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21St Century Astronomy The Solar System Fifth Edition By Kay -Test Bank

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21St Century Astronomy The Solar System Fifth Edition By Kay -Test Bank

Chapter 6: The Tools of the Astronomer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Define the bold-faced vocabulary terms within the chapter.
Multiple Choice: 3, 18, 30, 38, 39, 40
Short Answer: 16
6.1 The Optical Telescope Revolutionized Astronomy
Characterize why telescopes are important astronomical tools.
Multiple Choice: 1, 2
Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
Multiple Choice: 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20
Short Answer: 4, 5, 11
Compare and contrast the design, construction, and optical characteristics of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
Multiple Choice: 4, 5, 6, 17, 19
Short Answer: 1, 2, 7, 8, 10
Relate resolution to telescope design.
Multiple Choice: 21, 22, 23
Short Answer: 9, 12, 13, 14
Illustrate the effects of atmospheric seeing.
Multiple Choice: 10, 11
Short Answer: 3, 6
Assess what makes a good location for a telescope on Earth.
6.2 Optical Detectors and Instruments Used with Telescopes
Relate the optical properties of the human eye to film or a CCD camera.
Multiple Choice: 24, 28, 35, 36
Short Answer: 15, 18
Explain why photographic plates and CCD cameras are important tools of astronomy.
Multiple Choice: 25, 26, 27, 33, 34, 42
Distinguish between imaging and spectroscopy.
Multiple Choice: 29, 31, 32
Short Answer: 17, 19, 20
6.3 Astronomers Observe in Wavelengths Beyond the Visible
Explain when and why it is advantageous or necessary to place telescopes in space.
Multiple Choice: 41, 45, 48
Compare and contrast the practical utility of observing on the ground and from space for different wavelengths.
Multiple Choice: 43, 44, 49
Short Answer: 21, 22, 23
Summarize the challenges and simplifications of observing in wavelengths other than optical.
Multiple Choice: 37, 46, 47, 50
Short Answer: 24
6.4 Planetary Spacecraft Explore the Solar System
Summarize reasons why spacecraft are needed to explore the solar system.
Multiple Choice: 52, 53, 55
Evaluate the cost and benefit of different kinds of spacecraft (flyby, orbiter, lander, probe).
Multiple Choice: 51, 54
Short Answer: 25, 26
6.5 Other Astronomical Tools Contribute to the Study of the Universe
Establish why other tools (particle accelerators and detectors, supercomputers) are important to astronomy.
Multiple Choice: 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
Short Answer: 27, 28
Working It Out 6.1
Compute the magnification and light-collecting areas of different optical systems.
Multiple Choice: 62, 63
Short Answer: 29
Working It Out 6.2
Compute the diffraction limits of different optical systems.
Multiple Choice: 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70
Short Answer: 30
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The telescope was invented by
a. Galileo Galilei, an Italian inventor.
b. Hans Lippershey, an eyeglass maker in the Netherlands.
c. Gote Reber, a German cabinetmaker.
d. Tycho Brahe, a Danish astronomer.
e. Johannes Kepler, a German mathematician.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Characterize why telescopes are important astronomical tools.
2. Which of the following was not discovered by Galileo using a telescope?
a. The Moon has a heavily cratered surface.
b. Jupiter has four moons that orbit around it.
c. Mars has a polar ice cap similar to Earth.
d. The planet Venus goes through phases similar to those of the Moon.
e. The Milky Way is a collection of countless numbers of individual stars.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Characterize why telescopes are important astronomical tools.
3. The aperture of a telescope is which of the following?
a. the length of the telescope
b. the diameter of the telescope tube
c. the diameter of the primary lens/mirror
d. the radius of the primary lens/mirror
e. the diameter of the secondary mirror
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Define the bold-faced vocabulary terms within the chapter.
4. Why can a compound lens combat a refracting telescope’s chromatic aberration?
a. Red light is absorbed by a larger amount than blue light.
b. Red light is refracted by a larger amount than blue light, and different types of glass have different indexes of refraction.
c. Blue light is refracted by a larger amount than red light, and different types of glass have different indexes of refraction.
d. Blue light is absorbed by a larger amount than red light.
e. A compound lens cannot combat chromatic aberration.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Understanding
OBJ: Compare and contrast the design, construction, and optical characteristics of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
5. One reason to prefer a reflecting over a refracting telescope is
a. its lack of chromatic aberration.
b. its shorter length for the same aperture size.
c. its lack of an aperture limit.
d. its lighter weight for larger apertures.
e. all of the above
ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Compare and contrast the design, construction, and optical characteristics of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
6. Large reflecting telescopes have mirrors that are _________ in shape.
a. spherical
b. parabolic
c. convex
d. hyperbolic
e. cylindrical
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Compare and contrast the design, construction, and optical characteristics of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
7. A beam of light passes from air to water at an incident angle of 40°, relative to a plane perpendicular to the boundary between the two. At what angle will it emerge into the water, relative to a plane perpendicular to the boundary?
a. less than 40°
b. exactly 40°
c. more than 40°
d. The beam of light does not emerge from the water.
e. There is not enough information to answer the question.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
8. Which of the following phenomena is shown in the figure below?
a. reflection
b. refraction
c. magnification
d. diffraction
e. interference
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
