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Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 14th Edition Test Bank

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  • Format: PDF
  • ISBN-13: 978-0323597128
  • ISBN-10: 0323597122
  • Publisher‎ Elsevier
  • Authors:  John E. Hall, Michael E. Hall

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Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 14th Edition Test Bank

Table of Contents

  • Unit I. Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
  • Chapter 1. Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the “Internal Environment”
  • Cells are the Living Units of the Body
  • Extracellular Fluid—the “Internal Environment”
  • Homeostasis—Maintenance of a Nearly Constant Internal Environment
  • Control Systems of the Body
  • Summary—Automaticity of the Body
  • Chapter 2. The Cell and Its Functions
  • Organization of the Cell
  • Cell Structure
  • Comparison of the Animal Cell With Precellular Forms of Life
  • Functional Systems of the Cell
  • Locomotion of Cells
  • Chapter 3. Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and Cell Reproduction
  • Cell Nucleus Genes Control Protein Synthesis
  • Transcription—Transfer of Cell Nucleus Dna Code to Cytoplasm Rna Code
  • Translation—Formation of Proteins on the Ribosomes
  • Synthesis of Other Substances in the Cell
  • Control of Gene Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells
  • The dna–Genetic System Controls Cell Reproduction
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Apoptosis—Programmed Cell Death
  • Cancer
  • Unit II. Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
  • Chapter 4. Transport of Substances Through Cell Membranes
  • The Cell Membrane is a Lipid Bilayer With Cell Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Diffusion
  • Active Transport of Substances Through Membranes
  • Chapter 5. Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials
  • Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
  • Resting Membrane Potential of Neurons
  • Neuron Action Potential
  • Propagation of the Action Potential
  • Re-Establishing Sodium and Potassium Ionic Gradients After Action Potentials are Completed—Importance of Energy Metabolism
  • Plateau in Some Action Potentials
  • Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues—Repetitive Discharge
  • Special Characteristics of Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks
  • Excitation—The Process of Eliciting the Action Potential
  • Refractory Period After an Action Potential, During Which a new Stimulus Cannot be Elicited
  • Chapter 6. Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
  • Physiological Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
  • General Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
  • Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
  • Energetics of Muscle Contraction
  • Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction
  • Chapter 7. Excitation of Skeletal Muscle: Neuromuscular Transmission and Excitation-Contraction Coupling
  • Neuromuscular Junction and Transmission of Impulses from Nerve Endings to Skeletal Muscle Fibers
  • Muscle Action Potential
  • Excitation-Contraction Coupling
  • Chapter 8. Excitation and Contraction of Smooth Muscle
  • Contraction of Smooth Muscle
  • Regulation of Contraction by Calcium Ions
  • Nervous and Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction
  • Unit III. The Heart
  • Chapter 9. Cardiac Muscle; The Heart as a Pump and Function of the Heart Valves
  • Physiology of Cardiac Muscle
  • Cardiac Cycle
  • Regulation of Heart Pumping
  • Chapter 10. Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart
  • Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the Heart
  • Control of Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
  • Chapter 11. Fundamentals of Electrocardiography
  • Waveforms of the Normal Electrocardiogram
  • Flow of Current Around the Heart During the Cardiac Cycle
  • Electrocardiographic Leads
  • Chapter 12. Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities: Vectorial Analysis
  • Vectorial Analysis of Electrocardiograms
  • Vectorial Analysis of the Normal Electrocardiogram
  • Mean Electrical Axis of the Ventricular qrs and its Significance
  • Conditions That Cause Abnormal Voltages of the Qrs Complex
  • Prolonged and Bizarre Patterns of the Qrs Complex
  • Current of Injury
  • Abnormalities in the T Wave
  • Chapter 13. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
  • Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
  • Heart Block Within the Intracardiac Conduction Pathways
  • Premature Contractions
  • Paroxysmal Tachycardia
  • Ventricular Fibrillation
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Atrial Flutter
  • Cardiac Arrest
  • Unit IV. The Circulation
  • Chapter 14. Overview of the Circulation: Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
