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Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy 14th Edition By Williams

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0323083471
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0323083478

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Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy 14th Edition By Williams

Chapter 7: Vitamins
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. For a compound to be classified as a vitamin, it must
a. be synthesized by the body.
b. be required in large quantities.
c. perform a vital function.
d. be water soluble.

ANS: C
For a compound to be defined as a vitamin, it must be a vital, organic, dietary substance that is not a carbohydrate, fat, protein, or mineral and is necessary in only very small amounts to perform a specific metabolic function or prevent an associated deficiency. It also cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient amounts to sustain life and must be supplemented by the body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 95 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. A vitamin that behaves more like a hormone than a vitamin is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

ANS: B
Vitamin D is a prohormone made in the skin by sunlight.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 99 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

3. The provitamin form of vitamin A that is found in plant pigments is
a. beta-carotene.
b. chlorophyll.
c. beta-xanthophyll.
d. calciferol.

ANS: A
Beta-carotene is the provitamin form of vitamin A found in plant pigments. The body converts it to vitamin A, making it a primary source of the vitamin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 97 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

4. Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of
a. beta-carotene.
b. vitamin A.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

ANS: A
Carotene is a group name of three red and yellow pigments (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene) found in dark green and yellow vegetables and some fruits. The body converts beta-carotene to vitamin A.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 98-99 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

5. Liver is a rich source of
a. vitamin A (retinol).
b. vitamin C.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

ANS: A
Liver is a rich source of preformed, natural vitamin A. Other sources include fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter, and cream.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 98 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

6. An important function of vitamin A is to
a. be incorporated into the bile.
b. help with blood clotting.
c. act as an antioxidant.
d. help form rhodopsin in the eye.

ANS: D
Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 97 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7. A deficiency of vitamin A may result in
a. osteoporosis.
b. bile obstruction.
c. breakdown of cell membranes.
d. night blindness.

ANS: D
Night blindness results from a deficiency of vitamin A. Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 97 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

8. Fish liver oils are a good source of
a. vitamin D.
b. vitamin E.
c. protein.
d. iron.

ANS: A
Fish liver oils are a natural source of vitamin D. Some other foods are fortified with vitamin D. Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with this vitamin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 101 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

9. The active hormonal form of vitamin D is
a. cholecalciferol.
b. calciferol.
c. calcitriol.
d. calcitonin.

ANS: C
The active form of vitamin D is calcitriol. Vitamin D is made in the body with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 99 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

10. Two foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are
a. cereals and macaroni products.
b. milk and margarine.
c. flour and salt.
d. vegetable oils and shortenings.

ANS: B
Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with vitamin D. Butter substitutes, such as margarines, are also fortified.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 101 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

11. Synthesis of the active hormonal form of vitamin D is the result of the combined action of the
a. skin, liver, and kidney.
b. pancreas, thyroid, and liver.
c. skin, skeleton, and liver.
d. kidney, skeleton, and liver.

ANS: A
Vitamin D production begins in the skin with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 99-100 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

12. The last organ involved in the production of the physiologically active form of vitamin D is the
a. liver.
b. kidney.
c. intestine.
d. skin.

ANS: B
Cholecalciferol (inactive form found in skin) is activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 99-100 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

13. The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption and metabolism of the minerals
a. sodium and potassium.
b. iron and phosphorus.
c. calcium and phosphorus.
d. sodium and calcium.

ANS: C
The primary function of vitamin D is the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin. In balance with these two hormones, vitamin D hormone stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 100 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

14. A vitamin D deficiency in growing children that results in the malformation of skeletal tissue, especially the long bones, is referred to as
a. rickets.
b. scurvy.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

ANS: A
Rickets is a disease associated with vitamin D deficiency. It is characterized by malformation of skeletal tissue in growing children in which long bones are soft and often bend under the weight of the child.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 101 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

15. Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because
a. exposure to sunlight varies.
b. it is present in so many foods.
c. the body stores such large amounts.
d. the amount in food varies with the season.

ANS: A
Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because of its unique hormone-like nature, difference in exposure to sun (affected by time spent outside and climate), and limited food sources.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 100 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

16. A toxic level of vitamin D is most likely to result in
a. liver damage.
b. hyperpigmentation.
c. blindness.
d. calcification of soft tissues.

