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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1259385515
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1259385513

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Chapter 06
The Integumentary System

True / False Questions

1. The skin carries out the first step in the synthesis of vitamin D.

2. Living keratinocytes exfoliate from the epidermis as tiny specks called dander.

3. The deeper of the two layers of the skin is the hypodermis.

4. The youngest keratinocytes are found in the stratum basale.

5. Melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene give color to the skin.

6. Albinism is the genetic lack of melanin that results in a milky white coloration of the skin.

7. Embarrassment can be perceived by an abnormal coloration of the skin called cyanosis.

8. Freckles are elevated patches with an abnormal coloration of the skin.

9. Straight hair is round, wavy hair is oval, and curly hair is relatively flat.

10. Hair and nails are composed of collagen.

11. Merocrine sweat glands are associated with hair follicles in the pubic and anal regions, axilla, areola, and beard.

12. Pattern baldness is relatively rare in women because women have lower testosterone levels than men.

13. The acidity of sweat contributes to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth in the skin.

14. Debridement is not necessary to infection control.

15. The three forms of skin cancer are defined by the types of cells from which they originate.

Multiple Choice Questions

16. Which of the following is not part of the skin?
A. Epidermis
B. Papillary layer
C. Hypodermis
D. Stratum basale
E. Dermis

17. Which of the following is not found in the epidermis?
A. Melanocytes
B. Fibroblasts
C. Stem cells
D. Keratinocytes
E. Tactile cells

18. Skin covering the __________ has sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous glands.
A. forearm
B. buttocks
C. abdomen
D. fingertips
E. back

19. Most of the skin is __________ mm thick.
A. 0.01 to 0.02
B. 0.1 to 0.2
C. 1 to 2
D. 10 to 20
E. 100 to 200

20. In which of the following skin layers would a subcutaneous injection be administered?
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum corneum
D. Dermis
E. Hypodermis

21. Which of the skin layers below is the most superficial?
A. Basal lamina
B. Epidermis
C. Papillary layer
D. Reticular layer
E. Hypodermis

22. Which of the following best describes the composition of the dermis?
A. Collagen and living keratinocytes
B. Collagen and dead keratinocytes
C. Collagen and fibroblasts
D. Elastic fibers and melanocytes
E. Elastic fibers and dendritic cells

23. What type of tissue is found in the most superficial layer of skin?
A. Simple squamous epithelium
B. Stratified squamous epithelium
C. Dense irregular connective tissue
D. Areolar connective tissue
E. Dense regular connective tissue

24. Looking at a slide of thin skin under the microscope, you note that the stratum basale is the __________ layer of the epidermis in from the surface.
A. second
B. third
C. first
D. fifth
E. fourth

25. Which of the following cells is largely responsible for skin color?
A. Dendritic cell
B. Keratinocyte
C. Melanocyte
D. Merkel cell
E. Dead keratinocyte

26. Which layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells?
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum lucidum
E. Stratum corneum

27. Which of the following are associated with the sense of touch?
A. Fibroblasts
B. Melanocytes
C. Keratinocytes
D. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
E. Tactile (Merkel) cells

28. The fastest rate of mitosis happens in the __________.
A. stratum basale
B. stratum spinosum
C. stratum granulosum
D. stratum lucidum
E. stratum corneum

29. Which of the following cells stand guard against toxins, microbes and other pathogens?
A. Keratinocytes
B. Melanocytes
C. Adipocytes
D. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
E. Tactile (Merkel) cells

30. Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with our __________.
A. dermal papillae
B. dermal connective tissue
C. stratum basale
D. subcutaneous tissue
E. subcutaneous adipose

31. Calluses or corns are the result of accelerated multiplication by ___________.
A. melanocytes
B. keratinocytes
C. fibroblasts
D. tactile cells
E. red blood cells

32. The __________ is absent from most epidermis.
A. stratum basale
B. stratum spinosum
C. stratum granulosum
D. stratum lucidum
E. stratum corneum

33. Leather is made of the __________ layer of the dermis.
A. areolar
B. keratin
C. reticular
D. collagen
E. papillary

34. The hypodermis is characterized by an abundance of which tissue?
A. Statified squamous epithelium
B. Smooth muscle
C. Nervous tissue
D. Adipose tissue
E. Dense irregular connective tissue

35. The skin discoloration most likely to suggest physical abuse is __________.
A. pallor
B. albinism
C. erythema
D. hematoma
E. jaundice

36. The reddish color of the skin of the lips is primarily due to the presence of which pigment?
A. Hemoglobin
B. Myoglobin
C. Melanin
D. Carotene
E. Keratin

37. Which skin color is most likely to result from anemia?
A. Pallor
B. Erythema
C. Hematoma
D. Albinism
E. Jaundice

38. Increased bilirubin levels cause a skin discoloration called __________.
A. erythema
B. jaundice
C. pallor
D. bronzing
E. cyanosis

