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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 7th Edition By Johnson

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0321821653
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0321821652

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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 7th Edition By Johnson

Human Biology, 7e (Johnson)
Chapter 8 Heart and Blood Vessels

8.1 Multiple Choice Questions

1) Each of the following statements accurately describes a feature of arteries EXCEPT which one?
A) Arteries have an endothelial lining that reduces friction and promotes smooth blood flow.
B) Arteries have a smooth muscle layer on the outside, which provides some stiffness.
C) Elastin fibers in arterial walls allow stretching of the arteries.
D) Valves along major arteries maintain directed blood flow.
E) A tough supportive layer of connective tissue containing collagen is found on the outer surface of arteries.
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) Which one of the following plays the most significant role in regulating the distribution of blood into tissues?
A) arteries
B) veins
C) capillaries
D) arterioles
E) venules
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Application/Analysis

3) Fluid that “escapes” from the circulatory system due to high pressure is referred to as
A) digestive fluid
B) interstitial fluid
C) formed elements
D) platelets
E) aneurysm
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

4) Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding arterioles and arteries?
A) Arterioles and arteries transport blood from capillaries to veins.
B) Blood pressure in arterioles is greater than the blood pressure in arteries.
C) Arterioles are smaller and have less smooth muscle than arteries.
D) Arteries do not contain valves, whereas arterioles do.
E) Small sphincter muscles regulate the flow of blood from arteries into arterioles.
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
5) All of the following are features of capillaries that promote exchange between blood and interstitial fluid EXCEPT which one?
A) Capillaries lack connective tissue in their walls.
B) Capillary walls consist of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells.
C) Capillary walls have pores within the cells and slits between the cells, making them “leaky.”
D) Capillary walls lack smooth muscle.
E) Capillaries have tiny valves that keep the blood flowing in one direction.
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

6) Which one of the following is a CORRECT statement?
A) Blood pressure is higher in veins than in arteries since blood must be returned to the heart.
B) Veins are more distensible than arteries.
C) Veins have a smaller lumen than arteries.
D) The walls of veins are made up of two distinct layers of tissues.
E) Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body.
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Understanding

7) Each of the following mechanisms plays a role in the return of blood to the heart via veins EXCEPT which one?
A) osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins in the blood
B) squeezing action of skeletal muscles
C) valves that permit the one-way flow of blood returning to the heart and prevent backflow
D) pressure changes in the abdominal and thoracic cavities associated with breathing
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8) Life-threatening aneurisms are most likely to occur in
A) veins
B) venules
C) capillaries
D) arterioles
E) arteries
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Exchange of nutrients and gases between blood and tissues is the primary function of
A) arterioles
B) epicardium
C) arteries
D) capillaries
E) veins
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding the lymphatic system?
A) The lymphatic system removes microorganisms from body fluid.
B) Lymph flows from lymph capillaries to larger lymphatic vessels to the heart and lungs.
C) Lymphatic capillaries absorb lipid droplets from plasma.
D) Lymph is excreted from the body.
E) Lymphatic capillaries produce interstitial fluid.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

11) Fluid in the lymphatic system, as well as interstitial fluid, is
A) derived from blood plasma
B) pumped from the left ventricle into lymphatic vessels and then back into the right atrium
C) composed mostly of formed elements from blood
D) the liquid portion of fluid escaping from the digestive system
E) produced by the endothelium to lubricate the interior of vascular tissue
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

12) The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart and produces lubricant for heart contraction is the
A) myocardium
B) pericardium
C) endocardium
D) epicardium
E) reticulocardium
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

13) The left ventricle has a more muscular wall than the other three chambers of the heart because the left ventricle
A) must generate enough blood pressure to pump blood into the aorta and throughout the body
B) pumps blood more rapidly than the other chambers
C) pumps blood into the atria
D) must decrease the amount of pressure on the blood so it can flow more smoothly
E) receives blood directly from major arteries
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
14) When blood leaves the heart, it first enters
A) capillaries
B) arterioles
C) venules
D) veins
E) arteries
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

15) The atrioventricular valves are closed when the
A) right atrium is contracting
B) P wave of an electrocardiogram appears
C) heart is completely relaxed
D) ventricles contract
E) ventricles are relaxed
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

16) The aortic semilunar valve opens when the
A) arterial pressure is lower than the ventricular pressure
B) right ventricle is in diastole
C) atrioventricular valves open
D) atrium is in systole
E) pulmonary semilunar valve closes
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

17) After blood flows through the right atrium of the heart, its next major destination is the
A) right ventricle
B) left atrium
C) aorta
D) left ventricle
E) lungs
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Which one of the following blood vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart?
A) pulmonary artery
B) aorta
C) carotid artery
D) pulmonary vein
E) iliac vein
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) Each of the following is part of the systemic circuit EXCEPT the
A) aorta
B) left ventricle
C) aortic semilunar valve
D) pulmonary arteries
E) superior vena cava
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Use the figure above to answer the following questions.

