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Criminalistics An Introduction to Forensic Science 11th Edition by Saferstein TB

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0133458822
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0133458824

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Criminalistics An Introduction to Forensic Science 11th Edition by Saferstein TB

Online Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank

An Introduction to Forensic Science

11th Edition

Richard Saferstein, Ph. D.
Forensic Science Consultant, Lt. Laurel, New Jersey





Prentice Hall
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Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2004, 1998 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030.

Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

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Prentice Hall
is an imprint of

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-345888-6 ISBN-10: 0-13-345888-1

To the Instructor iv
Syllabi vi

Chapter 1: Introduction 1
Chapter 2: The Crime Scene 11
Chapter 3: Physical Evidence 21
Chapter 4: Crime scene Reconstruction: Bloodstain Pattern Analysis 28
Chapter 5: Death Investigation 39
Chapter 6: Fingerprints 49
Chapter 7: The Microscope 59
Chapter 8: Firearms, Tool Marks, and Other Impressions 68
Chapter 9: Matter, Light, and Glass Examination 81
Chapter 10: Hairs and Fibers 93
Chapter 11: Drugs 102
Chapter 12: Forensic Toxicology 117
Chapter 13: Metals, Paint, and Soil 128
Chapter 14: Forensic Serology 139
Chapter 15: DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Tool 148
Chapter 16: Forensic Aspect of Fire and Explosion Investigation 158
Chapter 17: Document Examination 170
Chapter 18: Computer Forensics 177
Chapter 19: Mobile Device Forensics 187

Test Bank Chapter 1 195
Test Bank Chapter 2 221
Test Bank Chapter 3 253
Test Bank Chapter 4 271
Test Bank Chapter 5 295
Test Bank Chapter 6 319
Test Bank Chapter 7 344
Test Bank Chapter 8 365
Test Bank Chapter 9 386
Test Bank Chapter 10 410
Test Bank Chapter 11 433
Test Bank Chapter 12 463
Test Bank Chapter 13 488
Test Bank Chapter 14 508
Test Bank Chapter 15 527
Test Bank Chapter 16 552
Test Bank Chapter 17 581
Test Bank Chapter 18 597
Test Bank Chapter 19 620
Answer Key 637

To the Instructor

Each chapter of the instructor’s manual to accompany the 11th edition of Criminalistics includes the following support materials for instructors:
• Chapter overview of the main topics presented in the text
• Learning objectives from the main text
• Lecture outline with teaching notes
• List of changes/transition guide for the 10th – 11th editions
• Additional assignments and class activities
o Demonstrations and lecture-starters
o Questions (and answers)
• Suggested answers to end-of-chapter assignments in the main text, namely the Review Questions, Inside the Science, Application and Critical Thinking, and Case Analysis
• MyCJLab assignments online

Students should become familiar with the organization and capabilities of their state and local forensic laboratories. Usually this can be accomplished through brochures and pamphlets that are prepared by these facilities. The instructor may want to arrange a class tour of one of these laboratories, or perhaps engage the cooperation of a forensic laboratory in order to prepare a PowerPoint presentation showing pertinent sections of the installation.
Students should be encouraged to become familiar with Reddy’s Forensic Home Page and Zeno’s Forensic Site. These pages contain detailed listings of Web pages relevant to forensic science. Students should also be encouraged to explore the Police Officer’s Internet Directory. This directory encompasses many of the Web pages relevant to the criminal justice field and of interest to police officers.




Course Description: This is an introductory course to criminalistics which explores the history and scope of forensic science. Criminalistics is the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. The scope of this course includes discovery at a crime scene, the most important location of evidence; physical evidence; analytical techniques for organic and inorganic materials; forensic toxicology; firearms, ammunition, unique tool marks, and various impressions (e.g., shoe prints, fabric properties, and bloodstains).

Course Objectives: Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. Explain the goal of physical evidence in the criminal justice system.
2. Specify what the field of criminalistics encompasses.
3. Identify the capabilities of crime laboratories with regard to the examination and analysis of various types of physical evidence.
4. Understand the limitations of crime laboratories with regard to various types of physical evidence.
5. Distinguish criminalistics from the other areas of forensic science.
6.Recognize the inter-relationships between criminalisticsand criminal investigation

Required Texts: Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. 11th Edition.
Saferstein. 2014. Prentice Hall.