9. Which of the following phenomena is shown in the figure below?
a. reflection
b. refraction
c. magnification
d. diffraction
e. interference
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
10. The angular resolution of a ground-based telescope (without adaptive optics) is typically
a. 30 arcseconds (arcsec).
b. 1 arcminutes (arcmin).
c. 10 arcsec.
d. 1 arcsec.
e. 30 arcmin.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Illustrate the effects of atmospheric seeing.
11. Cameras that use adaptive optics provide higher spatial resolution images primarily because
a. they operate above Earth’s atmosphere.
b. they capture infrared light, which has a longer wavelength than visible light.
c. deformable mirrors are used to correct the blurring due to Earth’s atmosphere.
d. composite lenses correct for chromatic aberration.
e. they simulate a much larger telescope.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Understanding
OBJ: Illustrate the effects of atmospheric seeing.
12. According to the law of reflection, if a beam of light strikes a flat mirror at an angle of 30° relative to a plane perpendicular to the surface of the mirror, at what angle will it reflect, relative to a plane perpendicular to the surface of the mirror?
a. 0°
b. 30°
c. 60°
d. 90°
e. 120°
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
13. A prism is able to spread white light out into a spectrum of colors based on the property of
a. reflection.
b. refraction.
c. magnification.
d. resolution.
e. aberration.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Understanding
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
14. Which of the following phenomena is shown in the figure below?
a. reflection
b. chromatic aberration
c. diffraction
d. magnification
e. interference
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
15. Chromatic aberration results from
a. blue light being reflected more than red light.
b. red light being reflected more than blue light.
c. red light being refracted more than blue light.
d. blue light being refracted more than red light.
e. a lens being polished incorrectly.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Understanding
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
16. As a beam of light travels from one medium to another, the change in direction of the beam of light depends on
a. the wavelength of the light.
b. the index of refraction of the outgoing medium.
c. the index of refraction of the incoming medium.
d. the angle of incidence.
e. all of the above
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Understanding
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
17. Why do reflecting telescopes usually have a secondary mirror in addition to a primary mirror?
a. to increase the light-gathering power
b. to make the telescope shorter
c. to increase the magnification
d. to increase the focal length
e. to combat chromatic aberration
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Understanding
OBJ: Compare and contrast the design, construction, and optical characteristics of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
18. The aperture of a telescope partially or totally determines its
a. focal length and magnification.
b. light-gathering power.
c. focal length.
d. light-gathering power and magnification.
e. light-gathering power and diffraction limit.
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Define the bold-faced vocabulary terms within the chapter.
19. An object sits infinitely far away from a parabolic mirror. At what distance from the mirror will its image be created?
a. It will be imaged at half the focal length.
b. It will be imaged at the focal length.
c. It will be imaged at twice the focal length.
d. No image will be created (the beams would be reflected parallel to each other).
e. The image is created on the other side of the mirror.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Compare and contrast the design, construction, and optical characteristics of reflecting and refracting telescopes.
20. Which property of light is responsible for chromatic aberration?
a. reflection
b. interference
c. dispersion
d. diffraction
e. magnification
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Illustrate the processes of reflection and refraction.
21. How does the resolution of a telescope depend on its focal length?
a. The longer the focal length, the better the resolution.
b. The longer the focal length, the worse the resolution.
c. There is no relation between resolution and focal length.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Applying
OBJ: Relate resolution to telescope design.
22. In practice, the smallest angular size that one can resolve with a 10-inch telescope is governed by the
a. blurring caused by Earth’s atmosphere.
b. diffraction limit of the telescope.
c. size of the primary mirror.
d. motion of the night sky.
e. magnification of the telescope.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Relate resolution to telescope design.
23. The 305-meter (-m) Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico has a resolution that is closest to that of
a. the Hubble Space Telescope (0.1 arcsec).
b. a human eye (1 arcmin).
c. the Chandra X-ray telescope (0.5 arcsec).
d. a 1-m optical telescope (1 arcsec).
e. one of the 10-m Keck telescopes (0.0133 arcsec)
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Section 6.1
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Relate resolution to telescope design.
24. What part(s) of the human eye is responsible for detecting light?
a. cornea
b. lens
c. pupil
d. rods and cones
e. iris
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.2
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Relate the optical properties of the human eye to film or a CCD camera.
25. Before charge-coupled devices (CCDs) were invented, what was the device most commonly used for imaging with optical telescopes?
a. Polaroid cameras
b. photographic glass plates
c. 35-mm film
d. high-speed film
e. video cameras
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Section 6.2
MSC: Remembering
OBJ: Explain why photographic plates and CCD cameras are important tools of astronomy.

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