20) Which of the blood vessels in the human cardiovascular system contain deoxygenated blood?
A) A and C
B) A only
C) B, D, and E
D) D and E
E) C only
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Application/Analysis

21) In the ________ circuit, blood leaving the ________ ultimately delivers oxygen and nutrients to all of the body’s tissues and organs.
A) pulmonary, lung capillaries
B) systemic, vena cava
C) pulmonary, torso and lower limbs
D) systemic, left ventricle
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Dexoygenated blood always flows
A) into the left ventricle
B) toward the left atrium
C) toward the right atrium
D) in the systemic circuit
E) from capillaries to arterioles
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Application/Analysis

23) Blood pressure in veins is lower than that in arteries, and a series of ________ are necessary to prevent backflow of blood.
A) one-way valves
B) two- or three-way valves
C) varicose veins
D) tricuspid valves
E) endothelial cells
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

24) Blood pumped from the right ventricle is ________ and enters the ________.
A) oxygenated, pulmonary vein
B) deoxygenated, aorta
C) oxygenated, pulmonary trunk
D) deoxygenated, coronary vein
E) deoxygenated, pulmonary trunk
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

25) Lymphatic vessels are structurally different from the arteries in that
A) lymphatic vessels generally possess more smooth muscle than arteries
B) blood flow through arteries is largely driven by ventricular contractions, whereas blood movement in lymphatic vessels depends on smooth muscle contractions
C) movement of lymphatic fluid depends on valves to prevent backflow
D) lymphatic vessels possess more elastic fibers than most arteries
E) endothelium lines arteries, but is absent in lymph vessels
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

26) Electrical impulses that stimulate contraction of heart muscles are initiated in the
A) left ventricle
B) bundle of His
C) sinoatrial node
D) atrioventricular node
E) Purkinje fibers
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Arthrosclerosis is a condition that results in a thickening of arterial walls due to buildup of fatty deposits containing
A) glycerol
B) albumin
C) phospholipids
D) glucose
E) cholesterol
Answer: E
Topic: Health & Wellness
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

28) Given the following components of the cardiac conduction cycle, which one of the following best describes the movement of the stimulus that causes a heart contraction?
A. atrioventricular bundle B. sinoatrial node
C. atria D. atrioventricular node
E. Purkinje fibers F. ventricles
A) B, C, D, A, E, F
B) B, D, A, C, E, F
C) D, A, E, F, B, C
D) A, D, E, B, C, F
E) B, C, D, F, A, E
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

29) The sinoatrial node
A) is located in the left atrium
B) sends out a signal for contraction once every two minutes
C) regulates the rate of heart contraction
D) is also known as the atrioventricular node
E) receives signals from the atrioventricular node
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

30) Which layer of the heart is in contact with the blood?
A) pericardium
B) endocardium
C) myocardium
D) epicardium
E) epithelial
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

31) An electrocardiogram is used to
A) measure the amount of blood leaving the heart with each contraction
B) measure the electrical activity of the heart
C) listen to heart sounds
D) correct a heart murmur
E) initiate angina pectoris
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

32) Following damage to his heart, Jim is having a pacemaker implanted. Which one of the following components of the heart does this device replace the activity of?
A) atrioventricular node
B) sinoatrial valve
C) atrioventricular bundle
D) Purkinje fibers
E) sinoatrial node
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