Recommended Texts & Readings: Library Resources: The college online database LIRN is available on campus or off-site to students and faculty. This resource tool provides current scholarly articles and information in all academic subject areas. Visit the library for more information. Computers are available in the college library as well as other references and periodicals.




Instructional Methods: Lecture, class discussion, and video and audio supplements.

General Course Policies: 1. Students will abide by the college honor code.
2. Students are expected to arrive promptly for class.
3. Class attendance is essential to academic success. Lack of regular attendance may result in probation or suspension.
4. All students, faculty, and staff are required to conform to acceptable standards of academic integrity. Cheating will not be tolerated. If the instructor has reason to believe that any student is giving or receiving unauthorized assistance during an examination, the materials will be removed from the involved parties. Each student will receive a grade of 0 on the examination, and each student may be subject to disciplinary action (see College Catalog). Plagiarism is a form of cheating. Crediting and citing authors or sources will avoid plagiarism.

Grading Criteria: Students must receive a minimum of 70% or better in all general education and program core courses. Please see the Academic Catalog for general graduation requirements.

Letter Grade Grading Scale Letter Grade Grading Scale
A 94-100 C 74-76
A- 90-93 C- 70-73
B+ 87-89 D+ 67-69
B 84-86 D 64-66
B- 80-83 D- 60-63
C+ 77-79 F 0-59

Evaluation Methods: Tests/Quizzes………………………………………. 60%
Assignments 20%
Paper/Project……………………………………. 10%
Attendance/Participation 10%
TOTAL 100%

Course Outline: The course outline may be changed at any time at the discretion of the instructor.



Week 1
 Chapter 1: Introduction
 Chapter 2: The Crime Scene
Week 2
 Chapter 3: Physical Evidence
 Chapter 4: Crime Scene Reconstruction
Week 3
 Chapter 5: Death Investigation
 Chapter 6: Fingerprints
Week 4
 Chapter 7: The Microscope
 Chapter 8: Firearms, Tool Marks and Other Impressions
Week 5
 Chapter 9: Matter, Light, and Glass Examination
 Chapter 10: Hairs and Fibers
Week 6
 Chapter 11: Drugs
 Chapter 12: Forensic Toxicology
Week 7
 Chapter 13: Metals, Paint, and Soil
 Chapter 14: Serology
Week 8
 Chapter 15: DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Tool
 Chapter 16: Forensic Aspect of Fire and Explosion Investigation
Week 9
 Chapter 17: Document Examination
 Chapter 18: Computer Forensics
Week 10
 Chapter 19: Mobile Device Forensics







Week 1
 Chapter 1: Introduction
 Chapter 2: The Crime Scene
Week 2
 Chapter 3: Physical Evidence
Week 3
 Chapter 4: Crime Scene Reconstruction
 Chapter 5: Death Investigation
Week 4
 Chapter 6: Fingerprints
Week 5
 Chapter 7: The Microscope
Week 6
 Chapter 8: Firearms, Tool Marks and Other Impressions
Week 7
 Chapter 9: Matter, Light, and Glass Examination
Week 8
 Chapter 10: Hairs and Fibers
Week 9
 Chapter 11: Drugs
 Chapter 12: Forensic Toxicology
Week 10  Chapter 13: Metals, Paint, and Soil
Week 11  Chapter 14: Serology
Week 12  Chapter 15: DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Tool
Week 13  Chapter 16: Forensic Aspect of Fire and Explosion Investigation
Week 14  Chapter 17: Document Examination
Week 15  Chapter 18: Computer Forensics
Week 16  Chapter 19: Mobile Device Forensics

Chapter 1


• Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.

• The development of crime laboratories in the United States has been characterized by rapid growth accompanied by a lack of national and regional planning and coordination.

• The technical support provided by crime laboratories can be assigned to five basic services: the physical science unit, the biology unit, the firearms unit, the document unit, and the photography unit.

• Some crime laboratories may offer optional services such as toxicology, fingerprint analysis, voiceprint analysis, crime scene investigation, and polygraph administration.

• A forensic scientist must be skilled in applying the principles and techniques of the physical and natural sciences to the analysis of evidence that may be recovered during a criminal investigation.

• An expert witness evaluates evidence based on specialized training and experience.

• Forensic scientists train law enforcement personnel in the proper recognition, collection, and preservation of physical evidence.

