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Culture and Psychology 5th Edition by David Matsumoto – Test Bank

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1111344930
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1111344931

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Culture and Psychology 5th Edition by David Matsumoto – Test Bank

Chapter 6
Culture and Gender

1. ____ generally refers to the physical characteristics and differences between men and women.
a) Sex
b) Gender
c) Sex roles
d) Sexual identity
ANS: a REF: Sex and Gender

2. Which of the following refers to the behaviors or patterns of activities that a society or culture deems appropriate for men and women?
a) Gender
b) Sex
c) Self-identity
d) Personality
ANS: a REF: Sex and Gender
NOT: www

3. ____ suggest that males are aggressive and unemotional (with the exception of anger) and that the male should leave the home every day to make a living and be the principal wage earner.
a) Sex roles
b) Traditional sex roles
c) Gender roles
d) Traditional gender roles
ANS: d REF: Sex and Gender

4. Which one of the following statements is true in terms of culture, sex, and gender roles?
a) Masculine and feminine cultures are similar in their attitudes about religion across most or all cultures.
b) All cultures foster and encourage great differences between the genders.
c) Cultures low on masculinity tend to have moralistic attitudes and double standards about sex.
d) The existence of sex and gender roles is universal to all cultures.
ANS: d REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

5. Several programs of research have shown that many gender-related stereotypes are, in fact, universally held across cultures.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Culture, Gender Roles, and Stereotypes

6. The best-known study of gender stereotypes across cultures was conducted by ____ (1982) who found a ____ when it comes to gender stereotypes.
a) Berry and colleagues, high rate of consensus
b) Berry and colleagues, low rate of consensus
c) Williams and Best, high rate of consensus
d) Williams and Best, low rate of consensus
ANS: c REF: Culture, Gender Roles, and Stereotypes
NOT: www

7. In a large cross-cultural study of gender stereotypes, the characteristics associated with men were stronger and more active than those associated with women across all countries.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Culture, Gender Roles, and Stereotypes

8. Researchers found that gender stereotype differentiation tended to be higher in countries that were ____, with a ____ level of socioeconomic development, a relatively low degree of Christian affiliation, and a relatively low proportion of women attending university.
a) conservative and hierarchical, lower
b) conservative and hierarchical, higher
c) more modern and developed, lower
d) more modern and developed, higher
ANS: a REF: Culture, Gender Roles, and Stereotypes

9. There is clear evidence that males do better on spatial tasks and other tasks having a spatial component. This remains to be unproven by research on the topic.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

10. Some researchers suggest that male aggression may be a compensatory mechanism to offset the conflict produced by a young male’s identification with a female care provider and his initiation into adulthood as a male. In this model, aggressiveness is viewed as “gender marking” behavior.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

11. Increased testosterone levels have been associated with dominance hierarchies in some nonhuman primates, but the human analog is less clear.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

12. The magnitude of the sex difference in physical aggression has been linked to levels of gender empowerment and individualism in each of the 52 countries in a study by Archer (2006); cultures that were more individualistic and that empowered women more had ____ female victimization and ____ male victimization.
a) less, less
b) more, more
c) more, less
d) less, more
ANS: d REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

13. According to Berry’s (1976) study, cultures with a higher degree of ____ appear to foster a greater gender difference on conformity, with females more conformist than males. Such cultures may require a greater degree of conformity to traditional gender roles on the part of both males and females.
a) aggression
b) stereotypical behavior
c) tightness
d) looseness
ANS: c REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

14. According to Archer, ____ posits that sex differences in social behavior result from the division of labor between men and women with regard to homemaker or worker outside the home.
a) the gender role theory
b) the social role theory
c) feminist theory
d) the sexual strategies theory
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

15. According to a study by the World Health Organization (WHO), women in industrialized countries may find it easier to leave abusive relationships.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Changing Cultures, Changing Gender Roles