33) Blood pressure is highest in
A) arteries
B) capillaries
C) arterioles
D) venules
E) veins
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
34) Risk factors for atherosclerosis include factors that can raise the levels of blood cholesterol, such as
A) obesity, smoking, and a sedentary life style
B) regular exercise and a high-fat diet
C) dieting and REM sleep
D) sedentary lifestyle, low-fat diet
E) maintaining homeostatic blood pressure
Answer: A
Topic: Health & Wellness
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Ventricular fibrillation is occurring in a patient who has just arrived in the emergency room. Which one of the following treatments may be applied immediately to correct this potentially fatal arrhythmia?
A) implantation of an artificial pacemaker
B) coronary artery bypass surgery
C) cardioversion
D) balloon angioplasty
E) replacement of the defective heart valve
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.2, 8.5
Skill: Application/Analysis

36) The “lub” of the lub-DUB sounds heard through a stethoscope when listening to the heart is produced by the
A) inferior vena cava and superior vena cava emptying into the right atrium
B) closing of the two atrioventricular valves
C) contraction of the atria
D) closing of the aortic valve and pulmonary valve
E) pulmonary arteries emptying into the left atrium
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Which one of the following segments of the typical cardiac cycle is the briefest?
A) atrial systole
B) atrial diastole
C) ventricular systole
D) ventricular diastole
E) Macular systole
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
38) You have been advised to check your pulse during exercise in order to monitor your heart rate. What is happening in your heart as your pulse is produced?
A) ventricular diastole
B) atrial diastole
C) the aortic valve and pulmonary valves are closing
D) ventricular systole
E) atrial systole
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Application/Analysis

39) In which one of the following blood vessels is blood under the lowest pressure?
A) artery
B) arteriole
C) capillary
D) venule
E) vein
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

40) When the force of blood on the walls of blood vessels drops below normal, the condition is referred to as
A) blood pressure
B) hypotension
C) hypertension
D) aneurysm
E) angina
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

41) Which one of the following symptoms is most typical of hypertension?
A) feeling dizzy and faint
B) rapid heart rate
C) very slow heart rate
D) loss of appetite
E) most often there are no symptoms
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding baroreceptors?
A) Baroreceptors are pressure sensors that monitor blood pressure.
B) Baroreceptors are located in the right atrium and right ventricle.
C) Baroreceptors respond to high blood pressure by causing an increase in heart contraction.
D) Baroreceptors respond to low blood pressure by causing vasodilation of the arterioles.
E) Baroreceptors send nerve impulses directly to the heart.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
43) Cardiac output can be calculated by
A) measuring the number of heartbeats in one hour
B) monitoring changes in blood pressure for a specific period of time, but for at least 15 minutes
C) multiplying heart rate by stroke volume
D) dividing stroke volume by arterial blood pressure
E) summing heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

44) Which one of the following would result in a decrease in cardiac output?
A) increased heart rate
B) decreased stroke volume
C) exercise
D) strong emotions
E) activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

45) Which one of the following parts of the brain regulates heart activity?
A) cerebrum
B) cerebellum
C) thalamus
D) midbrain
E) medulla oblongata
Answer: E
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

46) Which response would be characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system?
A) secretion of the hormone epinephrine
B) increase in blood pressure
C) vasoconstriction of blood vessels
D) decrease the rate of heart contraction
E) activation during times of stress
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Understanding

47) A person’s blood pressure has fallen below normal as the person has quickly jumped out of his or her chair where he or she had been relaxing. All of the following reflect events in restoring the blood pressure to normal EXCEPT which one?
A) The heart rate will decrease.
B) The baroreceptors will detect the drop in blood pressure.
C) The medulla oblongata will send signals to the heart and to the blood vessels.
D) The force of contraction of the heart will increase.
E) Vasoconstriction of a number of arterioles will increase blood pressure.
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
48) Which one of the following best describes an angiogram?
A) an X-ray picture of blood vessels
B) a recording of heart sounds
C) use of a balloon to widen an artery
D) a sensation of pain in the chest associated with poor blood circulation to the heart
E) a recording of the electrical activity of the heart
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

49) Which one of the following is a symptom of a heart attack?
A) increased cardiac output
B) intense chest pain
C) normal breathing
D) pain in the knees
E) pain in the right chest that radiates down the right arm
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

50) In a weakened heart, the heart begins to pump less blood, resulting in blood backing up in the veins causing pressure in veins and capillaries to rise. This condition is called
A) angina
B) congestive heart failure
C) hypotension
D) hypertension
E) atherosclerosis
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