39. Ethnic differences in skin color are primarily caused by differences in ___________.
A. UV radiation exposure
B. the quantity of hemoglobin carried in the blood
C. the quantity of melanin produced
D. the number of melanocytes
E. the number of keratinocytes

40. A __________ is an elevated patch of melanized skin.
A. hemangioma
B. mole
C. freckle
D. flexion line
E. friction ridge

41. A pilus is a __________.
A. hair
B. hair follicle
C. tiny muscle that moves a hair
D. sensory nerve fiber around the base of a hair
E. gland associated with a hair follicle

42. What type of hair is present prenatally and usually replaced by birth?
A. Lunule
B. Peach fuzz
C. Terminal hair
D. Vellus
E. Lanugo

43. Blood vessels in the __________ provide a hair with its sole source of nutrition.
A. bulb
B. root
C. shaft
D. dermal papilla
E. medulla

44. The base where a hair follicle originates in the skin is known as the __________.
A. Hair bulb
B. Hair root
C. Shaft
D. Medulla
E. Cuticle

45. The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes __________.
A. hairs to stand on end, trapping an insulating layer of warm air next to the skin
B. generation of heat to raise the body temperature
C. hairs to stand on end to make the individual appear bigger
D. hairs to stand on end with no apparent function
E. increased ability to feel pain

46. A hair cycle consists of three developmental stages in which order?
A. Anagen, telogen, and catagen
B. Anagen, catagen, and telogen
C. Catagen, anagen, and telogen
D. Catagen, telogen, and anagen
E. Telogen, anagen, and catagen

47. Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a(an) __________.
A. hair follicle
B. vellum
C. pilus
D. bulb
E. shaft

48. Excessive hairiness is called __________.
A. telogenism
B. anagenism
C. catagenism
D. alopecia
E. hirsutism

49. The narrow zone of dead skin overhanging the proximal end of a nail is called the __________.
A. eponychium
B. lunule
C. nail plate
D. nail body
E. nail root

50. What is the white opaque “moon” often found at the proximal end of a fingernail called?
A. Free edge
B. Nail body
C. Eponychium
D. Lunule
E. Nail root

51. Variations in hair color arise from differing amounts of __________.
A. collagen and elastic filaments
B. keratin and melanin
C. carotene and hemoglobin
D. carotene and collagen
E. eumelanin and pheomelanin

52. Mitosis in the __________ accounts for growth of the nail.
A. nail plate
B. nail fold
C. eponychium
D. hyponychium
E. nail matrix

53. The oil of your scalp is secreted by __________ glands associated with the hair follicles.
A. merocrine sweat
B. apocrine sweat
C. sebaceous
D. ceruminous
E. eccrine sweat

54. Secretions from __________ glands contribute to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin.
A. mammary
B. ceruminous
C. sebaceous
D. apocrine sweat
E. merocrine sweat

55. __________ is/are formed partly from the secretions of glands in the external ear canal.
A. Sebum
B. Cerumen
C. Sweat
D. Scents
E. Mucus

56. Looking at a slide of axillary skin under the microscope, you notice the presence of __________ glands that are absent on slides of the scalp.
A. merocrine
B. apocrine
C. sebaceous
D. ceruminous
E. perspiration

57. Which cutaneous glands are concerned with cooling the body?
A. Ceruminous glands
B. Sebaceous glands
C. Merocrine glands
D. Apocrine glands
E. Exothermic glands

58. The __________ glands are a source of sex pheromones.
A. ceruminous
B. merocrine
C. mammary
D. sebaceous
E. apocrine

59. Mammary glands are modified __________ glands that develop within the female breasts.
A. merocrine
B. apocrine
C. ceruminous
D. sebaceous
E. eccrine

60. Which two strata of the epidermis are most susceptible to cancer?
A. Stratum corneum and stratum lucidum
B. Stratum basale and stratum corneum
C. Stratum spinosum and stratum basale
D. Stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum
E. Stratum lucidum and stratum granulosum

61. The “ABCD rule” for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to the following characteristics of the lesion:
A. asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter
B. asymmetry, brightness, color, and diameter
C. aspect, brightness, color, and distance
D. aspect, border irregularity, color, and distance
E. area, border irregularity, color, and density

62. The least common, but most deadly, type of skin cancer is __________.
A. basal cell carcinoma
B. squamous cell carcinoma
C. melanoma
D. skin lymphoma
E. skin sarcoma

63. Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum __________.
A. spinosum
B. germinativum
C. corneum
D. basale
E. lucidum

64. __________ burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deeper tissue.
A. First-degree
B. Second-degree
C. Third-degree
D. Partial-thickness
E. Malignant

65. The most immediate threat to the life of a patient with severe burns is __________.
A. fluid loss
B. eschar
C. heat loss
D. pain
E. infection

66. The skin is a barrier to all of the following except __________.
A. metals such as mercury
B. infectious organisms
C. water
D. UV rays

67. In whom are mammary glands found?
A. In lactating females
B. In lactating and non-lactating females
C. In non-lactating females
D. In non-lactating females and males




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