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Health Psychology 10th Edition by Taylor – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 9353164796
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-9353164799

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Health Psychology 10th Edition by Taylor – Test Bank

Chapter 07

Coping, Resilience, and Social Support

1. Which of the following statements best defines coping? A. the information from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communications and mutual obligations B. the belief that one can determine one’s own behavior, influence one’s environment, and bring about desired outcomes C. the modification of how stress is experienced and the impact it has on illness and other aspects of life D. the thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 2. The relationship between coping and a stressful event is a _____ process. A. divergent B. synergistic C. dynamic D. static Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 3. Which of the following is an important aspect of coping? A. suppression of emotional reactions to stress B. complete avoidance of stressful events C. tolerance of harmful environmental conditions D. voluntary actions taken to confront stressful events Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 4. Individuals who display high negative affectivity are A. likely to have a disease-prone personality. B. likely to seek medical care when they are fatally ill. C. likely to reject medical treatments that cure terminal diseases. D. likely to create a FALSE impression of good health. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 5. Neuroticism coupled with social inhibition and isolation is sometimes referred to as the _____ personality. A. Type A B. Type B C. Type D D. Type E Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 6. Positive emotional states are known to reduce levels of _____, which is a stress indicator. A. serotonin B. cortisol C. dopamine D. oxytocin Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 7. Which of the following is a characteristic of optimism? A. It encourages individuals to accept adverse environmental conditions. B. It encourages people to be self-reliant when coping with stress. C. It promotes active and persistent coping efforts in individuals. D. It fosters a sense of external control over circumstances. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 8. Psychological control is the belief that A. people positively affirm values that make them feel better about themselves and show lower physiological activity and distress. B. one can determine one’s own behavior, influence one’s environment, and bring about desired outcomes. C. opportunities for rest, relaxation, and renewal can help people cope effectively with stressors. D. people strive for a state of mind marked by heightened awareness of the present and focus on the moment. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 9. When optimists’ expectations are not met or when they face resistance in pursuing their goals, they are likely to experience A. long-term physical conditions. B. short-term psychological problems. C. long-term psychological problems. D. short-term physiological conditions. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 10. People vary with regard to whether they are fundamentally optimistic or pessimistic in nature. The test developed to measure this dispositional optimism is known as the A. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. B. Cognitive Behavioral Test. C. Brief COPE. D. Life Orientation Test. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 11. Sarah is scheduled for a hysterectomy. A health psychologist visits her in the hospital and finds that she is worried about the pain involved in the surgery. The psychologist clearly explains the procedure to Sarah and answers her questions to ease her worries. He also teaches her a relaxation technique that she can use before the surgery to control her anxiety. The psychologist explains the drug-delivery method to her so she understands when and how much of the pain-relief drug she will receive. In this case, the health psychologist is conducting a(n) _____ intervention. A. control-enhancing B. informational support C. expressive-writing D. tangible assistance Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 12. _____ maintains that through collaboration with family and friends or with medical practitioners, one may successfully cope with a stressful event. A. Self-control B. Secondary control C. Primary control D. Thought control Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 13. High self-esteem is closely related to A. weak defense mechanisms. B. poor health behaviors. C. high levels of stress indicators. D. low levels of HPA axis activity. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 14. Which of the following is true of people with high self-esteem? A. They are more likely to be providers of social support than receivers of it. B. They are likely to contract psychological disorders. C. They are likely to require major medical intervention for congenital diseases. D. They are likely to risk their health through smoking or excessive drinking. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 15. A personality style characterized by optimism, a sense of control, conscientiousness, self-esteem, and positivity is the _____ personality. A. disease-prone B. selective-coping C. health-prone D. stress-preventive Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 16. Surveys show that nearly half the people in the United States deal with their health problems through A. writing. B. prayer. C. meditation. D. yoga. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 17. _____ is a psychological resource that not only allows individuals to confront and cope with stressors but also helps them bounce back from bad experiences and adapt flexibly to the changing demands of stressful situations. A. Extraversion B. Mindfulness C. Resilience D. Conscientiousness Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 18. Organized religion provides a sense of _____ to people. A. inhibition B. negative affectivity C. institutionalism D. group identity Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 19. _____ is a propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular way. A. Primary response style B. Individual difference C. Direct effect D. Coping style Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 20. James is a lawyer who used to work at the World Trade Center until the 9/11 incident took place. He survived the building collapse but was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) soon after. Over the next few months, he spent time gathering information on the attack, talking to other survivors, and organizing resources for them. Which of the following coping styles is James using? A. avoidant B. projection C. approach D. regression Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 21. _____ involves efforts to regulate emotions experienced due to a stressful event. A. Emotion-focused coping B. Problem-focused coping C. Appraisal-focused coping D. Proactive coping Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 22. Which of the following statements is true of emotion-focused coping? A. It is more useful in the long term than while coping with daily life stressors. B. It leads people to affirm important aspects of their identity. C. It helps people anticipate and act against potential stressors. D. It is most beneficial when applied to work-related problems. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 23. When people anticipate potential stressors and act in advance either to prevent them or to reduce their impact, it is known as A. problem-focused coping. B. proactive coping. C. appraisal-focused coping. D. emotional approach coping. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 24. People living in low socioeconomic circumstances who are unable to modify the stressors that affect them may be especially benefitted by _____ reappraisal. A. positive B. detached C. negative D. desegregated Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 25. Which of the following is assessed by the Brief COPE? A. inflammatory responses to relaxation therapies B. health effects of emotional disclosure C. commonly used coping styles for managing stressful events D. potential costs of receiving social support and enhancing emotional support Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 26. Compared to people low in socioeconomic status (SES), people who are high in socioeconomic status have A. more medical and psychiatric disorders. B. lower physical activity. C. more negative events or realities. D. lower mortality rates. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 27. Which of the following is a successful coping outcome? A. tolerating negative realities B. extricating from relationships with others C. wavering in one’s emotional equilibrium D. maintaining a negative self-image Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 28. Coping efforts are considered to be successful if they A. provoke the stress regulatory system. B. increase the physiological indicators of arousal. C. restrict a person from performing desired activities. D. reduce psychological distress. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 29. A method of intervention based on confronting traumatic and stressful events in one’s life by communicating them via text is known as A. relaxation therapy. B. autobiographic writing. C. cognitive-behavior therapy. D. expressive writing. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 30. A college professor of psychology had his class write a paper about the most traumatic and stressful events in their lives. Although this may have caused immediate psychological distress to the students, the professor was confident that the long-term stress related to these events would eventually reduce. In this case, the professor had most likely conducted a(n) _____ intervention with his class. A. expressive writing B. control-enhancing C. stress inoculation D. debriefing Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 31. The goal of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is to A. help notice thoughts from a distance and avoid response to them. B. teach people to ignore their thoughts in a mindful manner. C. change the private experience of stress and maintain commitment. D. help people challenge their thoughts directly. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 32. _____ can undermine defensive reactions to threats. A. Self-actualization B. Self-control C. Self-affirmation D. Self-reliance Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 33. _____ make use of techniques devised by health psychologists to teach people how to identify stressors and reduce their impact. A. Social support interventions B. Stress management programs C. Biopsychosocial exercises D. Religious interventions Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 34. In the self-monitoring phase of the Combat Stress Now (CSN) program, students are trained to A. recognize and eliminate the negative self-talk they go through when they face stressful events. B. focus on what happens just before they experience feelings of stress. C. observe their own behavior closely and to record the circumstances that they find most stressful. D. experience their stressful events in a strong manner to understand the extent of the symptoms. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 35. Recording negative self-statements or irrational thoughts that accompany a stressful experience usually occurs in the _____ phase of the Combat Stress Now (CSN) program. A. acquiring skills B. completing take-home assignments C. engaging in positive self-talk and self-instruction D. setting new goals Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 36. _____ forces a person to distinguish among stressful events that need to be avoided, tolerated, or overcome. A. Goal setting B. Time management C. Relaxation training D. Self-instruction Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 37. In stress management interventions, _____ helps people set specific goals, establish priorities, and learn what to ignore. A. self-instruction B. emotional support C. time management D. tangible assistance Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 38. Sarah is taking a stress management class. Her instructor provides her with a variety of techniques to combat stress and identify the stress carriers in her environment. Sarah is instructed to try the techniques to identify the ones that work best for her so she can confront stressful situations. In this case, the instructor is using _____ training. A. promotional B. relaxation C. remedial D. assertiveness Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 39. _____ is defined as information from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communication and mutual obligations. A. Informational support B. Expressive writing C. Palliative care D. Social support Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 40. _____ is a form of social support that involves the provision of services, financial assistance, or goods. A. Emotional support B. Tangible assistance C. Invisible support D. Informational assistance Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 41. A patient with AIDS decides to approach his friend, who is a health therapist, for treatment. He feels that his therapist friend is able to help him in ways that his family is unable to. The therapist helps him find ways to cope with the disease and the resulting social pressure. This is an example of A. psychological control. B. informational support. C. tangible assistance. D. emotional support. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 42. Providing emotional support involves A. supplying an individual with factual and informational knowledge about a stressful situation. B. giving material support to an individual in a stressful situation. C. assisting an individual without his or her knowledge. D. reassuring an individual that he or she is valuable and cared for. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 43. Invisible support is when A. one receives help from another but is unaware of it. B. there is a perception that social support will be available. C. there is a provision of material assistance. D. one receives reassurance that he or she is a valuable person. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 44. Studies have found that social support has beneficial effects on the _____ system. A. lymphatic B. muscular C. integumentary D. endocrine Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 45. The _____ hypothesis maintains that social support is generally beneficial during nonstressful as well as stressful times. A. matching B. working C. buffering D. direct effects Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 46. What does the buffering hypothesis state about the moderation of stress by social support? A. Psychological stress cannot be effectively moderated through social support. B. Social support is equally beneficial during stressful as well as nonstressful periods. C. Humans are the only effective sources of social support. D. Social support offers little benefit in periods of low stress. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 47. According to research on social support, which of the following is one of the best protectors against stress? A. having a large house B. having a busy career C. having a child D. having a satisfying marriage Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 48. Experiencing the divorce of one’s parents in childhood predicts A. excessive resilience in adolescence. B. premature death in middle age. C. cardiovascular diseases in old age. D. early aging. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 49. Different kinds of stressful events create different needs, and social support is most effective when it meets those needs. This is called the A. direct effects hypothesis. B. buffering hypothesis. C. matching hypothesis. D. working hypothesis. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 50. The benefits of social support are greatest when A. an individual about to undergo an uncomfortable medical procedure receives invisible support. B. the person from whom one is seeking support is perceived to be responsive to one’s needs. C. the person who is receiving the support has at least above average intelligence. D. an individual does not have a problem but finds the appropriate form of social support. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 51. Negative and competitive social interactions are associated with A. chronic inflammation. B. low levels of inflammation. C. normal levels of inflammation. D. high levels of inflammation. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 52. Inflammation in response to a short-term stressor can be A. inhibited. B. painful. C. adaptive. D. maladaptive. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 53. When an individual grows up in a harsh family, he or she displays A. resilience in handling relationships during old age. B. greater coping mechanisms in stressful situations during adulthood. C. a risk of developing chronic illnesses during childhood. D. strong inflammatory response to stress in adolescence. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 54. _____ social contact may actually worsen the experience of stress. A. Negative B. Overly passive C. Modest D. Overly intrusive Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 55. Health psychologists view social support as an important resource in A. multimodal prevention. B. primary prevention. C. secondary prevention. D. tertiary prevention. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 56. Emotional reactions, including anger and depression, are part of the coping process. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 57. Negative affectivity has been related to alcoholism, depression, and suicidal behavior but not to poor health. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 58. Optimistic people use problem-focused coping and seek social support from others. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 59. People with strong spiritual beliefs have greater life satisfaction and a slower course of illness than those who do not hold strong spiritual convictions. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 60. Receiving social support from one’s parents in early life has little effect on one’s coping abilities and health in adulthood. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 61. Celebrating positive events with other people improves mood in the short term but does not show significant benefits over the long term. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 62. It is more beneficial to use emotion-focused coping while dealing with work-related problems. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 63. Mindfulness engages the prefrontal cortical regions of the brain, which regulate affect and downregulate activity in the limbic areas related to anxiety and other negative emotions. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 64. Emotional support is most beneficial when it comes from experts who are responsive to an individual’s needs. FALSE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 65. Networking may be an added source of social support for people, but those who use it to express distress may drive others away. TRUE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 66. Explain coping and the relationship between personality and coping. Coping is defined as the thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of stressful situations. Coping has several important characteristics. The relationship between coping and a stressful event is a dynamic process. It is not a one-time action that an individual takes, but a set of responses that occur over time, by which the environment and the individual influence each other. Another important aspect of coping is its breadth. Emotional reactions, including anger or depression, are part of the coping process as are actions that are voluntarily undertaken to confront the event. The personality characteristics that each person brings to a stressful event influence how he or she will cope with that event. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 67. Explain the term stress moderators, and provide an example of a stress moderator. Stress moderators are personal and circumstantial factors that modify how stress is experienced and the effects it has. Moderators of the stress experience may have an impact on stress itself, on the relation between stress and psychological responses, on the relation between stress and illness, and on the degree to which a stressful experience intrudes into other aspects of life. Social support, self-esteem, and a sense of humor are resources that act as stress moderators. For example, having a supportive life partner while undergoing treatment for a disease can act as a stress moderator. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 68. Explain the Combat Stress Now (CSN) program, and cite a few advantages of using this program. The CSN program is a stress management program that makes use of the various phases of education, skill acquisition, and practice to overcome stress. The phases in this program provide instruction on identifying stressors, monitoring stress, identifying stress antecedents, avoiding negative self-talk, completing take-home assignments, acquiring skills, setting new goals, engaging in positive self-talk and self-instruction, and using other cognitive-behavioral techniques. The advantages of using this program are that it imparts an array of valuable skills for living in a world with many sources of stress, it helps individuals find a particular technique that works for him or her, and it aids in effectively dealing with stress by improving mental and physical health. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 69. Define social support, and elucidate the different forms of social support. Social support is defined as information from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communication and mutual obligations. Social support can come from parents, a spouse or partner, other relatives, friends, social and community contacts, and pets. Social support can take any of several forms. Tangible assistance involves the provision of material support such as services, financial assistance, or goods. Family and friends can provide informational support about stressful events. Supportive friends and family can provide emotional support by reassuring the person that he or she is a valuable individual who is cared for. When one receives beneficial help from another but is unaware of receiving the support or of its source, it is called invisible support. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 70. What is a biopsychosocial pathway, and how is it beneficial in promoting health? Biopsychosocial pathways are channels of social support by which social contacts exert beneficial or health-compromising effects. Studies suggest that social support has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems. Social support can reduce physiological and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Psychologists often study the effects of social support through the acute stress paradigm. This paradigm takes people into the laboratory and puts them through stressful tasks. It then measures their biological stress responses. Social support is tied to reduced cortisol responses to stress, which can have beneficial effects on illness. Social support is also associated with better immune functioning. These biopsychosocial pathways provide the links between social support and reduced risk of illness. 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