51) All of the following are recommended ways to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease EXCEPT which one?
A) reduce fat and cholesterol intake
B) reduce or quit smoking
C) engage in regular moderate exercise
D) older adults—use hormone replacement therapy
E) avoid chronic stress
Answer: D
Topic: Sec. 8.7
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8.2 True/False Questions

1) The endothelium of the heart and blood vessels is composed of a smooth layer of connective tissue that reduces friction, which helps keep blood flowing smoothly.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) Veins carry blood away from the heart.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

3) The lumen of capillaries is so small that red blood cells must travel through these blood vessels in single file or sometimes actually squeeze through.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

4) Blood pressure in veins is lower than blood pressure in arteries, due in part to the larger diameter of veins.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Deoxygenated blood in the right side of the heart never mixes with the oxygenated blood in the left side of the heart.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

6) The cardiac cycle consists of a period of heart contraction called systole and a period of heart relaxation called diastole.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

7) The atrioventricular valves are closed when the heart is in complete diastole.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8) All veins carry deoxygenated blood.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with nutrients and oxygen.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

10) When a person exercises, sensory input from moving muscles and joints results in an increase in cardiac output, causing blood pressure to be maintained, despite an increase in blood flow to the muscles.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
11) Vasoconstriction causes an increase in the diameter of blood vessels, thus causing an increase in blood flow to the tissues.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

12) The buildup of fatty deposits on the inner wall of arteries is associated with higher levels of HDLs (high-density lipoproteins) in the blood.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Health & Wellness
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

13) Artificial hearts are used routinely today to replace damaged hearts when a donor heart is not available for transplant.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Sec. 8.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8.3 Matching Questions

Match each type of blood vessel to its description. Answers may be used more than once.

A) capillary
B) artery
C) vein, artery
D) vein

1) Medium- and large-size vessels maintain a partial state of muscle contraction, resulting in high intravessel pressure.
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) Skeletal muscle pumps aid blood flow.
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

3) This blood vessel permits exchange of nutrients and gases between blood and tissues.
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

4) This blood vessel transports blood from the capillaries to the heart.
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

5) The inner walls are lined with endothelium to create a smooth, low-friction surface.
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

6) This blood vessel transports blood from the heart to the capillaries.
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Answers: 1) B 2) D 3) A 4) D 5) C 6) B

The figure above shows a normal ECG recording. Match each part, A, B, or C, of the recording to its description.

7) represents the movement of the stimulus for heart contraction down the septum and through the Purkinje fibers of the ventricles
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Understanding

8) represents the end of electrical activity in the ventricles
Answer: C
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

9) represents the stimulus for heart contraction traveling across the atria
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Match each of the following cardiovascular disorders to its description.

A) stroke
B) angina pectoris
C) heart attack
D) congestive heart failure
E) embolism
F) atherosclerosis

10) death of a portion of the heart due to an inadequate oxygen supply
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

11) brain damage caused by an inadequate supply of blood
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

12) blockage of a blood vessel, usually due to a floating blood clot
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

13) sensation of tightness and pain in the chest associated with insufficient blood circulation to the heart
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

14) accumulation of fluid in the tissues due to a weak heart becoming less efficient at pumping blood
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

15) buildup of fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries
Topic: Health & Wellness
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Answers: 10) C 11) A 12) E 13) B 14) D 15) F

8.4 Short Answer Questions

1) Smooth muscle, in the form of ________, is frequently located where arterioles meet capillaries.
Answer: precapillary sphincters
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) Contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of arterioles is known as ________.
Answer: vasoconstriction
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
3) The smallest arteries are called ________; the smallest veins are called ________.
Answer: arterioles, venules
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

4) The condition that results when an endothelium becomes damaged and blood leaks below the endothelium, causing the wall of the blood vessel to bulge, is a(n)________.
Answer: aneurysm
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Using the figure below, determine which side of the capillary is being described in each of the following statements.