• The Frye v. United States decision set guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific evidence into the courtroom. To meet the Frye standard, the evidence in question must be “generally accepted” by the scientific community.

• In the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that trial judges were responsible for the admissibility and validity of scientific evidence presented in their courts.

• Special forensic science services available to the law enforcement community include forensic psychiatry, forensic odontology, and forensic engineering.





1. Define and distinguish forensic science and criminalistics
2. Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science
3. Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years
4. Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system
5. Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom
6. Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness
7. Understand what specialized forensic services, aside from the crime laboratory, are generally available to law enforcement personnel




Literary Roots
Important Contributors to Forensic Science


Crime Labs in the United States
International Crime Labs

• Teaching Note: Be sure to cover the differences between a state and local forensic laboratory. Students should understand what the local analysts normally do compared to what the state analysts can do.


The Growth of Crime Laboratories
Types of Crime Laboratories
Future Challenges

• Teaching Note: Discuss how the crime laboratory is organized and what departments or sections are usually in the lab, including serology, trace evidence, fingerprint examiner, and so forth.


Basic Services Provided by Full-Service Crime Laboratories
Optional Services Provided by Full-Service Crime Laboratories


Analysis of Physical Evidence
Providing Expert Testimony
Furnishing Training in the Proper Recognition, Collection, and Preservation of Physical Evidence


Forensic Psychiatry
Forensic Odontology
Forensic Engineering
Forensic Computer and Digital Analysis
Exploring Forensic Science on the Internet
General Forensics Sites


No major changes have been made between the 10th and the 11th editions for Chapter 1.


Demonstrations and Lecture-Starters

Deductive Reasoning Exercise: The Deadly Picnic.
This exercise challenges students to critically analyze evidence and emphasizes the importance of thorough observation and note taking at the crime scene.
The Facts of the Case
Centerville police discovered the body of a 36-year-old white male (later identified as Gaven Brooks) in a field about twenty miles north of town. Mr. Brooks’s body was discovered at 7:30 p.m. on Friday, October 11. He was found lying face-up on a yellow, queen-size sheet. According to autopsy reports, one fatal gunshot to the back of the head ended Mr. Brooks’s life. Scientists estimate that death occurred at about 4:20 p.m. As investigators scanned the crime scene, they made the following notes:
• Paper plates filled with partially eaten fried chicken, deviled eggs, potato salad, and chocolate cake were located near Mr. Brooks’s body.
• An open bottle of red wine and two partially filled glasses of wine were found next to the yellow sheet.
• A recently smoked cigarette butt was found near the sheet.
• Shoeprints from the road to the field were those of a male, size 10, and a female, size 5. The only shoeprints from the field back to the road were those of a female, size 5.
• Car tracks of the same wheel base and tread pattern as Mr. Brooks’s automobile were found at the road. The car was not found at the scene.
• Mr. Brooks’s car was found abandoned in an empty parking lot in downtown Centerville.
Investigators believe that a female friend of Mr. Brooks was responsible for his demise. After questioning family and friends, it was discovered that the deceased had frequent social outings with six women who live in or near Centerville. The women’s names are Rita, Lauren, Gail, Janice, Elaine, and Peggy. Investigators gathered the following information about the six women:
• Janice works full-time as a caterer.
• Elaine and Gail are schoolteachers.
• Rita’s babysitter says Rita arrived home in her own car at about 5 p.m.
• Peggy and Elaine live together in a two-bedroom apartment in downtown Centerville.
• Gail lives in a nearby town called Jordan.
• Elaine and Janice are very petite women—they wear size 4 jeans.
• Gail and Peggy are smokers.
• Rita’s father owns a gun shop.
• Elaine attends a 5-p.m. step aerobics class in downtown Centerville every Friday afternoon and has not missed a class in two years.
• Peggy is deathly allergic to grapes.
• Lauren works at a chemical supply house.
• Rita lives in a country house about thirty miles west of Centerville.
• Gail is a vegan (she eats no animal products).
• Rita is a florist.
• Janice doesn’t know how to drive.
• Elaine and Gail hate the color yellow.
• Lauren played center for a semiprofessional basketball team five years ago. She has red hair and is six feet, one inch tall.
Based on the preceding information, students must determine who murdered Mr. Brooks and the general facts of the case.


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