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A History of Psychology A Global Perspective 2E – Shiraev – TB

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  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1452276595
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1452276595

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A History of Psychology A Global Perspective 2E – Shiraev – TB

Chapter 6

Key terms (multiple choice)
1. First described in 1874 (William Gull), symptoms of deliberate weight loss through self-starvation received the label:
a. hunger strike
b. the Gull disorder
c. anorexia
d. neurosis
e. food madness
Answer: c
2. The procedure based on comparing clinical observations of a patient’s abnormal symptoms with the reliable data about brain pathology, most likely obtained during the autopsy on this patient’s brain received the label:
a. experimental pathology
b. neurophysiology
c. the Broca’s method
d. clinical-pathological method
e. clinical observations
Answer: d
3. Emmanuel Church Healing Movement was a social movement and therapeutic practice based on psychological assessment and:
a. mandatory work
b. group therapy
c. physical exercise
d. mandatory drug rehabilitation
e. spiritual advice
Answer: e
4. “Feebleminded children” was the term used in early 20th century to describe serious developmental problems identified today as:
a. madness
b. mental retardation
c. speech delay
d. poor language skills
e. poor social skills
Answer: b
5. The term referring to symptoms of gross excessiveness or overwhelming deficiency of certain features in an individual’s behavior and experiences is called:
a. neurosis
b. madness
c. nervous fatigue
d. hysteria
e. neurasthenia
Answer: b
6. The term to describe exhaustion of the nervous system as a cause of abnormal psychological symptoms is called:
a. nervous fatigue
b. madness
c. psychopathology
d. lunacy
e. hysteria
Answer: a
7. A disorder characterized in the 19th century by persistent feelings of weakness and general lowering of bodily and mental tone was labeled as:
a. madness
b. hypnosis
c. nervous sleep
d. neurasthenia
e. psychopathology
Answer: d
8. The process of identification and categorization of a condition or behavior as a medical disorder requiring medical treatment or intervention is called:
a. psychiatry
b. intervention
c. licensing
d. medicalization
e. moral therapy
Answer: d

9. An individual’s persistent, overwhelming anxiety and avoidant behavior was generally called:
a. shyness
b. madness
c. neurosis
d. hypnosis
e. hysteria
Answer: c

10. The study of causes and effects of nervous sleep was called:
a. neuropsychology
b. psychiatry
c. moral therapy
d. hypnology
e. studies of mental fatigue
Answer: d

Key terms, facts, and names (true/false)
1. From a psychological standpoint, psychopathology is the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior; this is a study of the origin, development, and manifestations of psychological dysfunctions.
True False Answer: T

2. From the medical standpoint, psychopathology is the branch of medicine dealing with brain injuries .
True False Answer: F

3. Degeneration is a term referring to a generational regress in physical and psychological traits.
True False Answer: T

4. Hysteria is a term to describe a wide range of psychological and physical complaints without an identifiable anatomical defect of physiological malady.
True False Answer: T

5. Moral therapy is a therapeutic principle based on an assumption that to return to a normal mental state, the patient should be punished for some old wrongdoings. Only then, he or she could restore the lost qualities of good behavior.
True False Answer: F

6. Social hygiene movement was an eclectic conglomerate of intellectuals and health care professionals whose beliefs were driven by a mix of Darwinism, progressivism, and social engineering.
True False Answer: T

7. Charcot believed that the symptoms of hysteria related to alcohol.
True False Answer: F

8. One hundred and fifty years ago, society maintained predominantly tolerant attitudes about opiates and cocaine.
True False Answer: T

9. Historians in the United States and Europe documented a significant decrease of incidences of mental illness at the end of 19th century.
True False Answer: F

10. Although the early 19th-century textbooks on medicine already had chapters on psychiatry, mental illness appeared as a special category of illness only in the mid-1800s.
True False Answer: T

11. Kraepelin was trained in experimental psychology at the Wundt laboratory in Leipzig.
True False Answer: T

12. The case of Monsieur Tan showed that the loss of speech, or aphasia, without the paralysis of the organs of speech is tied to childhood abuse.
True False Answer: F

13. Richard von Krafft-Ebbing in 1886 wrote the book Psychopathia Sexualis, in which he provided a detailed analysis of human sexuality.
True False Answer: T

14. Witmer (1867–1956) was among an early group of psychologists who took their doctorates under the supervision of Wilhelm Wundt.
True False Answer: T


Comprehension and applications (multiple choice)

1. The labels insanity and lunacy were common names for:
a. neurosis
b. phobia
c. persistent stress
d. moral atmosphere in medical school
e. madness
Answer: e

2. Karl Kahlbaum also introduced the term catatonia to describe rigid and peculiar postures and:
a. the profound lack of speech
b. bipolar symptoms
c. exceptional memory skills
d. angry reactions
e. obsessive-compulsive reactions
Answer: a

3. Edward B. Foote published in 1896 Plain Home Talk, a book related to:
a. college education
b. marriage, love, and healthy sexuality
c. psychological treatment of alcoholism
d. psychological treatment of phobias
e. healthy nutrition and dieting
Answer: b

4. In the end of the 19th century, the term “alienists” referred to:
a. teachers
b. border patrol officers
c. therapists, psychiatrists
d. illegal residents
e. mental patients
Answer: c

5. At least three factors contributed to the rising numbers of registered cases of mental illness in the United States and Europe: spread of neurosyphilis, alienation, and:
a. unemployment
b. war
c. high taxes
d. drug abuse
e. housing problems
Answer: d

6. Kraepelin offered a classification of mental illness, which included categories or groups.
a. 5
b. 7
c. 10
d. 15
e. 17
Answer: d