A) arteriole side
B) venous side

5) reabsorption of fluid occurs from extracellular area to capillary
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

6) blood plasma leaves the capillary, carrying nutrients and oxygen to the cells
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

7) blood pressure is higher
Answer: A
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8) carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood
Answer: B
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
9) The atrioventricular valves are supported by connective tissue strands called ________, which prevent the valves from everting.
Answer: chordae tendineae
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

10) During electrical stimulation of the heart, the impulse pauses briefly at the ________ before continuing on to the ventricles.
Answer: atrioventricular node
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

11) ________ prevent the backflow of blood in veins.
Answer: Valves
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

12) Permanently swollen veins, common in the legs and feet, are known as ________.
Answer: varicose veins
Topic: Sec. 8.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

13) Deoxygenated blood leaving the right side of the heart next passes through the ________ circuit, where the blood is reoxygenated.
Answer: pulmonary
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

14) The two upper chambers of the heart are called ________; the two lower chambers of the heart are called ________.
Answer: atria, ventricles
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

15) Oxygenated blood can be found in the following chambers of the heart: ________ and ________.
Answer: left atrium, left ventricle
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

16) The heart muscle itself receives oxygen and nutrients from blood transported by the ________ arteries.
Answer: coronary
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

17) The rapid expansion and recoil of the wall of an artery close to the skin’s surface is a(n) ________.
Answer: pulse
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
18) Heart murmurs result from the incomplete closure of ________.
Answer: heart valves
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

19) The force exerted by blood on the wall of a blood vessel is known as ________.
Answer: blood pressure
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

20) Spontaneous contractions of the heart muscle begin in the ________.
Answer: sinoatrial node
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

21) The electrical signal causing contraction of the heart is carried from the atrioventricular bundle to the myocardium of the ventricles by ________ fibers.
Answer: Purkinje
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

22) A record of the electrical impulses characteristic of the cardiac conduction system is known as a(n) ________.
Answer: electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

23) Blood pressure is measured with a(n) ________ and a stethoscope.
Answer: sphygmomanometer
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

24) A rapid irregular contraction of the ventricles is known as ventricular ________.
Answer: fibrillation
Topic: Sec. 8.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

25) When blood pressure falls below normal, the condition referred to as ________ results.
Answer: hypotension
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

26) Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers; the higher number corresponds to the ________ pressure.
Answer: systolic
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Baroreceptors are located in the aorta and ________ arteries.
Answer: carotid
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
28) When baroreceptors are stretched, nerve impulses from these receptors ultimately cause a(n) ________ in cardiac output.
Answer: decrease
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

29) The amount of blood leaving the heart with every contraction is known as ________.
Answer: stroke volume
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The ________ division of the nervous system causes the rate of heart contraction to increase.
Answer: sympathetic
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

31) Angina pectoris includes a number of symptoms that indicate there may be insufficient blood flow to the ________.
Answer: heart, myocardium, or coronary arteries (either term can be used here)
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

32) The process by which a small balloon is used to widen a narrowed blood vessel is ________.
Answer: balloon angioplasty
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

33) CABG is a procedure used to restore the flow of blood through the ________ arteries.
Answer: coronary
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

34) A cerebral embolism blocks an artery carrying blood to the ________.
Answer: brain
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

35) A cerebrovascular accident is another term for a(n) ________.
Answer: stroke
Topic: Sec. 8.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

8.5 Essay Questions

1) When an athlete trains for a marathon, the goal is to increase cardiovascular output. What does that actually mean in terms of heart function?
Answer: Aerobic training, over a long enough period of time, increases the cardiovascular output by essentially elevating cardiac output. In other words, the amount of oxygenated blood pumped per minute by the left ventricle increases; therefore more oxygen is available for tissues to eventually produce ATP and perform work.
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
2) A normal heartbeat is not set or initiated by the nervous system, which may be expected since the heart has electrical activity. If not the nervous system, then what actually regulates or initiates a normal heartbeat?
Answer: A region of muscle cells located in the upper portion of the right atrium (the sinoatrial node or pacemaker) can spontaneously become excited. This region also depolarizes at a faster rate than the surrounding cells, so the SA node initiates and sets the pace of electrical activity of the heart, and hence the heart rate.
Topic: Sec. 8.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

3) If you decide to ride your bike at a moderate to fast pace for a long period of time, your blood pressure drops and heart rate increases. Once you stop the exercise, how does your body respond to resume a normal heart rate and blood pressure?
Answer: Ultimately, since the internal environment has moved away from homeostasis, negative feedback mechanisms are used to counter the stimuli that acted on the controlled variables. Since cardiac output increased during exercise, it only makes sense for the rate of contraction to slow as a means to re-establish the homeostatic heart rate. In addition, blood vessels would somewhat constrict to counter the exercise-induced dilation, thus elevating blood pressure.
Topic: Sec. 8.4
Skill: Application/Analysis

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