16. Harris (1996) administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a scale that is widely used to measure gender identity, to African and European American males and females, and found that:
a) European American females were more androgynous than both African American males and females.
b) African American females were more androgynous than European American males.
c) both African American males and females were more androgynous than European American males and females.
d) both European American males and females were more androgynous than African American males and females.
ANS: c REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

17. Gender roles are different for males and females in all cultures.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

18. Studies conducted in the United States, Israel, and Hong Kong have found that adolescent girls who adopt ____ identity have higher levels of self-acceptance than ____ girls.
a) a masculine, either androgynous or feminine
b) a feminine, either androgynous or masculine
c) an androgynous, either feminine or masculine
d) either a masculine or feminine, androgynous
ANS: c REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

19. Which concept relates best to the Mexican American gender role that is characterized by traditional expectations of the male gender role such as being unemotional, strong, authoritative, and aggressive?
a) Masculinity
b) Self-acceptance
c) Authority
d) Machismo
ANS: d REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

20. Which one is not a factor of the Five-Factor Model of Personality?
a) Neuroticism
b) Extroversion
c) Conscientiousness
d) Introversion
ANS: d REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

21. Costa and colleagues found that women universally reported higher scores on Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Ideas, while men scored higher on Assertiveness and Neuroticism.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

22. ____ is a procedure that involves partial or complete removal of female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons.
a) Female genital mutilation
b) Hymenoplasty
c) Female hymen mutilation
d) Female to male sexual reassignment surgery
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

23. The process of mate poaching is typically explained using a(n) ____ that suggests that males look for younger, chaste mates to bear offspring while females look for mates that can provide resources for offspring in the long term.
a) biopsychological model
b) psychological model
c) evolutionary model
d) division of labor model
ANS: c REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

24. While both types of infidelity bring about feelings of jealousy in both men and women, males are relatively more jealous about ____ while females are relatively more jealous of ____.
a) sexual infidelity, social infidelity
b) sexual infidelity, emotional infidelity
c) emotional infidelity, sexual infidelity
d) social infidelity, emotional infidelity
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

25. ____ differences between men and women are probably the platform by which decisions concerning a division of labor are made in our evolutionary history.
a) Gender
b) Sexual
c) Psychological
d) Biological
ANS: d REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

26. A study by Georgas and associates (2006) identified three types of roles mothers and fathers played in families:
a) Expressive, Financial, and Childcare
b) Emotional, Monetary, and Physical
c) Financial, Emotional, and Physical
d) Physical, Emotional, and Psychological
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

27. By the age of ____, children begin to accurately label people by sex.
a) two
b) three
c) four
d) five
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

28. In terms of the definitions presented in this chapter, a newborn has sex as well as gender.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

29. All cultures foster differences between the sexes in one (more or less the same) direction (for example, males as primary decision makers and females compliant and obedient).
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

30. Many young Muslim women, finding themselves caught between cultures, seek certificates of virginity to provide proof (of their virginity) to family and prospective marriage partners.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www

31. ____ includes “his awareness that he has the potential to impregnate women and knows the necessary behaviors. ____ includes the woman’s awareness of her reproductive potential and her knowledge about behaviors that lead to pregnancy.” Fill in the blanks respectively.
a) Male identity; Female identity
b) Masculine gender identity; Feminine gender identity
c) Male sexual identity; Female sexual identity
d) Male sex role; Female sex role
ANS: c REF: Sex and Gender

32. Barry, Josephson, Lauer, and Marshall (1976) examined the degree to which cultures foster aggressive tendencies in the socialization of children. They found a sex-related difference in the average amount of teaching about aggressiveness across 150 different cultures. However:
a) other studies have proven this to be inaccurate
b) their samples held a disproportionate ratio of males to females
c) this average difference was produced by a disproportionate number of high-scoring cultures in which teaching aggression actually occurs
d) it is unclear if the study participants were completely honest and unbiased in their answers
ANS: c REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