7. William Battie, an English physician, wrote in A Treatise on Madness that symptoms of mental illness could be caused by:
a. poor nutrition
b. muscular spasms of the blood vessels in the brain
c. extreme stress and fatigue of the body
d. social injustice
e. electrical malfunctioning of the spinal cord
Answer: b

8. Prominent French physician, Benedict-Augustin Morel (1809–1873) coined the term degeneration, referring to:
a. criminal activities in a social group
b. a rapid deterioration of health
c. schizophrenia
d. a generational regress in physical and psychological traits
e. learning disabilities
Answer: d

9. Jean-Philippe Esquirol introduced statistical methods to clinical studies and proposed that the most frequent cause of mental illness was:
a. financial
b. biological
c. lack of sleep
d. emotional
e. unemployment
Answer: d

10. When does anomic suicide according to Emile Durkheim occur?
a. at times of rapid societal transformation
b. in the winter and fall
c. in the summer
d. during war
e. during sudden climate changes

11. Some doctors combined cold baths, laxatives, and bloodletting to treat their mental patients. What was the perceived goal of such treatments?
a. to shock the body and mind
b. to induce a placebo effect
c. to clean the body of harmful elements
d. to help patient lose weight
e. to punish patients for misbehavior
Answer: c

12. Danish psychiatrist Fritz Lange reported that in the late 1800s he and his colleagues routinely used lithium in the treatment of affective disorders. Lithium later was recognized as an effective drug to treat symptoms of:
a. schizophrenia
b. depression
c. bipolar disorder
d. social anxiety
e. phobia
Answer: c

13. The early use of the term psychotherapy was frequently associated with:
a. theology
b. hypnology
c. spiritualism
d. magic
e. fortune telling
Answer: b

14. In an 1896 article, Lightner Witmer described the case of a 7-year-old boy who was born to well-educated parents but never learned to articulate fluently and clearly. He had other symptoms that today are labeled as:
a. learning trauma
b. autistic disorder
c. attention deficit disorder
d. epileptic disorder
e. Tourette’s disorder
Answer: b

15. Witmer described the case of Charles Gilman, which is also known as the “case of chronic bad spelling.” It was one of the earliest published cases of:
a. depression
b. phobia
c. social disorder
d. neurosis
e. dyslexia
Answer: e

16. A rector of the Emmanuel Church in Boston, he and his assistant Samuel McComb, with the help of other colleagues, developed an approach involving two steps:
a. discussion and search for answers
b. resisting temptation and moving forward
c. analyzing childhood and discussing adulthood
d. clinical assessment and spiritual advice
e. measurement of intelligence and measurement of emotions
Answer: d

Comprehension and applications (short answer)

1. G. M. Beard in American Nervousness (1881), wrote that the nervous system has a varying tonus, which is either sthenic or asthenic. What do these terms mean?
Answer: Strong and weak

2. Pierre Janet coined the term psychasthenia, which later received a common label neurosis of obsessional states, which is close to contemporary definitions of:
Answer: obsessive-compulsive disorder

3. In the United States, Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), used the term tristimania to describe his patient’s symptoms of:
Answer: exaggerated and prolonged sadness.

4. It is claimed that hedonism was a factor affecting the way mental illness was defined one hundred years ago. What is hedonism?
Answer: rational, goal-directed behavior of human beings is bound for pleasure

5. Early professional medical associations attempted to achieve two goals: to impose comparable standards on medical education and training of physicians and:
Answer: to provide general guidelines for the work of medical professionals.

6. Many academic psychologists did not want to see clinical psychology as an independent field within the psychology discipline. First, they were seen as intruders into the medical field, the area beyond a psychologist’s competence. What was the second reason? Answer: clinical psychologists were perceived as defectors who left traditional research psychology.

7. What was dementia praecox in the Kraepelin classification?
Answer: Disturbances of orientation, thought, attention, emotion, and will; hallucinations.

8. At the end of the 19th century, there existed at least two general schools of thought about mental illness. According to the first one, mental illness is best explained if we turn our attention to the brain and nervous system, their structure and functioning. The second school of thought emphasized:
Answer: the importance of social and psychological factors contributing to mental illness.

9. Research by J. H. Jackson (1884) suggested that higher centers regulated behavior, while lower centers were responsible for actions.
Answer: advanced and rational; primitive, childish, or antisocial

10. The case of Phineas Cage provided evidence that:
Answer: the destruction of certain brain areas could seriously affect important psychological functions.

11. In the 19th century, mineral spa resorts became fashionable. Why?
Answer: People shared a view that the combination of mineral water, relaxing atmosphere of a resort, proper dieting, and moderate physical exercises all together could provide remarkable healing for their emotional problems.

12. It was widely recognized in the early 20th century that medical doctors should play a major role in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. Psychologists gradually accepted a different role. Which one?
Answer: helping physicians in gathering information about the symptoms of psychological dysfunctions, their dynamics, and outcomes.

13. Dorothea L. Dix was known for her:
Answer: advocacy for the rights of the mentally ill their humane treatment in asylums.

14. Psychopathia Sexualis serves today as an example of how a scholar could easily misuse science to pass on:
Answer: moral judgments and prescriptions.

Comprehension and applications (essay)

1. Name the most important differences between madness and neurosis.

2. Explain the phenomenon of medicalization of deviant behavior.

3. What were so-called turf battles in the field of mental illness about?

4. How did Morel understand degeneration?

5. What strategy did Kraepelin pursue in his classification?

6. Describe the four major functions of mental asylums in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

7. What was moral therapy? Describe its main principles.
8. What functions did psychological clinics play in the early 20th century?
9. Compare the Krapaelin’s classification of mental illness with contemporary classifications such as DSM 5 or ICD 10 (Mental and Behavioral Disorders). Discuss the original categories established by Kraepelin that resemble in your view the contemporary categories.


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