  • Physical Characteristics of the Circulation
  • Basic Principles of Circulatory Function
  • Interrelationships of Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
  • Chapter 15. Vascular Distensibility and Functions of the Arterial and Venous Systems
  • Vascular Distensibility
  • Arterial Pressure Pulsations
  • Veins and Their Functions
  • Clinical Estimation of Venous Pressure
  • Direct Measurement of Venous Pressure and Right Atrial Pressure
  • Pressure Reference Level for Measuring Venous and Other Circulatory Pressures
  • Blood-Cleansing Function of the Spleen—Removal of Old Cells
  • Reticuloendothelial Cells of the Spleen
  • Chapter 16. The Microcirculation and Lymphatic System: Capillary Fluid Exchange, Interstitial Fluid, and Lymph Flow
  • Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System
  • Flow of Blood in the Capillaries—Vasomotion
  • Exchange of Water, Nutrients, and Other Substances Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid
  • Interstitium and Interstitial Fluid
  • Fluid Filtration Across Capillaries
  • Lymphatic System
  • Chapter 17. Local and Humoral Control of Tissue Blood Flow
  • Local Control of Blood Flow in Response to Tissue Needs
  • Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
  • Humoral Control of the Circulation
  • Chapter 18. Nervous Regulation of the Circulation and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
  • Nervous Regulation of the Circulation
  • Special Features of Nervous Control of Arterial Pressure
  • Chapter 19. Role of the Kidneys in Long-Term Control of Arterial Pressure and in Hypertension: The Integrated System for Arterial Pressure Regulation
  • Renal–Body Fluid System for Arterial Pressure Control
  • Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Arterial Pressure Control
  • Summary of Integrated Multifaceted Systems for Arterial Pressure Regulation
  • Chapter 20. Cardiac Output, Venous Return, and Their Regulation
  • Normal Values for Cardiac Output at Rest and During Activity
  • Control of Cardiac Output by Venous Return—Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart
  • Methods For Measuring Cardiac Output
  • Chapter 21. Muscle Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Exercise; the Coronary Circulation and Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Blood Flow Regulation in Skeletal Muscle at Rest and During Exercise
  • Coronary Circulation
  • Chapter 22. Cardiac Failure
  • Circulatory Dynamics in Cardiac Failure
  • Unilateral Left Heart Failure
  • Low-Output Cardiac Failure—Cardiogenic Shock
  • Edema in Patients With Cardiac Failure
  • Cardiac Reserve
  • Quantitative Graphic Analysis of Cardiac Failure
  • Heart Failure With Diastolic Dysfunction and Normal Ejection Fraction
  • High-Output Cardiac Failure
  • Chapter 23. Heart Valves and Heart Sounds; Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects
  • Heart Sounds
  • Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Valvular Heart Disease
  • Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Congenital Heart Defects
  • Use of Extracorporeal Circulation During Cardiac Surgery
  • Hypertrophy of the Heart in Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease
  • Chapter 24. Circulatory Shock and Its Treatment
  • Physiological Causes of Shock
  • Shock Caused by Hypovolemia—Hemorrhagic Shock
  • Neurogenic Shock—Increased Vascular Capacity
  • Anaphylactic Shock and Histamine Shock
  • Septic Shock
  • Physiology of Treatment in Shock
  • Circulatory Arrest
  • Unit V. The Body Fluids and Kidneys
  • Chapter 25. Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids; Edema
  • Fluid Intake and Output ARE Balanced During Steady-State Conditions
  • Body Fluid Compartments
  • Constituents of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
  • Measurement of Body Fluid Compartment Volumes—Indicator-Dilution Principle
  • Fluid Exchange and Osmotic Equilibrium Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
  • Volume and Osmolality of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids in Abnormal States
  • Glucose and Other Solutions Administered For Nutritive Purposes
  • Clinical Abnormalities of Fluid Volume Regulation: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
  • Edema: Excess Fluid in the Tissues
  • Fluids in Potential Spaces of the Body
  • Chapter 26. The Urinary System: Functional Anatomy and Urine Formation by the Kidneys
  • Multiple Functions of the Kidneys
  • Physiologic Anatomy of the Kidneys
  • Micturition
  • Urine Formation Results from Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption, and Tubular Secretion
  • Chapter 27. Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, and Their Control
  • Glomerular Filtration—The First Step in Urine Formation
  • Determinants of the Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Renal Blood Flow
  • Physiological Control of Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
  • Autoregulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Blood Flow
  • Chapter 28. Renal Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
  • Tubular Reabsorption is Quantitatively Large and Highly Selective
  • Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
  • Reabsorption and Secretion Along Different Parts of the Nephron
  • Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption
  • Use of Clearance Methods to Quantify Kidney Function
  • Chapter 29. Urine Concentration and Dilution; Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
  • Kidneys Excrete Excess Water by Forming Dilute Urine
  • Kidneys Conserve Water by Excreting Concentrated Urine
  • Countercurrent Multiplier Mechanism Produces Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium
  • Loop of Henle Characteristics That Cause Solutes to be Trapped in the Renal Medulla
  • Control of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
  • Osmoreceptor-ADH Feedback System
  • Importance of Thirst in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
  • Chapter 30. Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium; Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
  • Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Potassium Concentration and Potassium Excretion
  • Regulation of Renal Calcium Excretion and Extracellular Calcium Ion Concentration
  • Regulation of Renal Phosphate Excretion
  • Regulation of Renal Magnesium Excretion and Extracellular Magnesium Ion Concentration
  • Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Extracellular Fluid
  • Importance of Pressure Natriuresis and Pressure Diuresis in Maintaining Body Sodium and Fluid Balance
  • Distribution of Extracellular Fluid Between Interstitial Spaces and Vascular System
  • Nervous and Hormonal Factors Increase Effectiveness of Renal–Body Fluid Feedback Control
  • Integrated Responses to Changes in Sodium Intake
  • Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
  • Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Extracellular Fluid Volume With Normal or Reduced Blood Volume
  • Chapter 31. Acid–Base Regulation
  • Hydrogen Ion Concentration is Precisely Regulated
  • Acids and Bases—Definitions and Meanings
  • Defending Against Changes in H+ Concentration: Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
  • Buffering of H+ in the Body Fluids
  • Bicarbonate Buffer System
  • Phosphate Buffer System
  • Proteins are Important Intracellular Buffers
  • Respiratory Regulation of Acid–Base Balance
  • Renal Control of Acid–Base Balance
  • Secretion of H+ and Reabsorption of HCO3− by the Renal Tubules
  • Combination of Excess H+ with Phosphate and Ammonia Buffers In the Tubule Generates “New” HCO3−
  • Quantifying Renal Acid–Base Excretion
  • Regulation of Renal Tubular H+ Secretion
  • Renal Correction of Acidosis—Increased Excretion of H+ and Addition of HCO3− to the Extracellular Fluid
  • Renal Correction of Alkalosis—Decreased Tubular Secretion of H+ and Increased Excretion of HCO3−
  • Chapter 32. Diuretics and Kidney Diseases
  • Diuretics and Their Mechanisms of Action
  • Kidney Diseases
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease is Often Associated With Irreversible Loss of Functional Nephrons
  • Unit VI. Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Coagulation
  • Chapter 33. Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia
  • Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
  • Anemias
  • Polycythemia
  • Chapter 34. Resistance of the Body to Infection: I. Leukocytes, Granulocytes, the Monocyte-Macrophage System, and Inflammation
  • Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
  • Neutrophils and Macrophages Defend Against Infections
  • Monocyte-Macrophage Cell System
  • Chapter 35. Resistance of the Body to Infection: II. Immunity and Allergy
  • Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity
  • Allergy and Hypersensitivity
  • Chapter 36. Blood Types; Transfusion; and Tissue and Organ Transplantation
  • Antigenicity Causes Immune Reactions of Blood
  • O-A-B Blood Types
  • Rh Blood Types
  • Transfusion Reactions Resulting From Mismatched Blood Types
  • Transplantation of Tissues and Organs


  • Chapter 37. Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation
  • Hemostasis Events
  • Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
  • Conditions That Cause Excessive Bleeding in Humans
  • Thromboembolic Conditions
  • Anticoagulants for Clinical Use
  • Blood Coagulation Tests
  • Unit VII. Respiration
  • Chapter 38. Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
  • Alveolar Ventilation
  • Chapter 39. Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Edema, and Pleural Fluid
  • Physiological Anatomy of the Pulmonary Circulatory System
  • Pressures in the Pulmonary System
  • Blood Volume of the Lungs
  • Blood Flow Through the Lungs And its Distribution
  • Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients in the Lungs on Regional Pulmonary Blood Flow
  • Pulmonary Capillary Dynamics
  • Fluid in the Pleural Cavity
  • Chapter 40. Principles of Gas Exchange; Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Through the Respiratory Membrane
  • Compositions of Alveolar Air and Atmospheric Air are Different
  • Diffusion of Gases Through the Respiratory Membrane
  • Chapter 41. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood and Tissue Fluids
  • Transport of Oxygen from the Lungs to the Body Tissues
  • Transport of Co2 in Blood
  • Respiratory Exchange Ratio
  • Chapter 42. Regulation of Respiration
  • Respiratory Center
  • Chemical Control of Respiration
  • Peripheral Chemoreceptor System—Role of Oxygen in Respiratory Control
  • Regulation of Respiration During Exercise
  • Chapter 43. Respiratory Insufficiency—Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
  • Useful Methods for Studying Respiratory Abnormalities
  • Pathophysiology of Specific Pulmonary Abnormalities
  • Hypoxia and Oxygen Therapy
  • Hypercapnia—Excess Carbon Dioxide in the Body Fluids
  • Artificial Respiration
  • Unit VIII. Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
  • Chapter 44. Aviation, High Altitude, and Space Physiology
  • Effects of Low Oxygen Pressure on the Body
  • Chapter 45. Physiology of Deep-Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions
  • Effect of High Partial Pressures of Individual Gases on the Body
  • Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (Scuba) Diving
  • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Unit IX. The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
  • Chapter 46. Organization of the Nervous System, Basic Functions of Synapses, and Neurotransmitters
  • General Design of the Nervous System
  • Major Levels of Central Nervous System Function
  • Comparison of the Nervous System to A Computer
  • Central Nervous System Synapses
  • Special Characteristics of Synaptic Transmission
  • Chapter 47. Sensory Receptors, Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information
  • Types of Sensory Receptors and the Stimuli they Detect
  • Transduction of Sensory Stimuli Into Nerve Impulses
  • Signal Intensity Transmission in Nerve Tracts—Spatial and Temporal Summation
  • Transmission and Processing of Signals in Neuronal Pools
  • Instability and Stability of Neuronal Circuits
  • Chapter 48. Somatic Sensations: I. General Organization, Tactile and Position Senses
  • Sensory Pathways for Transmitting Somatic Signals Into the Central Nervous System
  • Transmission in the Dorsal Column–Medial Lemniscal System
  • Transmission of Sensory Signals in the Anterolateral Pathway
  • CHAPTER 49. Somatic Sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations
  • Fast Pain and Slow Pain and Their Qualities
  • Pain Receptors and Their Stimulation
  • Dual Pathways for Transmission of Pain Signals Into the Central Nervous System
  • Pain Suppression (Analgesia) System in the Brain and Spinal Cord
  • Referred Pain
  • Thermal Sensations
  • Unit X. The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
  • Chapter 50. The Eye: I. Optics of Vision
  • Physical Principles of Optics
  • Optics of the Eye
  • Fluid System of the Eye—Intraocular Fluid
  • Chapter 51. The Eye: II. Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina
  • Anatomy and Function of the Structural Elements of the Retina
  • Photochemistry of Vision
  • Color Vision
  • Neural Function of the Retina
  • Chapter 52. The Eye: III. Central Neurophysiology of Vision
  • Visual Pathways
  • Organization and Function of the Visual Cortex
  • Neuronal Patterns of Stimulation During Analysis of Visual Images
  • Eye Movements and Their Control
  • Autonomic Control of Accommodation and Pupillary Aperture
  • Chapter 53. The Sense of Hearing
  • Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular System
  • Cochlea
  • Central Auditory Mechanisms
  • Chapter 54. The Chemical Senses—Taste and Smell
  • Sense of Taste
  • Sense of Smell
  • Unit XI. The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
  • Chapter 55. Spinal Cord Motor Functions; the Cord Reflexes
  • Organization of the Spinal Cord for Motor Functions
  • Muscle Sensory Receptors—Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs—and Their Roles in Muscle Control
  • Flexor Reflex and the Withdrawal Reflexes
  • Crossed Extensor Reflex
  • Reciprocal Inhibition and Reciprocal Innervation
  • Reflexes of Posture and Locomotion
  • Chapter 56. Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function
  • Motor Cortex and Corticospinal Tract
  • Control of Motor Functions by the Brain Stem
  • Vestibular Sensations and Maintenance of Equilibrium
  • Chapter 57. Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Overall Motor Control
  • The Cerebellum and its Motor Functions
  • The Basal Ganglia and Their Motor Functions