33. The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is controversial but there are some apparent health benefits to the practice.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

34. A common gender stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females. However, there is no support for this stereotype across cultures for which documentation exists.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Sex and Gender
NOT: www

35. The study about gender-role ideologies by Gibbons and her colleagues found that the most important quality of an ideal man or woman in Spain, Guatemala, and Sri Lanka for both boys and girls was being “kind and honest,” a characteristic that was:
a) significantly different from the researchers’ expectations
b) inconsistent with earlier studies
c) not gender-specific
d) gender-specific
ANS: c REF: Culture, Gender Roles, and Stereotypes

36. In Williams and Best’s (1990) study of gender differences in self-concept, when scored according to masculinity/femininity, both self and ideal-self ratings for men were more masculine than were women’s ratings, and vice versa, across all countries.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Culture, Gender Roles, and Stereotypes
NOT: www

37. Which of the following tend to be less traditional, emphasize the importance of religion in life less, and focus on fellow humans?
a) Feminine cultures
b) Masculine cultures
c) Western cultures
d) Eastern cultures
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

38. Berry et al. (1992) suggested that ____ superiority on spatial tasks tended to be found in cultures in which the roles ascribed to males and females are ____.
a) male, relatively flexible
b) female, relatively flexible
c) male, rigid
d) female, rigid
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

39. ____ are behaviors expected of males and females in relation to their biological differences and reproduction.
a) Gender roles
b) Sexual identity behaviors
c) Sex acts
d) Sex roles
ANS: d REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

40. According to a recent study by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 13 of 15 sites, between ____% of the women had reported being physically or sexually assaulted by someone else since the age of ____.
a) 10-33, 11
b) 15-54, 13
c) 35-76, 15
d) 55-81, 16
ANS: c REF: Changing Cultures, Changing Gender Roles
NOT: www

41. Although there was a significant gender bias in psychological research for many years, women have always played a near equal role in psychological studies.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Introduction

42. Which of the following attitudes toward men (in Glick et al.’s 2004 study) was found to be positively correlated to the degree of gender inequality in a country?
a) Benevolent
b) Hostile
c) Ambivalent
d) Conservative
ANS: c REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

43. Sandra Bem (1981), a prominent theorist on gender, argues that gender is one of the fundamental ways we organize information and understand experiences about the world.
a) True
b) False
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

44. Only some cultures encourage particular behavioral differences between the genders and help to define the roles, duties, and responsibilities appropriate for males and females.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures
NOT: www
45. Although we have come a long way toward improving our knowledge about both men and women in the social sciences, studies of gender differences have not yet become commonplace in social science research.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Introduction

46. Fortunately, due to significant changes in the field, most of the same questions no longer need to be raised concerning whether what we are learning in classes and in our laboratories is indeed true for people of all cultures and ethnicities.
a) True
b) False
ANS: b REF: Introduction

47. Which is a model that suggests that biological differences between the sexes interact with the environment to produce culture-specific sex roles that are adaptations to the environment?
a) Sociosexual Model
b) Biological Model
c) Biopsychosocial model
d) Biosocial model
ANS: d REF: Glossary
NOT: www

48. Sexual identity refers to the degree of awareness and recognition by an individual of his or her ____.
a) sex and sex roles
b) gender and gender roles
c) sex and gender
d) self-identity and gender identity
ANS: a REF: Glossary

49. Many women in many cultures want to marry early, stay home, and take care of the family; many men want to adopt the traditional male roles as well. These tendencies are alive in many different people within the most _____ cultures and societies.
a) conservative
b) egalitarian
c) liberal
d) political
ANS: b REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

50. The differences between men and women regarding gender differences on the five universal personality traits were the largest in:
a) Europe and the US
b) Spain, Guatemala, and Sri Lanka
c) Netherlands, Germany, and Finland
d) Nigeria, Pakistan, and India
ANS: a REF: Gender Differences across Cultures

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