked as locomotive engineers
  2. There was an error in the strike notification provided by the union
  3. Back–to-work legislation was introduced in the House of Commons
  4. Management gave in to the Union’s demands

Answer C Page 238 intermediate

  1. ”Strikes as collective voice” is a perspective that strikes are likely to occur because of what?
  1. A bargaining unit is united in its cause
  2. Majority rules
  3. An element of mistrust is always present in the union/management relationship
  4. Strikes force both sides to endure economic pain

Answer C Page 243 intermediate

  1. What was the key issue for the 50 members of the Unifor local 195 bargaining unit poised for a strike, working for the Riverfront Hotel in Windsor, Ontario?
  1. Wage parity with the Riverside Inn next door
  2. No overtime which would compensate them for the national swimming championships that frequented Windsor, held at the Aquatic and Training Centre located adjacent to the hotel
  3. A proposal from the employer that employees pay for a portion of their benefits
  4. Each of the above issues were key and important enough to warrant a strike

Answer C Page 241-242 intermediate

  1. The basic purpose of a strike or lockout is?
  1. To inflict economic pain
  2. To sway public opinion
  3. For the union to prove its point
  4. For the employer to prove its point

Answer A Page 241 easy

  1. Which of the following is not a pre-condition for a legal strike in Alberta?
  1. 48 hours notice to the Minister of Labour
  2. Compulsory secret ballot vote
  3. No strike or lockout until a mediator has been formally appointed
  4. Strike vote determined by majority in the bargaining unit who vote

Answer A Page 248 difficult


  1. Strikes and lockouts are the two most public events in the entire industrial relations process.

True Page 240 intermediate

  1. A work-to-rule campaign occurs when union members interpret the terms of the collective agreement very narrowly and follow them very closely in order to slow down production.

True Page 240 easy

  1. In the United States, it has been found that medium sized bargaining units are more likely to undertake strike action.

False Page 244 intermediate

  1. High unemployment rates may actually increase the willingness of union members to undertake strike action.

False Page 245 difficult

  1. Illegal strikes that occur during the term of a collective agreement may occur spontaneously as an expression of union members’ dissatisfaction.

True Page 246 intermediate

  1. PEI law states that nursing home staffs have the right to strike.

False Page 251 difficult

  1. In many Canadian jurisdictions, no strike or lockout can take place until there has been an attempt to resolve the dispute through third-party intervention.

True Page 250 easy

  1. The Canadian government is reluctant to use back to work legislation as a dispute resolution method.

False Page 252 difficult

  1. When picketing a struck place of employment, picketers are able to say whatever they want on their signs.

False Page 254-255 intermediate

  1. Strikes in Canada have not represented a significant loss of working time in any recent period. The rate in any given year has never exceeded six-tenths of 1 percent.

True Page 266 intermediate


  1. Define the terms “strike” and “lockout.”

A strike occurs when union members in a bargaining unit withdraw their labour—that is, they refuse to perform some or all of their duties.

A lockout occurs when the employer closes all or part of the workplace so that workers cannot enter the premises and perform their jobs.

In either situation, the workers do not receive their regular pay and the employer is not able to produce goods or services.

(Page 240easy)

  1. What is the basic purpose of a strike or lockout?

The basic purpose is to inflict economic pain on the other side in a bargaining situation in order to force acceptance of a bargaining position. The employer is hurt by not being able to produce goods and therefore loses revenue. Striking union members are also hurt by not being able to work and thus not receiving their salaries. While both parties suffer economic pain, the goal of the party undertaking the action is to make the other party suffer more.

(Page 241, intermediate)


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