ANS: D
A toxic level of vitamin D can result in calcification of soft tissues such as kidneys and lungs as well as fragile bones.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 101 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

17. Sunflower oil is a rich source of
a. vitamin A.
b. vitamin B.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

ANS: D
The richest sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils. Other food sources include nuts, fortified cereals, and avocado.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 103 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

18. The requirement for vitamin E varies by the amount of an individual’s
a. sun exposure.
b. dietary selenium.
c. animal fat intake.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

ANS: D
The requirement for vitamin E varies with the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 102 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

19. Vitamin E protects membranes because it acts as a(n)
a. barrier.
b. peroxide.
c. antioxidant.
d. clotting factor.

ANS: C
Vitamin E protects membranes by acting as nature’s most potent fat-soluble antioxidant. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid membranes are easy for oxygen to break down, and vitamin E can interrupt this oxidation and protect the fatty acids of the cell membrane from damage.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 102 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

20. The fat-soluble vitamin responsible for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

ANS: D
The basic function of vitamin K is in the blood-clotting process. The most known vitamin K–dependent blood factor is prothrombin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 103 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

21. A good food source of vitamin K is
a. spinach.
b. sunflower oil.
c. pork.
d. oranges.

ANS: A
Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables, which provide 50 to 800 mcg of phylloquinone per 100 g of food. Smaller amounts are found in milk and other dairy, meats, fortified cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 105 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

22. In the past, vitamin A content was listed in International Units (IU); it is now listed in
a. milligrams.
b. micrograms.
c. beta-carotene equivalents.
d. retinol equivalents.

ANS: D
Vitamin A is listed in retinol equivalents. One IU of vitamin A equals 0.3 mcg retinol or 0.6 mcg beta-carotene.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 97-98 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

23. The hormones that participate in calcium metabolism are
a. estrogen and oxytocin.
b. cortisone and epinephrine.
c. aldosterone and thyroxine.
d. parathyroid and calcitriol.

ANS: D
The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin to stimulate the absorption of calcium in the small intestine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 100 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

24. There is a metabolic partnership between vitamin E and
a. zinc.
b. chromium.
c. selenium.
d. iron.

ANS: C
Selenium is a trace mineral that works with vitamin E as an antioxidant. A selenium-containing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, is the second line of defense in preventing oxidative damage to cell membranes. Selenium spares vitamin E by reducing its requirement, the same as vitamin E does for selenium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 102 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

25. An athlete who increases his or her intake of pasta will also increase his or her need for
a. folic acid.
b. thiamin.
c. pyridoxine.
d. vitamin C.

ANS: B
The starch in the pasta would be digested and absorbed as glucose. Thiamin acts a coenzyme factor related to the production of energy from glucose and the storage of energy as fat, making energy available to support normal growth.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 108 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

26. An alcoholic is most likely to be deficient in
a. biotin.
b. folic acid.
c. thiamin.
d. pyridoxine.

ANS: C
Alcohol inhibits the absorption of thiamin. Alcohol-induced thiamin deficiency causes Wernicke’s encephalopathy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 108 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

27. The three body systems that can be affected by a thiamin deficiency are the _____ systems.
a. nervous, respiratory, and urinary
b. nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal
c. gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine
d. lymphatic, cardiovascular, and endocrine

ANS: B
The nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal tract can all be affected by thiamin deficiency. The central nervous system depends on glucose for energy; if thiamin is not present in adequate amounts, sufficient energy cannot be made for the nerves to perform their functions. The heart muscle depends on thiamin as well. Without adequate thiamin, the heart muscle weakens and heart failure results. Thiamin also is necessary for the gastrointestinal tract to function properly. The cells of smooth muscle and secretory glands must have energy to perform their work, and thiamin is a necessary agent for producing that energy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 108 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

28. The vitamin that is destroyed by light is
a. vitamin C.
b. niacin.
c. riboflavin.
d. biotin.

ANS: C
Riboflavin is easily destroyed by light. Milk, a major source of riboflavin, is sold and stored in plastic or cardboard containers to protect it from light exposure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 110 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

29. The most important source of riboflavin is
a. milk.
b. lean meats.
c. enriched grains.
d. green leafy vegetables.

ANS: A
Milk is the major source of riboflavin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 110 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

30. The function of all B-complex vitamins is to
a. regulate fluid balance.
b. function as body structures.
c. function as coenzymes.
d. provide calories for energy.

ANS: C
The B-complex vitamins function as coenzymes that are necessary agents to break down compounds, but are not consumed in the process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 119-124 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

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