  • Integration of the Many Parts of the Total Motor Control System
  • Chapter 58. Cerebral Cortex, Intellectual Functions of the Brain, Learning, and Memory
  • Physiologic Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
  • Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
  • The Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure Transfer Thoughts, Memories, Training, and Other Information Between the Two Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Thoughts, Consciousness, and Memory
  • Chapter 59. The Limbic System and the Hypothalamus—Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain
  • Activating—Driving Systems Of The Brain
  • Limbic System
  • The Hypothalamus, a Major Control Headquarters for the Limbic System
  • Specific Functions Of Other Parts Of The Limbic System
  • Chapter 60. States of Brain Activity—Sleep, Brain Waves, Epilepsy, Psychoses, and Dementia
  • Sleep
  • Brain Waves
  • Roles of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems in Brain Disorders
  • Alzheimer’s Disease—Amyloid Plaques and Depressed Memory
  • Chapter 61. The Autonomic Nervous System and the Adrenal Medulla
  • General Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • Basic Characteristics of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Function
  • Selective Stimulation of Target Organs by Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems or “Mass Discharge”
  • Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • Chapter 62. Cerebral Blood Flow, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Metabolism
  • Cerebral Blood Flow
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid System
  • Brain Metabolism
  • Unit XII. Gastrointestinal Physiology
  • Chapter 63. General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function—Motility, Nervous Control, and Blood Circulation
  • General Principles of Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Neural Control of Gastrointestinal Function—Enteric Nervous System
  • Hormonal Control of Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Functional Movements in the Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Gastrointestinal Blood Flow—Splanchnic Circulation
  • Chapter 64. Propulsion and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract
  • Ingestion of Food
  • Motor Functions of the Stomach
  • Movements of the Small Intestine
  • Movements of the Colon
  • Other Autonomic Reflexes That Affect Bowel Activity
  • Chapter 65. Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract
  • General Principles of Alimentary Tract Secretion
  • Secretion of Saliva
  • Gastric Secretion
  • Pancreatic Secretion
  • Bile Secretion by the Liver
  • Secretions of the Small Intestine
  • Secretion of Mucus by The Large Intestine
  • Chapter 66. Digestion and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Digestion of Various Foods by Hydrolysis
  • Basic Principles of Gastrointestinal Absorption
  • Absorption in the Small Intestine
  • Absorption in the Large Intestine: Formation of Feces
  • Chapter 67. Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Unit XIII. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
  • Chapter 68. Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Chapter 69. Lipid Metabolism
  • Basic Chemical Structure of Triglycerides (Neutral Fat)
  • Transport of Lipids in the Body Fluids
  • Chapter 70. Protein Metabolism
  • Chapter 71. The Liver
  • Fat Metabolism
  • Chapter 72. Dietary Balances; Regulation of Feeding; Obesity and Starvation; Vitamins and Minerals
  • Energy Intake And Output are Balanced Under Steady-State Conditions
  • Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Storage
  • Chapter 73. Energetics and Metabolic Rate
  • Chapter 74. Body Temperature Regulation and Fever
  • Normal Body Temperatures
  • Body Temperature is Controlled by Balancing Heat Production and Heat Loss
  • Regulation of Body Temperature—Role of the Hypothalamus
  • Abnormalities of Body Temperature Regulation
  • Unit XIV. Endocrinology and Reproduction
  • Chapter 75. Introduction to Endocrinology
  • Coordination of Body Functions by Chemical Messengers
  • Chemical Structure and Synthesis of Hormones
  • Hormone Secretion, Transport, and Clearance from the Blood
  • Mechanisms of Action of Hormones
  • Chapter 76. Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary Gland and its Relation to the Hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamus Controls Pituitary Secretion
  • Physiological Functions of Growth Hormone
  • Posterior Pituitary Gland and its Relation to the Hypothalamus
  • Chapter 77. Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
  • Synthesis and Secretion of the Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
  • Physiological Functions of the Thyroid Hormones
  • Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
  • Chapter 78. Adrenocortical Hormones
  • Corticosteroids: Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Androgens
  • Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones
  • Functions of Mineralocorticoids—Aldosterone
  • Functions of Glucocorticoids
  • Chapter 79. Insulin, Glucagon, and Diabetes Mellitus
  • Insulin and its Metabolic Effects
  • Glucagon and its Functions
  • Summary of Blood Glucose Regulation
  • Chapter 80. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Vitamin D, Bone, and Teeth
  • Overview of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation in Extracellular Fluid and Plasma
  • Bone and its Relationship to Extracellular Calcium and Phosphate
  • Vitamin D
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Calcitonin
  • Summary of Control of Calcium ion Concentration
  • Physiology of the Teeth
  • Chapter 81. Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male (and Function of the Pineal Gland)
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Male Sexual Act
  • Testosterone and Other Male Sex Hormones
  • Chapter 82. Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones
  • Physiologic Anatomy of the Female Sexual Organs
  • Oogenesis and Follicular Development in the Ovaries
  • Female Hormonal System
  • Monthly Ovarian Cycle and Function of Gonadotropic Hormones
  • Functions of Ovarian Hormones—Estradiol and Progesterone
  • Regulation of Female Monthly Rhythm—Interplay Between Ovarian and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Hormones
  • Female Sexual Act
  • Chapter 83. Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Maturation and Fertilization of the Ovum
  • Early Nutrition of the Embryo
  • Anatomy and Function of the Placenta
  • Hormonal Factors in Pregnancy
  • Parturition
  • Lactation
  • Chapter 84. Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
  • Unit XV. Sports Physiology
  • Chapter 85. Sports Physiology
  • Index
  • Normal Values for Selected Common Laboratory Measurements

Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 14th Edition Hall Test Bank

Chapter 1. Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the
“Internal Environment”
Test Bank
1. The most abundant type of cell in the human body is which of the following?
A. Neuron
B. Epithelial cell
C. Red blood cell
D. White blood cell
E. Vascular smooth muscle cell
F. Skeletal muscle cell
2. The most abundant substance in the human body and the approximate percentage of
that substance in the body is which of the following?
A. Protein, 30%
B. Protein, 60%
C. Water, 30%
D. Water, 60%
E. Carbohydrate, 30%
F. Carbohydrate, 60%
3. A large volume of blood is transfused to a person whose baroreceptor blood pressure
control system is not functioning and arterial blood pressure rises from the normal level
of 100 to 160 mm Hg. If the same volume of blood is infused into the same person when
the baroreceptor system is functioning and this time the arterial pressure increases from
the normal level from 100 mm Hg up to 120 mm Hg, calculate the gain of the
baroreceptor system in this person.
A. -3
B. -2
C. -1
D. 0

E. +1
F. +2
G. +3
4. Which of the following substances has the highest extracellular fluid to intracellular
fluid concentration ratio for most mammalian cells?
A. Sodium ions
B. Potassium ions
C. Carbon dioxide
D. Glucose
E. Protein
5. Exchange of substances between the cardiovascular system and the interstitial fluid
occurs mainly in which of the following?
A. Arteries
B. Arterioles
C. Capillaries
D. Venules
E. Veins
6. Which of the following is the approximate distance from the capillaries to most cells
of the body?
A. Less than 50 angstroms
B. Less than 50 microns
C. Less than 50 millimeters
D. Less than 100 angstroms
E. Less than 100 microns
F. Less than 100 millimeters
7. When a person is at rest, how much time is required for the blood in the circulation to
traverse the entire circulatory circuit?
A. 1 second
B. 1 minute
C. 3 minutes
D. 4 minutes
E. 5 minutes

8. ______ feedback is often referred to as a “vicious cycle” because it leads to _______
instability and sometimes death.
A. Postitive, progressive
B. Positive, diminished
C. Negative, progressive
D. Negative, diminished
E. Adaptive, progressive
9. Which of the following is an example of positive feedback in the body?
A. Clotting of blood
B. Return of blood pressure toward normal after a hemorrhage
C. Increased respiration rate caused by accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood
D. Decreased sympathetic nervous system activity that occurs in response to increased
blood pressure
Chapter 2. The Cell and Its Functions
Test Bank
Refer to the following list to answer questions 1-3:
A. Nucleolus
B. Nucleus
C. Agranular endoplasmic reticulum
D. Granular endoplasmic reticulum
E. Golgi apparatus
F. Endosomes
G. Peroxisomes
H. Lysosomes
I. Cytosol
Identify the cellular location for each of the following steps involved in the synthesis and
packaging of a secreted protein.
Initiation of translation.


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